Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: July 2011

Chapter 33 - Delirium monitoring

References

1. Lipowski ZJ. Delirium: Acute Confusional States. New York: Oxford, 1990.
2. Smith MJ, Breitbart WS, Platt MM. A critique of instruments and methods to detect, diagnose, and rate delirium. J Pain Symptom Manage 1994;10:35–77.
3. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed., text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
4. Chevrolet JC, Jolliet P. Clinical review: agitation and delirium in the critically ill – significance and management. Critical Care 2007;11:214.
5. Ross CA. CNS arousal systems: possible role in delirium. Int Psychogeriatr 1991;3:353–371.
6. Liptzin B, Levkoff SE. An empirical study of delirium subtypes. Br J Psychiatry 1992;161:843–845.
7. Peterson JF, Pun BT, Dittus RS, et al. Delirium and its motoric subtypes: a study of 614 critically ill patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006;54:479–84.
8. Francis J, Martin D, Kapoor WN. A prospective study of delirium in hospitalized elderly. JAMA 1990;263:1097–1101.
9. Levkoff SE, Evans DA, Liptzin B, et al. Delirium. The occurrence and persistence of symptoms among elderly hospitalized patients. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:334–40.
10. Parikh S, Chung C. Postoperative delirium in the elderly. Anesth Analg 1995;80:1223–1232.
11. Marcantonio ER, Goldman L, Mangione CM, et al. A clinical prediction rule for delirium after elective noncardiac surgery. JAMA 1994;271:134–139.
12. Dyer CB, Ashton CM, Teasdale TA. Postoperative delirium. A review of 80 primary data-collection studies. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:461–465.
13. Radtke FM, Francke M, Schneider M, et al. Comparison of three scores to screen for delirium in the recovery room. Br J Anaesth 2008;101:338–343.
14. Berggren D, Gustafson Y, Eriksson B, et al. Postoperative confusion after anesthesia in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures. Anesth Analg 1987;66:497–504.
15. Gustafson Y, Berggren D, Brannstrom B, et al. Acute confusional states in elderly patients treated for femoral neck fracture. J Am Geriatr Soc 1988;36:55–530.
16. Sharma PT, Sieber FE, Zakriya KJ, et al. Recovery room delirium predicts postoperative delirium after hip-fracture repair. Anesth Analg 2005;101:1215–1220.
17. Williams-Russo P, Urquhart BL, Sharrock NE, et al. Post-operative delirium: predictors and prognosis in elderly orthopedic patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1992;40:759–767.
18. Bekker AY, Weeks EJ. Cognitive function after anaesthesia in the elderly. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2003;17:259–272.
19. Inouye SK, Zhang Y, Jones RN, et al. Risk factors for delirium at discharge: development and validation of a predictive model. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:1406–13.
20. Kiely DK, Bergmann MA, Zhang Y, et al. Delirium among newly admitted postacute facility patients: prevalence, symptoms, and severity. J Gerontol Biol Sci Med Sci 2003;58:M441–M445.
21. Rasmussen LS, Johnson T, Kuipers HM, et al. Does anaesthesia cause postoperative cognitive dysfunction? A randomized study of regional versus general anaesthesia in 438 elderly patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2003;47:260–266.
22. Ely EW, Shintani A, Truman B, et al. Delirium as a predictor of mortality in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit. JAMA 2004;291:1753–1762.
23. Thomason JW, Shintani A, Peterson JF, et al. Intensive care unit delirium is an independent predictor of longer hospital stay: a prospective analysis of 261 non-ventilated patients. Crit Care 2005;4:R375–R381.
24. Ely EW, Gautam S, Margolin R, et al. The impact of delirium in the intensive care unit on hospital length of stay. Intensive Care Med 2001;27:1892–1900.
25. Franco K, Litaker D, Locala J, Bronson D. The cost of delirium in the surgical patient. Psychosomatics 2001;42:68–73.
26. Milbrandt EB, Deppen S, Harrison PL, et al. Costs associated with delirium in mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care Med 2004;32:955–962.
27. Leslie DL, Marcantonio ER, Zhang Y. One-year health care costs associated with delirium in the elderly population. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:27–32.
28. Devlin JW, Fong JJ, Fraser GL, Riker RR. Delirium assessment in the critically ill. Intensive Care Med 2007;33:929–940.
29. Dubois MJ, Bergeron N, Dumont M, et al. Delirium in an intensive care unit: a study of risk factors. Intensive Care Med 2001;27:1297–1304.
30. Marcantonio E, Goldman L, Orav E, et al. The association of intraoperative factors with the development of postoperative delirium. Am J Med 1998;105:380–384.
31. Urwin SC, Parker MJ, Griffiths R. General versus regional anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Br J Anaesth 2000;84:450–455.
32. Fong HK, Sand LP, Leung JM. The role of postoperative analgesia in delirium and cognitive decline in elderly patients: a systematic review. Anesth Analg 2006;102:1255–1266.
33. Pandharipande P, Shintani A, Peterson J, et al. Lorazepam is an independent risk factor for transitioning to delirium in intensive care unit patients. Anesthesiology 2006;104:21–26.
34. Maldonado JR, Van Der Starre PJ, Wysong A. Post-operative sedation and the incidence of ICU delirium in cardiac surgery patients. ASA Annual Meeting Abstracts. Anesthesiology 2003;99:A465.
35. Pandharipande PP, Pun BT, Herr DL, et al. Effect of sedation with dexmedetomidine vs lorazepam on acute brain dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients: the MENDS randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2007;298:2644–2653.
36. Ely EW, Girard TD, Shintani AK, et al. Apolipoprotein E4 polymorphism as a genetic predisposition to delirium in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 2007:35:112–7.
37. Jacobi, J, Fraser GL, Coursin DB, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the sustained use of sedatives and analgesics in the critically ill adult. Crit Care Med 2002;30:119–141.
38. Naughton BJ, Saltzman S, Ramadan F, et al. A multifactorial intervention to reduce prevalence of delirium and shorten hospital length of stay. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:18–23.
39. Inouye SK, van Dyck CH, Alessi CA, et al. Clarifying confusion: the confusion assessment method. A new method for detection of delirium. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:941–948.
40. Ely E, Margolin R, Francis J, et al. Evaluation of delirium in critically ill patients: validation of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU). Crit Care Med 2001;29:1370–1379.
41. Riker RR, Picard JT, Fraser GL. Prospective evaluation of the Sedation-Agitation Scale for adult critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 1999;27:1325–1329.
42. Sessler CN, Gosnell MS, Grap MJ, et al. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale: validity and reliability in adult intensive care patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;166:1338–1344.
43. Devlin JW, Boleski G, Mlynarek M, et al. Motor Activity Assessment Scale: a valid and reliable sedation scale for use with mechanically ventilated patients in an adult surgical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 1999;27:1271–1275.
44. Borthwick M, Bourne R, Craig M, Ega A, Oxley J. Detection, prevention and treatment of delirium in critically ill patients. United Kingdom Clinical Pharmacy Association. Version 1.2, 2006.
45. Hart RP, Levenson JL, Sessler CN, et al. Validation of a cognitive test for delirium in medical ICU patients. Psychosomatics 1996;37:533–546.
46. Hart RP, Best AM, Sessler CN, Levenson JL. Abbreviated cognitive test for delirium. J Psychosom Res 1997;43:417–423.
47. Bergeron N, Dubois MJ, Dumont M, et al. Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist: evaluation of a new screening tool. Intensive Care Med 2001;27:859–864.
48. Otter H, Martin J, Basell K, et al. Validity and reliability of the DDS for severity of delirium in the ICU. Neurocritical Care 2005;2:150–158.
49. Neelon VJ, Champagne MT, Carlson JR, Funk SG. The NEECHAM Confusion Scale: construction, validation, and clinical testing. Nurs Res 1996;45:324–30.
50. Champagne MT, Neelon VJ, McConnell ES, Funk S. The NEECHAM confusion scale: assessing acute confusion in the hospitalized and nursing home elderly (abstr.). Gerontologist 1987;27:4A.
51. Van Rompaey B, Schuurmans MJ, Shortridge-Baggett LM, et al. A comparison of the CAM-ICU and the NEECHAM Confusion Scale in intensive care delirium assessment: an observational study in non-intubated patients. Crit Care 2008;12: R16.
52. Trzepacz PT, Baker RW, Greenhouse J. A symptom rating scale for delirium. Psychiatry Res 1988; 23:89–9.
53. Trzepacz PT, Mittal D, Torres R, et al. Validation of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98: comparison with the delirium rating scale and the cognitive test for delirium. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001;13:229–42.
54. Breitbart W, Rosenfeld B, Roth A, et al. The Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale. J Pain Symptom Manage 1997;13:128–13.
55. Albert MS, Levkoff S, Reilly C, et al. The delirium symptom interview: an interview for the detection of delirium symptoms in hospitalized patients. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1992;5:14–21.
56. Smith M, Breitbart W, Platt M. A critique of instruments and methods to detect, diagnose, and rate delirium. J Pain Symptom Manage 1994;10:35–77.
57. Williams MA, Ward SE, Campbell EB. Confusion: testing versus observation. J Gerontol Nurs 1986;14:25–30.
58. Gaudreau JD, Gagnon P, Harel F, et al. Fast, systematic, and continuous delirium assessment in hospitalized patients: The Nursing Delirium Screening Scale. J Pain Symptom Manage 2005;29:368–375.
59. Radtke FM, Franck M, Schneider M, et al. Comparison of three scores to screen for delirium in the recovery room. Br J Anaesth 2008;101:338–43.
60. Vermeersch P. Development of a scale to measure confusion in hospitalized adults. Doctoral dissertation, Case Western Reserve University. Dissertation Abstracts International. 1986;47(09B):3709.
61. Vermeersch P. Clinical assessment of confusion. In Funk S, Tornquist E, Champagne M, Wiese R, eds. Key Aspects of Elder Care: Managing Falls, Incontinence, and Cognitive Impairment. New York: Springer, 1992;251–262.
62. Nagley S. Predicting and preventing confusion in your patients. J Gerontol Nurs 1986;12:27–31.
63. Cacchione PZ. Four acute confusion assessment instruments: reliability and validity for use in long-term care facilities. J Gerontol Nurs 2002;28:12–19.
64. Meagher DJ. Delirium: optimizing management. BMJ 2001;322:144–149.
65. Skrobik Y, Bergeron N, Dumont M, Gottfried S. Olanzapine vs haloperidol: treating delirium in a critical care setting. Intensive Care Med 2004;30:444–449.
66. Gagnon B, Low G, Schreier G. Methylphenidate hydrochloride improves cognitive function in patients with advanced cancer and hypoactive delirium: a prospective clinical study. Rev Psychiatr Neurosci 2005;30:100–107.
67. Inouye SK, Schlesinger MJ, Lyndon TJ. Delirium: a symptom of how hospital care is failing older persons and a window to improve quality of hospital care. Am J Med 1999;106:565–573.