1. . Noninvasive cardiac output monitoring. Chest 2001;120:339–40.
2. , . Assessment of indices of preload and volume responsiveness. Curr Opin Crit Care 2005;11:235–9.
3. , . Predicting fluid responsiveness in ICU patients. A critical analysis of the evidence. Chest 2002;121:2000–8.
4. , , , , et al. Pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure fail to predict ventricular filling volume, cardiac performance, or the response to volume infusion in normal subjects. Crit Care Med 2004;32:419–28.
5. . Ueber die Messung des Blutquantums in der Herzenventrikeln. Sitzung der Phys Med Gesell zu Wurzburg. 1870;16.
6. , , , , . A new technique for measurement of cardiac output by thermodilution in man. Am J Cardiol 1971;27:392–5.
7. , , , . Cardiac output measurements. A review of current techniques and research. Ann Biomed Eng 1986;14:219–39.
8. , . Advances in noninvasive cardiac output monitoring: an update. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2001;15:631–40.
9. , Partial CO2 rebreathing cardiac output – operating principles of the NICO system. J Clin Monit 1999;15:387–401.
10. , , , , . Partial CO2 rebreathing indirect Fick technique for non-invasive measurement of cardiac output. J Clin Monit Comput 2000;16:361–74.
11. , , , et al. Automated non-invasive measurement of cardiac output by the carbon dioxide rebreathing method: Comparison with dye-dilution and thermodilution. Br Heart J 1990;63:195–9.
12. , , , et al. Clinical evaluation of the non-invasive cardiac output (NICO) monitor in the intensive care unit. Anaesth Intensive Care 2000;28:427–30.
13. , , , , , . Noninvasive cardiac output measurement using partial carbon dioxide rebreathing is less accurate at settings of reduced minute ventilation and when spontaneous breathing is present. Anesthesiology 2003;98:830–7.
14. , , , , . Evaluation of partial carbon dioxide rebreathing cardiac output measurement during thoracic surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2007;21:655–8.
15. , , , et al. Performance of noninvasive partial CO2 rebreathing cardiac output and continuous thermodilution cardiac output in patients undergoing aortic reconstruction surgery. Anesthesiology 2003;99:283–8.
16. , , , , , . Comparison of continuous cardiac output measurements in patients after cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2003;17:211–6.
17. . Researches on the circulation time and on the influences which offset it. IV. The output of the heart. J Physiol 1897;22:159–83.
18. , , . Alternatives to Swan-Ganz cardiac output monitoring. Surg Clin North Am 1991;71:699–721.
19. , , , , . Evaluation of a continuous cardiac output and mixed venous oxygen saturation catheter in critically ill surgical patients. Crit Care Med 1997;25:388–91.
20. , . Hemodynamic monitoring. In , , , , eds. Cardiac Nursing. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1995, pp. 424–58.
21. , , , , . Effect of injectate volume and temperature on thermodilution cardiac output determination. Anesthesiology 1986;64:798–801.
22. , , . Thermodilution cardiac output in critically ill patients: comparison of room temperature and iced injectate. Heart Lung 1984;13:574–8.
23. , , , , . Continuous cardiac output monitoring during adult liver transplantation: Thermal filament technique versus bolus thermodilution. Anesth Analg 1997;85:483–8.
24. . Continuous measurement of cardiac output with the use of stochastic system identification techniques. J Clin Monit 1990;6:322–32.
25. , and . Continuous thermodilution cardiac output: agreement with Fick and bolus thermodilution methods. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1995;9:399–404.
26. , , , et al. Global end-diastolic volume as an indicator of cardiac preload in patients with septic shock. Chest 2003;124:1900–8.
27. , . Arterial pressure pulse contour analysis via a mathematical model for the clinical quantification of human vascular properties. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1967;14:11–17.
28. , . Arterial pressure contour analysis for estimating human vascular properties. J Appl Physiol 1976;40:171–6.
29. . Changes in arterial pressure during mechanical ventilation. Anesthesiology 2005;103:419–28.
30. , , . The respiratory changes preejection period: a new method to predict fluid responsiveness. J Appl Physiol 2004;96:337–42.
31. , , , , . Pulse pressure variations to predict fluid responsiveness: influence of tidal volume. Intensive Care Med 2005;31:517–23.
32. , , , et al. Pulse pressure and stroke volume variations during severe haemorrhage in ventilated dogs. Br J Anaesth 2005;94:721–6.
33. , . Continuous cardiac output by pulse contour analysis? Br J Anaesth 2001;86:467–9.
34. . Cardiac output from the arterial catheter: deceptively simple. Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2007;21:629–31.
35. , , , . A simple device for continuous measurement of cardiac output. Adv Cardiovasc Physiol 1983;5:16–52.
36. , , , . Computation of aortic flow from pressure in humans using a nonlinear, three-element model. J Appl Physiol 1993;74:2566–73.
37. , , , , . Continuous cardiac output: pulse contour analysis vs. thermodilution technique in cardiac surgical patients. Br J Anaesth 1999;82:525–30.
38. , . Arterial pressure–based cardiac output assessment. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2008;22:468–73.
39. , , , , . The effects of vasodilation on cardiac output. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2008;22:688–92.
40. , , , , . Continuous and intermittent cardiac output measurement: pulmonary artery catheter versus aortic transpulmonary technique. Br J Anaesth 2002:88:350–6.
41. , , , et al. Cardiac output monitoring: aortic transpulmonary thermodilution and pulse contour analysis agree with standard thermodilution methods in patients undergoing lung transplantation. Can J Anesth 2003;50:707–11.
42. , , , , , . A comparison of cardiac output derived from the arterial pressure wave against thermodilution in cardiac surgery patients. Br J Anaesth 2001;87:212–22.
43. , , . The pressure-dependant dynamic elasticity of 35 thoracic and 16 abdominal human aortas invitro described by a five component model. J Biomech 1985;18:613–20.
44. , , . The static elastic properties of 45 human thoracic and 20 abdominal aortas in vitro and the parameters of a new model. J Biomech 1984;17:425–35.
45. , , , et al. Finapres arterial pulse wave analysis with Modelflow is not a reliable noninvasive method for assessment of cardiac output. Clin Sci (Lond) 2002;103:143–9.
46. , , , et al. Cardiac output by Modelflow method from intra-arterial and fingertip pulse pressure profiles. Clin Sci (Lond) 2004;106:365–9.
47. , , , et al. Correction of cardiac output obtained by Modelflow from finger pulse pressure profiles with a respiratory method in humans. Clin Sci (Lond) 2004;106:371–6.
48. , , , , . Less invasive determination of cardiac output from the arterial pressure by aortic diameter-calibrated pulse contour. Br J Anaesth 2005;95:26–31.
49. , . Arterial pulse power analysis, the LiDCO™ plus system. In , , eds. Functional Hemodynamics. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2005, pp. 183–92.
50. , , , , , . Clinical evaluation of the FloTrac/VigileoTM system and two established continuous cardiac output monitoring devices in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth 2007; 99:329–36.
51. , , , , , . Comparison of simultaneous estimation of cardiac output by four techniques in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery – a prospective observational study. Ann Card Anaesth 2007;10:121–6.
52. , , , et al. Arterial pulse cardiac output agreement with thermodilution in patients in hyperdynamic conditions. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2008;22:681–7.
53. , , , . Uncalibrated arterial pulse contour analysis versus continuous thermodilution technique: effects of alterations in arterial waveform. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2007;21:636–43.
54. , , , . Cardiac output measured by a new arterial pressure waveform analysis method without calibration compared with thermodilution after cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2007;21:632–5.
55. , , , , . Pressure recording analytical method (PRAM) for measurement of cardiac output during various haemodynamic states. Br J Anaesth 2005;95:159–65.
56. . Development and evaluation of an impedance cardiac output system. Aerospace Med 1966;12:1208–12.
57. . Cardiac output by impedance. Med Electronics 1982;4:93–7.
58. , . Cardiac output measurement. Lack of agreement between thermodilution and thoracic electric bioimpedance in two clinical settings. J Clin Anesth 1995;7:182–5.
59. , . Comparison of thoracic electrical bioimpedance and thermodilution for the measurement of cardiac index in patients with severe sepsis. Br J Anaesth 1993;70:58–62.
60. , , , , . Comparison of cardiac output measurements by thermodilution and thoracic electrical bioimpedance in critically ill versus non-critically ill patients. Am J Emerg Med 1995; 13:626–31.
61. , . Lung fluid and impedance cardiography. Anaesthesia 1998; 53:369–72.
62. , , , . Measurement of cardiac output in pregnancy by thermodilution and impedance techniques. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1989;96:67–9.
63. , , . Bioimpedance cardiac output measurements in patients with presumed congestive heart failure. Acad Emerg Med 1997;4:568–73.
64. , , . Abdominal surgery alters the calibration of bioimpedance cardiac output measurement. Int J Clin Monit Comput 1996; 13:1–8.
65. , , , , , . Endotracheal cardiac output monitor. Anesthesiology 2000; 92:178–89.
66. , , , . Comparison of bioimpedance versus thermodilution cardiac output during cardiac surgery: evaluation of a second-generation bioimpedance device. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2001;15:567–73.
67. , , . Equivalence of bioimpedance and thermodilution in measuring cardiac index after cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2002;16:8–14.
68. , , , et al. Comparison of esophageal Doppler, pulse contour analysis and realtime pulmonary artery thermodilution for the continuous measurement of cardiac output. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anaesth 2004;18:185–9.
69. , . Noninvasive optimization of left ventricular filling using esophageal Doppler. Crit Care Med 1991;19:1132–7.
70. , , , , . Echocardiographic and hemodynamic indexes of left ventricular preload in patients with normal and abnormal ventricular function. Anesthesiology 1994;81:376–87.
71. . Cardiac output monitoring by echocardiography: Should we pass on Swan-Ganz catheters? Yale J Biol Med 1993;66:397–413.
72. , , , and . Clinical evaluation of USCOM ultrasonic cardiac output monitor in cardiac surgical patients in intensive care unit. Br J Anaesth 2005;94:287–91.
73. , , , et al. Interaction in sheep between mean arterial pressure and cross-sectional area of the descending aorta: implications for esophageal monitoring. Anesthesiology 1987;67:A178.
74. , , . Transesophageal cardiac output monitoring: Performance during aortic reconstructive surgery. Anesth Analg 1991;73:705–10.
75. , , . Simultaneous intraoperative measurement of cardiac output by thermodilution and transtracheal Doppler. Anesthesiology 1991;74:664–9.
76. , , . Intraoperative determination of cardiac output using multiplane transesophageal echocardiography: a comparison to thermodilution. Anesthesiology 1998;89:350–357.
77. , , , , . Testing the reliability of a new ultrasonic cardiac cutput monitor, the USCOM, by using aortic flowprobes in anesthetized dogs. Anesth Analg 2005;100:748–53.
78. . Transcutaneous continuous-wave Doppler monitoring is feasible producing reliable and reproducible signals. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 39(Suppl B):283.
79. , , , et al. Noninvasive versus invasive assessment of cardiac output after cardiac surgery: clinical validation. J Cardiothorac Anesth 1990;4:46–59.
80. , , , et al. The accuracy of the Vigileo/FloTrac continuous cardiac output monitor. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2008;22:388–93
81. , , . Clinical evaluation compared to pulmonary artery catheterisation in the haemodynamic assessment of critically-ill patients. Crit Care Med 1984;12:549–53
82. , , , et al. Bedside haemodynamic monitoring: experience in a general hospital. Br Med J 1983;287:187–90.
83. , , , et al. Goal-directed intraoperative fluid administration reduces length of hospital stay after major surgery. Anesthesiology 2002;97:820–826.
84. . Cardiac output in 1998. Heart 1998;79:425–8.
85. , , , et al. Prospective trial of supranormal values of survivors as therapeutic goals in high-risk surgical patients. Chest 1988;94:1176–86.
86. , , . A randomized clinical trial of the effect of deliberate perioperative increase of oxygen delivery on mortality in high-risk surgical patients. JAMA 1993;270:2699–707.
87. , . Peroperative plasma volume expansion reduces the incidence of gut mucosal hypoperfusion in cardiac surgery. Arch Surg 1995;130:423–9.
88. , , . Intraoperative intravascular volume optimisation and length of hospital stay after repair of proximal femoral fracture: randomised, controlled trial. BMJ 1997;315:909–12.
89. , , , et al. Pulmonary artery catheterization in critically ill patients: a prospective analysis of outcome changes associated with catheter-prompted changes in therapy. Crit Care Med 1994;22:573–9.
90. , , . Is clinical assessment of the circulation reliable in postoperative cardiac surgical patients? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2002;16:4–7.
91. , , , et al. The effectiveness of right heart catheterization in the initial care of critically ill patients. SUPPORT Investigators. JAMA 1996;276:889–97.
92. , . Is it time to pull the pulmonary artery catheter? JAMA 1996;276:916–18.
93 Pulmonary artery catheter consensus conference: consensus statement. Crit Care Med 1997;25:910–25.
94. , , , et al. Assessment of the clinical effectiveness of pulmonary artery catheters in management of patients in intensive care (PAC-Man): a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366:472–7.
95. , , , et al. A randomized, controlled trial of the use of pulmonary-artery catheters in high-risk surgical patients. N Engl J Med 2003;348:5–14.
96. Clinical Trial Network: Pulmonary-artery vs central venous catheter to guide treatment of acute lung injury. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2213–24.
97. : Evaluation study of congestive heart failure and pulmonary artery catheterization effectiveness. The ESCAPE trial. JAMA 2005;294:1625–33.
98. , , , et al. Impact of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients. JAMA 2005;294:1664–70.
99. , , , et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1368–77.
100. , . Volume responsiveness. Curr Opin Crit Care 2007;13:549–53.
101. , . Functional hemodynamic monitoring. Curr Opin Crit Care 2007;13:318–23.
102. , , , . Arterial pulse pressure variation predicting fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients. Shock 2008;30(Suppl 1):18–22.
103. , , , , , . Plethysmography dynamic indices predict fluid responsiveness in septic ventilated patients. Intensive Care Med 2007;33:993–9.
104. , , , , , . Stroke volume and pulse pressure variation for prediction of fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Chest 2005;128:848–54.
105. , , , , . Preejection period variations predict the fluid responsiveness of septic ventilated patients. Crit Care Med 2005;33:2534–9.
106. , , , , , . Arterial versus plethysmographic dynamic indices to test responsiveness for testing fluid administration in hypotensive patients: a clinical trial. Anesth Analg 2006;103:1478–84.
107. , , , , , . Online monitoring of pulse pressure variation to guide fluid therapy after cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2008;106: 1201–6.
108. , , , , , . Goal-directed fluid management based on pulse pressure variation monitoring during high-risk surgery: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Crit Care 2007, 11:R100.
109. , , , , , . Prediction of fluid responsiveness using respiratory variations in left ventricular stroke area by transoesophageal echocardiographic automated border detection in mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care 2006;10:R171.
110. , , , et al. A prospective study of complications of pulmonary artery catheterizations in 500 consecutive patients. Chest 1983;84:245–9.
111. , , . Pulmonary artery rupture induced by a pulmonary artery catheter: A case report and review of the literature. J Intensive Care Med 2004;19:291–6.
112. , , , et al. Retrograde dissection and rupture of pulmonary artery after catheter use in pulmonary hypertension. Crit Care Med 1982;10:694–5.
113. , , , et al. Microbiologic risk of invasive hemodynamic monitoring in patients undergoing open-heart operations. Crit Care Med 1985;13:548–55.
114. , , , et al. A multicenter study of physicians’ knowledge of the pulmonary artery catheter. JAMA 1990;264:2928–32.
115. , , , et al. Continuous noninvasive monitoring of cardiac output with esophageal Doppler ultrasound during cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 1986;65:1013.
116. . Transesophageal Doppler scanning versus thermodilution during general anesthesia. Am J Surg 1987;153:490–503.
117. , , , et al. Noninvasive versus invasive assessment of cardiac output after cardiac surgery: Clinical validation. J Cardiothorac Anesth 1990;4:46–59.