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  • Cited by 5
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    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Merriwether, D. Andrew Friedlaender, Jonathan S. Mediavilla, Jose Mgone, Charles Gentz, Fred and Ferrell, Robert E. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA variation is an indicator of Austronesian influence in Island Melanesia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 110, Issue. 3, p. 243.

    Dugoujon, Jean-Michel Hazout, Serge Loirat, France Mourrieras, Bruno Crouau-Roy, Brigitte and Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia 2004. GM haplotype diversity of 82 populations over the world suggests a centrifugal model of human migrations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 125, Issue. 2, p. 175.

    Allibert, Claude 2008. Austronesian Migration and the Establishment of the Malagasy Civilization: Contrasted Readings in Linguistics, Archaeology, Genetics and Cultural Anthropology. Diogenes, Vol. 55, Issue. 2, p. 7.

    Brucato, Nicolas Kusuma, Pradiptajati Cox, Murray P. Pierron, Denis Purnomo, Gludhug A. Adelaar, Alexander Kivisild, Toomas Letellier, Thierry Sudoyo, Herawati and Ricaut, François-Xavier 2016. Malagasy Genetic Ancestry Comes from an Historical Malay Trading Post in Southeast Borneo. Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol. 33, Issue. 9, p. 2396.

    Ekblom, Anneli Lane, Paul Radimilahy, Chantal Rakotoarisoa, Jean-Aime Sinclair, Paul and Virah-Sawmy, Malika 2016. Early Exchange between Africa and the Wider Indian Ocean World. p. 195.

  • Print publication year: 1996
  • Online publication date: September 2009

12 - The peopling of Madagascar



Madagascar, located in the western Indian Ocean between latitude 12 and 26 degrees south and longitude 43 and 47 degrees east, is one of the last major islands to have been colonized by humans. It is separated by approximately 400 km from the Mozambique coastline of Africa to the west and by almost 6400 km from Indonesia to the east. The landscape and climate vary due to changes in altitude and latitude, and at least five major ecological regions referred to as Western, Southwestern, Central Highland, Eastern Central and Northern may be distinguished (Fig. 12.1). A chain of mountains which runs from north to south makes up the Central Highland region. These mountains descend sharply to the Indian Ocean creating a narrow eastern part and a wider western part. Madagascar has a tropical climate and experiences a rainy and a dry season. The eastern mountain slopes bear the remains of the dense rain forest, while the western plain is drier and supports forests of deciduous trees and savannah grassland. The southwest region is the driest while the northern region is prone to monsoon conditions (Brown, 1978).

In the absence of written records, scholars have made use of linguistic, archaeological and historical data to try to elucidate the origins of the proto-Malagasy.

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Molecular Biology and Human Diversity
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