Aitken, LM, et al. Protocol-directed sedation versus non-protocol-directed sedation to reduce duration of mechanical ventilation in mechanically ventilated intensive care patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; 1: CD009771.
Aitken, LM, et al. Sedation protocols to reduce duration of mechanical ventilation in the ICU: a Cochrane Systematic Review. J Adv Nurs 2016; 72: 261–72.
Barr, J, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2013; 41: 263–306.
Brush, DR, Kress, JP. Sedation and analgesia for the mechanically ventilated patient. Clin Chest Med 2009; 30: 131–41, ix.
Chanques, G, et al. Impact of systematic evaluation of pain and agitation in an intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2006; 34: 1691–9.
DAS-Taskforce 2015, et al. Evidence and consensus based guideline for the management of delirium, analgesia, and sedation in intensive care medicine. Revision 2015 (DAS-Guideline 2015) – short version. Ger Med Sci GMS E-J 2015; 13: Doc19.
Ely, EW, et al. Delirium in mechanically ventilated patients: validity and reliability of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU). JAMA 2001; 286: 2703–10.
Girard, TD, et al. Delirium as a predictor of long-term cognitive impairment in survivors of critical illness. Crit Care Med 2010; 38: 1513–20.
Pandharipande, PP, et al. Effect of sedation with dexmedetomidine vs lorazepam on acute brain dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients: the MENDS randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2007; 298: 2644–53.
Rea, RS, Battistone, S, Fong, JJ, Devlin, JW. Atypical antipsychotics versus haloperidol for treatment of delirium in acutely ill patients. Pharmacotherapy 2007; 27: 588–94.
Sessler, CN, Varney, K. Patient-focused sedation and analgesia in the ICU. Chest 2008; 133: 552–65.
Sessler, CN, et al. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale: validity and reliability in adult intensive care unit patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 166: 1338–44.
Strøm, T, Martinussen, T, Toft, P. A protocol of no sedation for critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a randomised trial. Lancet Lond Engl 2010; 375: 475–80.