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Medical Management of Eating Disorders
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Book description

This is a practical guide to the medical complications and treatment of anorexia nervosa and related eating disorders. A user-friendly structure allows the reader to access information on the basis of physical complaint (e.g. chest pain) or body system (e.g. neurological or respiratory). Practical guidance is provided on history taking, physical, and laboratory examination, and looking after special categories of patients such as prepubertal, males, adolescents, and during pregnancy. The principles and practice of treatment are fully covered including medical and nutritional therapies. Psychiatric and psychological issues are also addressed and provide details of specific psychological therapies. The text is supplemented with diagnostic colour photographs of important physical manifestations of eating disorders. Although the text is suitable for all health care professionals looking after these patients, special information is provided for general practitioners, nursing staff and family carers and including the patients themselves.

Reviews

'The strength of this book is that it combines expertise of medicine and psychiatry to produce a practical guide to the medical complications and management of AN and related disorders. This book can serve as a reference textbook and partly as a manual for consultation. All in all, the authors have succeeded in producing a highly practical and comprehensive guide to the medical complications and management of AN and related disorders.

Source: Hong Kong Medical Journal

'A major strength is the quality and breadth of the information provided … scores highly on user-friendliness … clearly written with the reader in mind … valuable reading to all staff new to the field of eating disorders, to the medical and nursing staff of my in-patient eating disorder unit, to interested general practitioners and practice nurses, to paediatric services, to dieticians, to keen medical students and to some patients and parents.'

Source: Psychological Medicine

'This is very much a book for a range of professionals who need an accessible and ready source of information regarding the medical complications of the eating disorders, at their fingertips. It is also a useful introductory text … I found this book accessible and easy to use for answering quick medical queries or concerns (as I had hoped!). The use of case examples was valuable in bringing clinical material to life. … This book has achieved its author's goals of being both a reference textbook and a manual for consultation.'

Source: European Eating Disorders Review

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Contents


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Bibliography
Definitions and epidemiology
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Prevention
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Risk factors
Fairburn, C. G. and Harrison, P. J.Risk factors for anorexia nervosa. Lancet 2003; 361: 1914
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Diagnosis (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV)
World Health Organization. Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders (International Classification of Diseases-10). Geneva: World Health Organization, 1992
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994
Clinical presentation
Beumont, P. Clinical presentation of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In: K. Brownell and C. Fairburn (eds). Eating Disorders and Obesity, 2nd edn. New York: Guildford Press, 2002, pp. 162–70
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Fairburn, C. G., Cooper, Z., Doll, H. A., Norman, P. and O'Connor, M, . The natural course of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in young women. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2000; 57: 659–65
Fisher, M., Schneider, M., Burns, J., Symons, H. and Mandel, F. S.Differences between adolescents and young adults at presentation to an eating disorders program. J. Adolesc. Health 2001; 28: 222–7
Fosson, A., Knibbs, J., Bryant-Waugh, R. and Lask, B.Early onset anorexia nervosa. Arch. Dis. Child. 1987; 62: 114–18
Marino, M. F. and Zanarini, M. C.Relationship between eating disorder not otherwise specified and its subtypes and borderline personality disorder. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2001; 29: 349–53
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Rieger, E., Touyz, S. W. and Beumont, P. J.The Anorexia Nervosa Stages of Change Questionnaire (ANSOCQ): information regarding its psychometric properties. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2002; 32: 24–38
Course and outcome
Ben-Tovim, D. I., Walker, K., Gilchrist, P., Kalucy, R. and Esterman, A.Outcome in patients with eating disorders: a 5-year study. Lancet 2001; 357: 1254–7
Fairburn, C. G., Cooper, Z., Doll, H. A., Norman, P. and O'Connor, M, . The natural course of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in young women. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2000; 57: 659–65
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Physical examination
Birmingham, C. L., Muller, J. L. and Goldner, E. M.Randomized trial of measures of body fat versus body weight in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Eat. Weight Disord. 1998; 3: 84–9
Tyler, I. and Birmingham, C. L.The interrater reliability of physical signs in patients with eating disorders. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2001; 30: 343–5
Weight and body mass index measurement
Birmingham, C. L., Jones, P. J., Orphanidou, C., et al.The reliability of bioelectrical impedance analysis for measuring changes in the body composition of patients with anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1996; 19: 311–15
Birmingham, C. L., Muller, J. L. and Goldner, E. M.Randomized trial of measures of body fat versus body weight in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Eat. Weight Disord. 1998; 3: 84–9
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Orphanidou, C. I., McCargar, L. J., Birmingham, C. L. and Belzberg, A. S.Changes in body composition and fat distribution after short-term weight gain in patients with anorexia nervosa. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997; 65: 1034–41
Orphanidou, C., McCargar, L., Birmingham, C. L., Mathieson, J. and Goldner, E.Accuracy of subcutaneous fat measurement: comparison of skinfold calipers, ultrasound, and computed tomography. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1994; 94: 855–8
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Laboratory testing
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Crow, S. J., Rosenberg, M. E., Mitchell, J. E. and Thuras, P.Urine electrolytes as markers of bulimia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2001; 30: 279–87
Crow, S. J., Salisbury, J. J., Crosby, R. D. and Mitchell, J. E.Serum electrolytes as markers of vomiting in bulimia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1997; 21: 95–8
Gambling, D. R., Birmingham, C. L. and Jenkins, L. C.Magnesium and the anaesthetist. Can. J. Anesth. 1998; 35: 644–54
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Pieper-Bigelow, C., Strocchi, A. and Levitt, M. D.Where does serum amylase come from and where does it go?Gastroenterol. Clin. North. Am. 1990; 19: 793–810
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Differential diagnosis
Adams, R., Hinkebein, M. K., McQuillen, M., Sutherland, S., El Asyouty, S. and Lippmann, S.Prompt differentiation of Addison's disease from anorexia nervosa during weight loss and vomiting. South. Med. J. 1998; 91:208–11
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Medical manifestations by system
Neurological
Amann, B., Schafer, M., Sterr, A., Arnold, S. and Grunze, H.Central pontine myelino-lysis in a patient with anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2001; 30: 462–6
Brewerton, T. D. and George, M. S.Is migraine related to the eating disorders?Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1993; 14: 75–9
Butow, P., Beumont, P. and Touyz, S.Cognitive processes in dieting disorders. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1993; 14: 319–29
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Patchell, R. A., Fellows, H. A. and Humphries, L. L.Neurologic complications of anorexia nervosa. Acta Neurol. Scand. 1994; 89: 111–16
Rechlin, T., Loew, T. H. and Joraschky, P, . Pseudoseizure “status”. J. Psychosom. Res. 1997; 42: 495–8
Silber, T. J.Seizures, water intoxication in anorexia nervosa. Psychosomatics 1984; 25: 705–6
Trummer, M., Eustacchio, S., Unger, F., Tillich, M. and Flaschka, G.Right hemispheric frontal lesions as a cause for anorexia nervosa: report of three cases. Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 2002; 144: 797–801
Dental
Faine, M. P.Recognition and management of eating disorders in the dental office. Dent. Clin. North Am. 2003; 47:395–410
George, G. C., Zabow, T. and Beumont, P. J.Letter: scurvy in anorexia nervosa. S. Afr. Med. J. 1975; 49: 1420
Liew, V. P., Frisken, K. W., Touyz, S. W., Beumont, P. J. and Williams, H.Clinical and microbiological investigations of anorexia nervosa. Aust. Dent. J. 1991; 36: 435–41
Moynihan, P. and Bradbury, J.Compromised dental function and nutrition. Nutrition 2001; 17: 177–8
Touyz, S. W., Liew, V. P., Tseng, P., Frisken, K., Williams, H. and Beumont, P. J.Oral and dental complications in dieting disorders. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1993; 14: 341–7
Skin
Birmingham, C. L.Hypercarotenemia. N. Engl. J. Med. 2002; 347: 222–3
Glorio, R., Allevato, M., Pablo, A., et al.Prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in 200 patients with eating disorders. Int. J. Dermatol. 2000; 39: 348–53
Judd, L. E. and Poskitt, B. L.Pellagra in a patient with an eating disorder. Br. J. Dermatol. 1991; 125: 71–2
Rushton, D. H.Nutritional factors and hair loss. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 2002; 27: 396–404
Schulze, U. M., Pettke-Rank, C. V., Kreienkamp, M., , et al.Dermatologic findings in anorexia and bulimia nervosa of childhood and adolescence. Pediatr. Dermatol. 1999; 16: 90–94
Strumia, R., Varotti, E., Manzato, E. and Gualandi, M.Skin signs in anorexia nervosa. Dermatology 2001; 203: 314–17
Tyler, I., Wiseman, M. C., Crawford, R. I. and Birmingham, L. C.Cutaneous manifestations of eating disorders. J. Cutan. Med. Surg. 2002; 6: 345–53
Respiratory
Birmingham, C. L. and Tan, A. O.Respiratory muscle weakness and anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2003; 33: 230–33
Cambell-Taylor, I.Aspiration pneumonia. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001; 344: 1869
Cook, V. J., Coxson, H. O., Mason, A. G. and Bai, T. R.Bullae, bronchiectasis and nutritional emphysema in severe anorexia nervosa. Can. Respir. J. 2001; 8: 361–5
Corless, J. A., Delaney, J. C. and Page, R. D.Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothoraces in a young woman with anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2001; 30: 110–12
Murciano, D., Rigaud, D., Pingleton, S., Armengaud, M. H., Melchior, J. C. and Aubier, M.Diaphragmatic function in severely malnourished patients with anorexia nervosa. Effects of renutrition. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1994; 150: 1569–74
Pieters, T., Boland, B., Beguin, C., et al.Lung function study and diffusion capacity in anorexia nervosa. J. Intern. Med. 2000; 248: 137–42
Cardiovascular
Beumont, P. J. and Large, M.Hypophosphataemia, delirium and cardiac arrhythmia in anorexia nervosa. Med. J. Aust. 1991; 155: 519–22
Casu, M., Patrone, V., Gianelli, M. V., et al.Spectral analysis of R-R interval variability by short-term recording in anorexia nervosa. Eat. Weight Disord. 2002; 7: 239–43
Davidson, A., Anisman, P. C. and Eshaghpour, E.Heart failure secondary to hypomagnesemia in anorexia nervosa. Pediatr. Cardiol. 1992; 13: 241–2
Franzoni, F., Mataloni, E., Femia, R. and Galetta, F.Effect of oral potassium supplementation on QT dispersion in anorexia nervosa. Acta Paediatr. 2002; 91: 653–6
Galetta, F., Franzoni, F., Cupisti, A., Belliti, D., Prattichizzo, F. and Rolla, M.the time the ventricles (large chambers of the heart) take to recharge dispersion in young women with anorexia nervosa. J. Pediatr. 2002; 140: 456–60
Galetta, F., Franzoni, F., Prattichizzo, F., Rolla, M., Santoro, G. and Pentimone, F.Heart rate variability and left ventricular diastolic function in anorexia nervosa. J. Adolesc. Health 2003; 32: 416–21
Garcia-Rubira, J. C., Hidalgo, R., Gomez-Barrado, J. J., Romero, D. and Cruz, Fernandez J. M.Anorexia nervosa and myocardial infarction. Int. J. Cardiol. 1994; 45: 138–40
Ho, P. C., Dweik, R. and Cohen, M. C.Rapidly reversible cardiomyopathy associated with chronic ipecac ingestion. Clin. Cardiol. 1998; 21: 780–3
Isner, J. M., Roberts, W. C., Heymsfield, S. B. and Yager, J.Anorexia nervosa and sudden death. Ann. Intern. Med. 1985; 102: 49–52
Panagiotopoulos, C., McCrindle, B. W., Hick, K. and Katzman, D. K.Electrocardiographic findings in adolescents with eating disorders. Pediatrics 2000; 105: 1100–105
Rechlin, T., Weis, M., Ott, C., Bleichner, F. and Joraschky, P.Alterations of autonomic cardiac control in anorexia nervosa. Biol. Psychiatry 1998; 43: 358–63
Suri, R., Poist, E. S., Hager, W. D. and Gross, J. B.Unrecognized bulimia nervosa: a potential cause of perioperative cardiac dysrhythmias. Can. J. Anaesth. 1999; 46: 1048–52
Gastrointestinal
Adson, D. E., Mitchell, J. E. and Trenkner, S. W.The superior mesenteric artery syndrome and acute gastric dilatation in eating disorders: a report of two cases and a review of the literature. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1997; 21: 103–14
Chiarioni, G., Bassotti, G., Monsignori, A., et al.Anorectal dysfunction in constipated women with anorexia nervosa. Mayo Clin. Proc. 2000; 75: 1015–19
Chun, A. B., Sokol, M. S., Kaye, W. H., Hutson, W. R. and Wald, A.Colonic and anorectal function in constipated patients with anorexia nervosa. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1997; 92: 1879–83
Caprio, C., Pasanisi, F. and Contaldo, F.Gastrointestinal complications in a patient with eating disorders. Eat. Weight Disord. 2000; 5: 228–30
McClain, C. J., Humphries, L. L., Hill, K. K. and Nickl, N. J.Gastrointestinal and nutritional aspects of eating disorders. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 1993; 12: 466–74
Endocrine
Kam, T., Birmingham, C. L. and Goldner, E. M.Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome and anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1994; 16: 101–3
Levine, R. L.Endocrine aspects of eating disorders in adolescents. Adolesc. Med. 2002; 13: 129–43
Mantzoros, C. S.Role of leptin in reproduction. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2000; 900: 174–83
Mattingly, D. and Bhanji, S.Hypoglycaemia and anorexia nervosa. J. R. Soc. Med. 1995; 88: 191–5
Pauly, R. P., Lear, S. A., Hastings, F. C. and Birmingham, C. L.Resting energy expenditure and plasma leptin levels in anorexia nervosa during acute refeeding. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2000; 28: 231–4
Stoving, R. K., Hangaard, J. and Hagen, C.Update on endocrine disturbances in anorexia nervosa. J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. 2001; 14: 459–80
Wabitsch, M., Ballauff, A., Holl, R., et al.Serum leptin, gonadotropin, and testosterone concentrations in male patients with anorexia nervosa during weight gain. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2001; 86: 2982–8
Amenorrhea
Crow, S. J., Thuras, P., Keel, P. K. and Mitchell, J. E.Long-term menstrual and reproductive function in patients with bulimia nervosa. Am. J. Psychiatry 2002; 159:1048–50
Jamieson, M. A.Hormone replacement in the adolescent with anorexia and hypothalamic amenorrhea — yes or no?J. Pediatr. Adolesc. Gynecol. 2001; 14: 39
Marcus, M. D., Loucks, T. L. and Berga, S. L.Psychological correlates of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Fertil. Steril. 2001; 76: 310–16
Renal
Alexandridis, G., Liamis, G. and Elisaf, M.Reversible tubular dysfunction that mimicked Fanconi's syndrome in a patient with anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2001; 30: 227–30
Ishikawa, S., Kato, M., Tokuda, T., et al.Licorice-induced hypokalemic myopathy and hypokalemic renal tubular damage in anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1999; 26: 111–14
Bones and joints
Abella, E., Feliu, E., Granada, I., et al.Bone marrow changes in anorexia nervosa are correlated with the amount of weight loss and not with other clinical findings. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 2002; 118: 582–8
Audi, L., Vargas, D. M., Gussinye, M., Yeste, D., Marti, G. and Carrascosa, A.Clinical and biochemical determinants of bone metabolism and bone mass in adolescent female patients with anorexia nervosa. Pediatr. Res. 2002; 51: 497–504
Heer, M., Mika, C., Grzella, I., Drummer, C. and Herpertz-Dahlmann, B.Changes in bone turnover in patients with anorexia nervosa during eleven weeks of inpatient dietary treatment. Clin. Chem. 2002; 48: 754–60
LaBan, M. M., Wilkins, J. C., Sackeyfio, A. H. and Taylor, R. S.Osteoporotic stress fractures in anorexia nervosa: etiology, diagnosis, and review of four cases. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 1995; 76: 884–7
Seibel, M. J.Nutrition and molecular markers of bone remodelling. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 2002; 5: 525–31
Soyka, L. A., Misra, M., Frenchman, A., et al.Abnormal bone mineral accrual in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2002; 87: 4177–85
Zipfel, S., Seibel, M. J., Loewe, B., Beumont, P. J., Kasperk, C. and Herzog, W.Osteoporosis in eating disorders: a follow-up study of patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2001; 86: 5227–33
Hematological
Kaiser, U. and Barth, N.Haemolytic anaemia in a patient with anorexia nervosa. Acta Haematol. 2001; 106: 133–5
Lambert, M., Hubert, C., Depresseux, G., et al.Hematological changes in anorexia nervosa are correlated with total body fat mass depletion. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1997; 21: 329–34
Immune
Corcos, M., Guilbaud, O., Paterniti, S., et al.Involvement of cytokines in eating disorders: a critical review of the human literature. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2003; 28: 229–49
Nova, E., Samartin, S., Gomez, S., Morande, G. and Marcos, A.The adaptive response of the immune system to the particular malnutrition of eating disorders. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2002; 56 (suppl 3): S34–7
Unclassified
Bihun, J. A., McSherry, J. and Marciano, D.Idiopathic edema and eating disorders: evidence for an association. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1993; 14: 197–201
Birmingham, C. L., Stigant, C. and Goldner, E. M.Chest pain in anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1999; 25: 219–22
Genuardi, F. J. and Sturdevant, M. S.Generalized weakness. Adolesc. Med. 1996; 7: 357–9
Inpatient treatment
Attia, E., Haiman, C., Walsh, B. T. and Flater, S. R.Does fluoxetine augment the inpatient treatment of anorexia nervosa?Am. J. Psychiatry 1998; 155: 548–51
Beumont, P. J., Kopec-Schrader, E. M. and Lennerts, W.Eating disorder patients at a NSW teaching hospital: a comparison with state-wide data. Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 1995; 29: 96–103
Griffiths, R., Gross, G., Russell, J., et al.Perceptions of bed rest by anorexic patients. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1998; 23: 443–7
Touyz, S. W., Beumont, P. J., Glaun, D., Phillips, T. and Cowie, I.A comparison of lenient and strict operant conditioning programmes in refeeding patients with anorexia nervosa. Br. J. Psychiatry 1984; 144: 517–20
Touyz, S. W., Lennerts, W., Freeman, R. J. and Beumont, P. J.To weigh or not to weigh? Frequency of weighing and rate of weight gain in patients with anorexia nervosa. Br. J. Psychiatry 1990; 157: 752–4
Day patient treatment
Anzai, N., Lindsey-Dudley, K. and Bidwell, R. J.Inpatient and partial hospital treatment for adolescent eating disorders. Child. Adolesc. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 2002; 11: 279–309
Dalle, Grave R., Ricca, V. and Todesco, T.The stepped-care approach in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: progress and problems. Eat. Weight Disord. 2001; 6: 81–9
Rodriguez, C., Fernandez-Corres, B., Perez, M. J., Iruin, A. and Gonzalez-Pinto, A.Partial hospitalization and outcome of anorexia nervosa. Eur. Psychiatry 2002; 17: 236–7
Thornton, C., Beumont, P. and Touyz, S.The Australian experience of day programs for patients with eating disorders. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2002; 32: 1–10
Touyz, S., Thornton, C., Rieger, E., George, L. and Beumont, P.The incorporation of the stage of change model in the day hospital treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa. Eur. Child. Adolesc. Psychiatry 2003; 12 (suppl 1): 165–71
Zipfel, S., Reas, D. L., Thornton, C., et al. Day hospitalization programs for eating disorders: a systematic review of the literature. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2002; 31: 105–17
Compulsory treatment
Beumont, P. J.Compulsory treatment in anorexia nervosa. Br. J. Psychiatry 2000; 176: 298–9
Goldner, E., Birmingham, C. and Smye, V. Addressing treatment refusal in anorexia nervosa: clinical, ethical, and legal considerations. In: D. Garner (ed.). Handbook of Treatment for Eating Disorders. Los Angeles: Taylor & Francis, 1996, pp. 150–61
Ramsay, R., Ward, A., Treasure, J. and Russell, G. F.Compulsory treatment in anorexia nervosa. Short-term benefits and long-term mortality. Br. J. Psychiatry 1999; 175: 147–53
Russell, G. F.Involuntary treatment in anorexia nervosa. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 2001; 24: 337–49
Medical treatment
American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (revision). Am. J. Psychiatry 2000; 157 (suppl): 1–39
Bakan, R.The role of zinc in anorexia nervosa: etiology and treatment. Med. Hypotheses 1979; 5: 731–6
Bakan, R., Birmingham, C. L., Aeberhardt, L. and Goldner, E. M.Dietary zinc intake of vegetarian and nonvegetarian patients with anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1993; 13: 229–33
Beumont, P. J., Arthur, B., Russell, J. D. and Touyz, S. W.Excessive physical activity in dieting disorder patients: proposals for a supervised exercise program. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1994; 15: 21–36
Beumont, P. J., Russell, J. D. and Touyz, S. W.Treatment of anorexia nervosa. Lancet 1993; 341: 1635–40
Birmingham, C. and Goldner, E. Eating disorders. In: Canadian Pharmaceutical Association (ed.). Therapeutic Choices, 3rd edn. Ottawa: Canadian Pharmaceutical Association, 2000, pp. 836–42
Birmingham, C. L., Goldner, E. M. and Bakan, R.Controlled trial of zinc supplementation in anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1994; 15: 251–5
Davidson, H. and Birmingham, C.The Ulysses agreement. Eat. Weight Disord. 2003; 8: 249–52
Goldner, E. and Birmingham, C. Treatment of anorexia nervosa. In: D. B. Lumsden and L. Alexander-Mott (ed.). Understanding Eating Disorders. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1994, pp. 135–57
Gutierrez, E. and Vazquez, R.Heat in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa. Eat. Weight Disord. 2001; 6: 49–52
Gutierrez, E., Vazquez, R. and Boakes, R. A.Activity-based anorexia: ambient temperature has been a neglected factor. Psychol. Bull. Rev. 2002; 9: 239–49
Kaye, W. H., Nagata, T., Weltzin, T. E., et al. Double-blind placebo controlled administration of fluoxetine in restricting- and restricting-purging-type anorexia nervosa. Biol. Psychiatry 2001; 49: 644–52
Kopala, L. C., Good, K., Goldner, E. M. and Birmingham, C. L.Olfactory identification ability in anorexia nervosa. J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 1995; 20: 283–6
Kraemer, H. C., Wilson, G. T., Fairburn, C. G. and Agras, W. S.Mediators and moderators of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2002; 59: 877–83
Lear, S. A., Pauly, R. P. and Birmingham, C. L.Body fat, caloric intake, and plasma leptin levels in women with anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1999; 26: 283–8
Leung, M. and Birmingham, C. L.Food fight: the management of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Pharm. Pract. 1997; 13: 62–72
Russell, J. D., Mira, M., Allen, B. J., et al.Protein repletion and treatment in anorexia nervosa. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994; 59: 98–102
Russell, J. D., Mira, M., Allen, B. J., et al.Effect of refeeding and exercise in restoration of body protein in anorexia nervosa. Basic Life Sci. 1993; 60: 207–10
Su, J. C. and Birmingham, C. L.Zinc supplementation in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Eat. Weight Disord. 2002; 7: 20–22
Thien, V., Thomas, A., Markin, D. and Birmingham, C. L.Pilot study of a graded exercise program for the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2000; 28: 101–6
Pharmacological treatment
Colom, F., Vieta, E., Benabarre, A., et al.Topiramate abuse in a bipolar patient with an eating disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry 2001; 62: 475–6
Glauser, J.Tricyclic antidepressant poisoning. Cleve. Clin. J. Med. 2000; 67: 704–6, 709–13, 717–19
Mitchell, J. E., Peterson, C. B., Myers, T. and Wonderlich, S.Combining pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the treatment of patients with eating disorders. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 2001; 24: 315–23
Zhu, A. J. and Walsh, B. T.Pharmacologic treatment of eating disorders. Can. J. Psychiatry 2002; 47: 227–34
Refeeding syndrome
Beumont, P. J. V., Russell, J., Touyz, S., et al.Intensive nutritional counselling in bulimia nervosa: a role for supplementation with fluoxetine?Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 1997; 31: 514–24
Birmingham, C. L., Alothman, A. F. and Goldner, E. M.Anorexia nervosa: refeeding and hypophosphatemia. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1996; 20: 211–13
Crook, M. A., Hally, V. and Panteli, J. V.The importance of the refeeding syndrome. Nutrition 2001; 17: 632–7
Fisher, M., Simpser, E. and Schneider, M.Hypophosphatemia secondary to oral refeeding in anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2000; 28: 181–7
Huang, Y. L., Fang, C. T., Tseng, M. C., Lee, Y. J. and Lee, M. B.Life-threatening refeeding syndrome in a severely malnourished anorexia nervosa patient. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 2001; 100: 343–6
Keyes, S., Brozek, J., Henschel, A. and Taylor, H. The Biology of Human Starvation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1950
Kohn, M. R., Golden, N. H. and Shenker, I. R.Cardiac arrest and delirium: presentations of the refeeding syndrome in severely malnourished adolescents with anorexia nervosa. J. Adolesc. Health 1998; 22: 239–43
Melchior, J. C.From malnutrition to refeeding during anorexia nervosa. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 1998; 1: 481–5
Russell, J., Baur, L. A., Beumont, P. J., et al.Altered energy metabolism in anorexia nervosa. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2001; 26: 51–63
Silber, T.Nutrition, immunity, and refeeding. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998; 67: 947–8
Specific patient populations
Diabetes mellitus
Fairburn, C. G., Peveler, R. C., Davies, B., Mann, J. I. and Mayou, R. A.Eating disorders in young adults with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: a controlled study. Br. Med. J. 1991; 303: 17–20
Herpertz, S., Albus, C., Kielmann, R., et al.Comorbidity of diabetes mellitus and eating disorders: a follow-up study. J. Psychosom. Res. 2001; 51: 673–8
Herpertz, S., Albus, C., Lichtblau, K., Kohle, K., Mann, K. and Senf, W.Relationship of weight and eating disorders in type 2 diabetic patients: a multicenter study. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2000; 28: 68–77
Nielsen, S., Emborg, C. and Molbak, A. G.Mortality in concurrent type 1 diabetes and anorexia nervosa. Diabet. Care 2002; 25: 309–12
Rodin, G., Olmsted, M. P., Rydall, A. C., et al.Eating disorders in young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J. Psychosom. Res. 2002; 53: 943–9
Geriatrics
Hall, P. and Driscoll, R.Anorexia in the elderly — an annotation. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1993; 14: 497–9
Wahlqvist, M. L., Clarke, D. M., Rassias, C. R. and Strauss, B. J. G.Psychological factors in nutritional disorders of the elderly: part of the spectrum of eating disorders. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1999; 25: 345–8
Males
Andersen, A. E. and Holman, J. E.Males with eating disorders: challenges for treatment and research. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 1997; 33: 391–7
Barry, D. T., Grilo, C. M. and Masheb, R. M.Gender differences in patients with binge eating disorder. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2002; 31: 63–70
Beumont, P. J., Beardwood, C. J. and Russell, G. F.The occurrence of the syndrome of anorexia nervosa in male subjects. Psychol. Med. 1972; 2: 216–31
Eliot, A. O. and Baker, C. W.Eating disordered adolescent males. Adolescence 2001; 36: 535–43
Robb, A. S. and Dadson, M. J.Eating disorders in males. Child Adolesc. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 2002; 11: 399–418
Siegel, J. H., Hardoff, D., Golden, N. H. and Shenker, I. R.Medical complications in male adolescents with anorexia nervosa. J. Adolesc. Health 1995; 16: 448–53
Touyz, S. W., Kopec-Schrader, E. M. and Beumont, P. J.Anorexia nervosa in males: a report of 12 cases. Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 1993; 27: 512–17
Overdose
Catterson, M. L., Pryor, T. L., Burke, M. J. and Morgan, C. D.Death due to alcoholic complications in a young woman with a severe eating disorder: a case report. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1997; 21: 303–5
Kozyk, J. C., Touyz, S. W. and Beumont, P. J.Is there a relationship between bulimia nervosa and hazardous alcohol use?Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1998; 24: 95–9
Pregnancy
Abraham, S., Taylor, A. and Conti, J.Postnatal depression, eating, exercise, and vomiting before and during pregnancy. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2001; 29: 482–7
Beumont, P. J.Anorexia, LHRH and ovulation. Med. J. Aust. 1985; 142: 77–8
Beumont, P. and Tam, P.Anorexia nervosa, infertility and pregnancy. Med. J. Aust. 2001; 174: 155–6
Crow, S. J., Thuras, P., Keel, P. K. and Mitchell, J. E.Long-term menstrual and reproductive function in patients with bulimia nervosa. Am. J. Psychiatry 2002; 159: 1048–50
Franko, D. L. and Spurrell, E. B.Detection and management of eating disorders during pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 2000; 95: 942–6
Franko, D. L., Blais, M. A., Becker, A. E., et al.Pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes in women with eating disorders. Am. J. Psychiatry 2001; 158: 1461–6
Kye, S. L.Pregnancy in women with eating disorders. Am. J. Psychiatry 2002; 159: 1249–50
Moschos, S., Chan, J. L. and Mantzoros, C. S.Leptin and reproduction: a review. Fertil. Steril. 2002; 77: 433–44
Norre, J., Vandereycken, W. and Gordts, S.The management of eating disorders in a fertility clinic: clinical guidelines. J. Psychosom. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2001; 22: 77–81
Children and younger adolescents
Brewerton, T. D.Bulimia in children and adolescents. Child. Adolesc. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 2002; 11: 237–56
Geist, R., Heinmaa, M., Stephens, D., Davis, R. and Katzman, D. K.Comparison of family therapy and family group psychoeducation in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Can. J. Psychiatry 2000; 45: 173–8
Kohn, M. and Golden, N. H.Eating disorders in children and adolescents: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. Paediatr. Drugs 2001; 3: 91–9
Patton, G. C., Selzer, R., Coffey, C., Carlin, J. B. and Wolfe, R.Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population based cohort study over 3 years. Br. Med. J. 1999; 318: 765–8
Pratt, B. M. and Woolfenden, S. R.Interventions for preventing eating disorders in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002
Rudolph, C. D. and Link, D. T.Feeding disorders in infants and children. Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 2002; 49: 97–112
Areas of special interest
Families
Gowers, S. and North, C.Difficulties in family functioning and adolescent anorexia nervosa. Br. J. Psychiatry 1999; 174: 63–6
Latzer, Y., Ben-Ari, A. and Galimidi, N.Anorexia nervosa and the family: effects on younger sisters to anorexia nervosa patients. Int. J. Adolesc. Med. Health 2002; 14: 275–81
Patel, P., Wheatcroft, R., Park, R. J. and Stein, A.The children of mothers with eating disorders. Clin. Child. Fam. Psychol. Rev. 2002; 5: 1–19
Family doctor
American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Adolescence. Identifying and treating eating disorders. Pediatrics 2003; 111: 204–11
Gurney, V. W. and Halmi, K. A.An eating disorder curriculum for primary care providers. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 2001; 30: 209–12
Pritts, S. D. and Susman, J.Diagnosis of eating disorders in primary care. Am. Fam. Physician 2003; 67: 297–304
Riggs, S.Eating disorders in adolescents: role of the primary care physician. Med. Health R. I. 1999; 82: 391–5
Walsh, J. M., Wheat, M. E. and Freund, K.Detection, evaluation, and treatment of eating disorders: the role of the primary care physician. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 2000; 15: 577–90
Nursing
Akridge, K.Anorexia nervosa. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Neonatal Nurs. 1989; 18: 25–30
Bryant, S. O. and Kopeski, L. M.Psychiatric nursing assessment of the eating disorder client. Top. Clin. Nurs. 1986; 8: 57–66
Wolfe, B. E. and Gimby, L. B.Caring for the hospitalized patient with an eating disorder. Nurs. Clin. North Am. 2003; 38: 75–99
Dietitian
Blank, S., Zadik, Z., Katz, I., Mahazri, Y., Toker, I. and Barak, I.The emergence and treatment of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. A comprehensive and practical model. Int. J. Adolesc. Med. Health 2002; 14: 257–60
Psychiatric and psychological treatment
Bachar, E., Latzer, Y., Kreitler, S. and Berry, E. M.Empirical comparison of two psychological therapies. Self psychology and cognitive orientation in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia. J. Psychother. Pract. Res. 1999; 8: 115–28
Beumont, P. J. V. The behavioural disturbance, psychopathology, and phenomenology of eating disorders. In: H. Hoek, J. Treasure and M. Katzman (eds). Neurobiology in the Treatment of Eating Disorders. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 1998
Brambilla, F., Draisci, A. P. A. and Brunetta, M.Combined cognitive-behavioral, psychopharmacological and nutritional therapy in bulimia nervosa. Neuropsychobiology 1995; 32: 68–71
Dare, C., Eisler, I., Russell, G., Treasure, J. and Dodge, L.Psychological therapies for adults with anorexia nervosa. Br. J. Psychiatry 2001; 178: 216–21
Eisler, I., Dare, C., Russell, G. F., Szmukler, G., Grange, D. and Dodge, E.Family and individual therapy in anorexia nervosa. A 5-year follow-up. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1997; 54: 1025–30
Geist, R., Heinmaa, M., Stephens, D., Davis, R. and Katzman, D. K.Comparison of family therapy and family group psychoeducation in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Can. J. Psychiatry 2000; 45: 173–8
Gowers, S., Norton, K., Halek, C. and Crisp, A. H.Outcome of outpatient psychotherapy in a random allocation treatment study of anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1994; 15: 165–77
Kleifield, E. I., Wagner, S. and Halmi, K. A.Cognitive-behavioral treatment of anorexia nervosa. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 1996; 19: 715–37
Grange, D.Family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa. J. Clin. Psychol. 1999; 55: 727–39
Mitchell, J. E., Pyle, R. L., Eckert, E. D., Hatsukami, D., Pomeroy, C. and Zimmerman, R.A comparison study of antidepressants and structured intensive group psychotherapy in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1990; 47: 149–57
North, C. and Gowers, S.Anorexia nervosa, psychopathology, and outcome. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1999; 26: 386–91
Robin, A. L., Siegel, P. T., Moye, A. W., Gilroy, M., Dennis, A. B. and Sikand, A.A controlled comparison of family versus individual therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. J. Am. Acad. Child. Adolesc. Psychiatry 1999; 38: 1482–9
Touyz, S. and Beumont, P. Behavioural treatment to promote weight gain in anorexia nervosa. In: D. Garner and P. Garfinkel (eds). Handbook of Treatment for Eating Disorders. New York: Guilford Press, 1997, pp. 361–71
Vitousek, K., Watson, S. and Wilson, G. T.Enhancing motivation for change in treatment-resistant eating disorders. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 1998; 18: 391–420
Phenomenology
Beumont, P. J. V. Clinical presentation of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. In: K. D. Brownell and C. G. Fairburn (eds). Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook. 2nd edn. New York: Guilford Press, 2002, pp. 162–70
Obesity
Birmingham, C. L., Muller, J. L., Palepu, A., Spinelli, J. J. and Anis, A. H.The cost of obesity in Canada. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 1999; 160: 483–8
Karlsson, J., Persson, L. O., Sjostrom, L. and Sullivan, M.Psychometric properties and factor structure of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in obese men and women. Results from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 2000; 24: 1715–25
Lentes, K. U., Tu, N., Chen, H., et al.Genomic organization and mutational analysis of the human UCP2 gene, a prime candidate gene for human obesity. J. Recept. Signal Transduct. Res. 1999; 19: 229–44
Striegel-Moore, R. H.The impact of pediatric obesity treatment on eating behavior and psychologic adjustment. J. Pediatr. 2001; 139: 13–14