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  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: March 2013

Section 2 - Clinical Conditions

Further reading

BrierleyJ, CarcilloJA, ChoongK, et al. Clinical practice parameters for haemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal septic shock: 2007 update from the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 2009;37:666–688.
GoldsteinB, GiroirB, RandolphA, et al. International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2005;6:2–8.
Meningitis Research Foundation website. http://www.meningitis.org/health-professionals.

Further reading

BiarentD, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2010, Section 6. Paediatric life support. Resuscitation 2010;81:1364–1388.
MarinoB, FineK, McMillanJ.Blueprint Paediatrics. Blackwell, 2006.
WrenC, O’SullivanJJ. Survival with congenital heart disease and need for follow up in adult life. Heart 2001;85:438–443.

Further reading

British Thoracic Society. 2005. Guidelines for the management of pleural infection in children.
ClarkJE.Children with pneumonia: how do they present and how are they managed?Arch Dis Child 2007;92:394–398.
YanneyM, VyasH.The treatment of bronchiolitis. Arch Dis Child 2008;93:793–798.

Further reading

British Guideline on the Management of Asthma. A national clinical guideline. May 2008, revised January 2012: British Thoracic Society/SIGN.
BrowneG, LamL. Single-dose intravenous salbutamol bolus for managing children with acute severe asthma in the emergency department: reanalysis of data. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2002;3(2):117–123.
CheukDKL, ChauTCH, LeeSL. A meta-analysis on intravenous magnesium sulphate for treating acute asthma. Arch Dis Child 2005;90:74–77.
CiaralloL, BrousseauD, ReinertS. Higher-dose intravenous magnesium therapy for children with moderate to severe acute asthma. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2000;154:979–983.
MitraA, et al. Intravenous aminophylline for acute severe asthma in children over two years receiving inhaled bronchodilators. Cochrane Collaboration 2009.
PartridgeR, AbramoT. Acute asthma in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2008;5(11).
RobertsG, et al. Intravenous salbutamol bolus compared with an aminophylline infusion in children with severe asthma: a randomised controlled trial. Thorax 2003;58:306–310.

Further reading

Advanced Life Support Group. Advanced Paediatric Life Support: The practical approach, 5th edition. Wiley-Blackwell 2011.
AvnerJR.Altered states of consciousness. Paediatr Rev 2006;27(9): 331–338.
KirkhamFJ.Non traumatic coma in children. Arch Dis Child 2001;85:303–312.
NHS Health and Social Care Information Centre. Hospital episode statistics. Department of Health. 2005. London. www.hesonline.nhs.uk.
Paediatric Accident and Emergency Research group. The management of a child (0–18 years) with a decreased conscious level. An evidence based guideline for health professionals based in the hospital setting. Available at: http://www.rcpch.ac.uk/child-health/standards-care/child-health-guidelines-and-standards/guidelines-endorsed-rcpch-subspe-0#PAERG_decon.
WongC, ForsythR, KellyT., EyreJ.Incidence, aetiology, and outcome of non-traumatic coma: a population based study. Arch Dis Child 2001;84(3):193–199.

Further reading

Advanced Life Support Group. Advanced Paediatric Life Support: The Practical Approach, 5th edition. Wiley-Blackwell. 2011.
Convulsive status epilepticus. Arch Dis Child 2007;92:28.
Stephenson JBP. Incidence, cause, and short-term outcome of convulsive status epilepticus in childhood: prospective population-based study. Lancet 2006;368:222–229.

Further reading

BSPED. British Society of Paediatric Endocrinology & Diabetes DKA Guideline 2009. http://www.bsped.org.uk/professional/guidelines/docs/DKAGuideline.pdf (accessed 17 June 2011).
LevinDL.Cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2008;9:320–329.
WolfsdorfJ, CraigME, DanemanD, et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatr Diabetes 2007;8:28–43.

Further reading

The British Inherited Metabolic Diseases Group has recently drawn up guidelines for the emergency management of most metabolic conditions, and advice for undiagnosed conditions. These guidelines are freely available to download from their website: www.bimdg.org.uk.
HoffmanGF, ZschockeJ, NyhanWL (eds.). Inherited Metabolic Diseases: A Clinical Approach. Springer, 2009.
SaudubrayJ-M, van der BergheG, WalterJH (eds.). Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment, 5th edn. Springer, 2012.

Further reading

Advanced Paediatric Life Support: The Practical Approach, 5th edn. BMJ Books, 2011.
Ben-ShoshanM, ClarkeAE.Anaphylaxis: past, present and future. Allergy 2011;66(1):1–14.
BraganzaSC, et al. Paediatric emergency department anaphylaxis: different patterns from adults. Arch Dis Child 2006;91(2):159–163.
Du ToitG.Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis in childhood. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2007;18(5):455–463.
GuptaR, SheikA, StrachanDP, AndersonHR.Time trends in allergic disorders in the UK. Thorax 2007;62(1):91–96.
KempSF. The post-anaphylaxis dilemma: how long is long enough to observe a patient after resolution of symptoms?Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2008;8(1):45–48.
LiebermanP, CamargoCA, BohlkeK, et al. Epidemiology of anaphylaxis: findings of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Epidemiology of Anaphylaxis Working Group. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006;97(5):596–602.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Anaphylaxis: assessment to confirm an anaphylactic episode and the decision to refer after emergency treatment for a suspected anaphylactic episode. (Clinical guideline 134.) 2011.http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG134.
PumphreyRS.Lessons for management of anaphylaxis from a study of fatal reactions. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30(8):1144–1150.
SampsonHA, Muñoz-FurlongA, CampbellRL, et al. Second symposium on the definition and management of anaphylaxis: summary report – Second National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network symposium. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;117(2):391–397.
SampsonHA, MendelsonL, RosenJP.Fatal and near-fatal anaphylactic reactions to food in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med 1992;327(6):380–384.

Further reading

HandlerSD.Stridor. In FleisherGR, LudwigS. (eds.), Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1993.
MaloneyE, MeakinGH.Acute stridor in children. Contin Educ AnaesthCrit Care Pain 2007;7(6):183–186.
RobinsonD.Airway management. In MortonN. (ed.), Paediatric Intensive Care. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
SamuelsM, WieteskaS.Advanced Paediatric Life Support: the practical approach/Advanced Life Support Group, 5th edn. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

Further reading

CookTM, WoodallN, FrerkC. Fourth National Audit Project. Major complications of airway management in the UK: results of the Fourth National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Difficult Airway Society. Part 1: anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 2011;106:617–631.
CookTM, WoodallN, HarperJ, BengerJ. Fourth National Audit Project. Major complications of airway management in the UK: results of the Fourth National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Difficult Airway Society. Part 2: intensive care and emergency departments. Br J Anaesth 2011;106:632–642.
CoteCJ, HartnickCJ. Pediatric transtracheal and cricothyrotomy airway devices for emergency use: which are appropriate for infants and children?Pediatr Anesth 2009:19(Suppl.1):66–76.
WalkerRWM, EllwoodJ. The management of difficult intubation in children. Pediatr Anesth 2009;19(Suppl. 1):77–87.
WeissM, EngelhardtT.Proposal for the management of the unexpected difficult pediatric airway. Pediatr Anesth 2010;20:454–464.

Further reading

CurryR, HollingworthW, EllenbogenR, et al. Incidence of hypo-hypercarbia in severe traumatic brain injury before and after 2003 pediatric guidelines. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2008;9:141–146.
KirkhamFJ.Non-traumatic coma in children. Arch Dis Child 2001;85(4):303–312.
KochanekPM, et al. Guidelines for the acute medical management of severe traumatic brain injury in infants, children, and adolescents – second edition. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2012;13 Suppl 1:S1–82.
TaskerRC, LutmanD, PetersMJ.Hyperventilation in severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2005;6(4):405–411.

Further reading

Advanced Paediatric Life Support: The Practical Approach, 5th edn. London: BMJ Books, 2011.
British Burn Association. Emergency management of severe burns course manual, UK version.
FenlonS, NeneS.Burns in children. CEACCP 2007;7(3):76–80.
HettiaratchyS.ABC of Burns. London: BMJ Publishing, 2004.
YoungA.The management of severe burns in children. Curr Paediatr 2004;14:202–207.

Further reading

Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. Blood transfusion and the anaesthetist: management of massive haemorrhage. Anaesthesia 2010;65:1153–1161.
British Committee for Standards in Haematology. Transfusion guidelines for neonates and older children. Brit J Haematol 2004;124:433–453 (amended in 2005 and 2007). http://www.bcshguidelines.com/4_HAEMATOLOGY_GUIDELINES.html.
McLellandDBL (ed.). Handbook of Transfusion Medicine, 4th edn. NHS Blood and Transplant. London: The Stationery Office, 2007. http://www.transfusionguidelines.org.uk/.