Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2017
  • Online publication date: July 2017

Chapter 10 - Evidence of American Regional Dialects in Early Recordings

Ayres, Harry M. and Greet, W. Cabell 1930. American speech records at Columbia University. American Speech 5(5): 333358.
Bailey, Guy 1997. When did Southern American English begin? In Schneider, Edgar W. (ed.) Englishes around the World: Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 255275.
Boberg, Charles 2001. The phonological status of western New England. American Speech 76(1): 329.
Durian, David 2012. A new perspective on vowel variation across the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in Columbus, OH. PhD dissertation: The Ohio State University.
Evanini, Keelan 2009. The permeability of dialect boundaries: A case study of the region surrounding Erie, Pennsylvania. PhD Dissertation: University of Pennsylvania.
Fogel, Deena 2008. Indianapolis, Indiana: A prototype of Midland convergence. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 14(1). 135148. URL:
Gibson, Campbell 1998. Population of the 100 largest cities and other urban places in the United States: 1790–1990. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division Working Paper No. 27. URL:
Gordon, Matthew J. 2001. Small-Town Values and Big-City Vowels: A Study of the Northern Cities Shift in Michigan. Publication of the American Dialect Society 84. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Gordon, Matthew J. 2012. English in the United States. In Hickey, Raymond (ed.) Areal Features of the Anglophone World. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 109132.
Gordon, Matthew J. and Christopher, Strelluf 2016. Working the early shift: Older Inland Northern speech and the beginnings of the Northern Cities Shift. Journal of Linguistic Geography. 4: 116.
Johnstone, Barbara, Bhasin, Neeta and Wittkofski, Denise 2002. ‘Dahntahn’ Pittsburgh: Monophthongal /aw/ and representations of localness in southwestern Pennsylvania. American Speech 77(2): 148166.
Kurath, Hans 1949. A Word Geography of the Eastern United States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Kurath, Hans and McDavid, Raven I., Jr 1961. The Pronunciation of English in the Atlantic States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Labov, William 1994. Principles of Linguistic Change. Vol. I: Internal Factors. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Labov, William 2010. Principles of Linguistic Change. Vol. III: Cognitive and Cultural Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
Labov, William, Ash, Sharon and Boberg, Charles 2006. Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology, and Sound Change. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Labov, William, Yaeger, Malcah and Steiner, Richard 1972. A Quantitative Study of Sound Change in Progress. Philadelphia: US Regional Survey.
Lenzo, Kevin 2010. CMU Pronouncing Dictionary. (accessed 17 September 2013)
Lippi-Green, Rosina 2012. English with an Accent, 2nd edn. London: Routledge.
Lobanov, Boris M. 1971. Classification of Russian vowels spoken by different speakers. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 49(2B): 606608.
McCarthy, Corrine 2010. The Northern Cities Shift in real time: Evidence from Chicago. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 15(2): 101110.
Montgomery, Michael and Eble, Connie 2004. Historical perspectives on the pen/pin merger in Southern American English. In Curzan, Anne and Emmons, Kim (eds.) Studies in the History of the English Language. Vol. II: Conversations between Past and Present. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 429449.
Rosenfelder, Ingrid, Fruehwald, Joe, Evanini, Keelan and Yuan, Jiahong 2011. FAVE (Forced Alignment and Vowel Extraction) Program Suite. (accessed 17 September 2013)
Sankoff, Gillian and Blondeau, Hélène 2007. Language change across the lifespan: /r/ in Montreal French. Language 83: 560588.
Strelluf, Christopher 2014. ‘We have such a normal, non-accented voice’: A sociophonetic study of English in Kansas City. PhD dissertation: University of Missouri.
Thomas, Erik R. 2010. A longitudinal analysis of the durability of the Northern-Midland dialect boundary in Ohio. American Speech 85(4): 375430.
Thomas, Erik R. 2011. Sociophonetics: An Introduction. London: Palgrave.
Wells, J. C. 1982. The Accents of English. Vol. I: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press.