Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2020
  • Online publication date: September 2020

Chapter Seven - Life in the extreme environments of our planet under pressure

from Part III - Life in extreme environments and the responses to change: the example of polar environments

Summary

In 2007, a report from the European Science Foundation on Investigating Life in Extreme Environments defined extreme environments as ‘having one or more environmental parameters showing values permanently close to lower or upper limits known for life in its various forms’ (CAREX, 2011).

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Ackerly, D.D., Loarie, S.R., Cornwell, W.K., et al. (2010). The geography of climate change: implications for conservation biogeography. Diversity and Distribution, 16, 476487; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2010.00654.x
Aitken, S.N., Bemmels, J.B. (2015). Time to get moving: assisted gene flow of forest trees. Evolutionary Applications, 9, 271290.
Aitken, S.N., Yeaman, S., Holliday, J.A., Wang, T., Curtis‐McLane, S. (2008). Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations. Evolutionary Applications, 1(1), 95111; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752–4571.2007.00013.
Albertson, R.C., Cresko, W., Detrich, H.W., Postlethwait, J.H. (2009). Evolutionary mutant models for human disease. Trends in Genetics, 25, 7481.
Altman, A., Hasegawa, P.M. (2012). Introduction to plant biotechnology 2011: basic aspects and agricultural implications. In: Altman, A, Hasegawa, P.M. (eds) Plant Biotechnology and Agriculture: Prospects for the 21st Century. Elsevier and Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 1586.
Andrady, A., Aucamp, P.J., Austin, A.T., Bais, A.F., Ballaré, C.L. (2016). Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, 15, 141174.
Anonymous (2009). Convention on Biological Diversity. Website. www.cbd.int/
Antony, C.P., Cockell, C.S., Shouche, Y.S. (2012). Life in (and on) the rocks. Journal of Biosciences, 37, 311.
Augé, R.M. (2001). Water relations, drought and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Mychorriza, 11, 342.
Battaglia, M., Covarrubias, A.A. (2013). Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes. Frontiers in Plant Science, 4; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2013.00190. eCollection 2013.
Beckett, M., Loreto, F., Velikova, V., et al. (2012). Photosynthetic limitations and volatile and non-volatile isoprenoids in the poikilochlorophyllous resurrection plant Xerophyta humilis during dehydration and rehydration. Plant Cell Environment, 35, 20612074.
Bell, G., Collins, S. (2008). Adaptation, extinction and global change. Evolutionary Applications, 1(1), 316; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2007.00011.x.
Bellard, C., Bertelsmeier, C., Leadley, P., Thuiller, W., Courchamp, F. (2012). Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity. Ecology Letters, 15, 365377; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01736.x
Bjorkman, A.D., Vellend, M., Frei, E.R., Henry, G.H.R. (2016). Climate adaptation is not enough: warming does not facilitate success of southern tundra plant populations in the high Arctic. Global Change Biology, 23, 15401551; https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13417.
Blum, A. (2017). Osmotic adjustment is a prime drought stress adaptive engine in support of plant production. Plant Cell Environment, 40(1), 4–10; https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.12800.
Bossdorf, O., Richards, C.L., Pigliucci, M. (2008). Epigenetics for ecologists. Ecology Letters, 11, 106115.
Bressan, R.A., Reddy, M.P., Chung, S.O., et al. (2012). Stress-adapted extremophiles provide energy without interference with food production. Food Security, 3, 93105.
Bush, M.B., Silman, M.R., Urrego, D.H. (2004). 48,000 years of climate and forest change in a biodiversity hot spot. Science, 303, 827829.
Callaghan, T.V., Bjorn, L.O., Chernov, Y., et al. (2004). Biodiversity, distributions and adaptations of arctic species in the context of environmental change. Ambio, 33, 404417.
CAREX (2011). CAREX Roadmap for Research on Life in Extreme Environments. CAREX Publication no. 9, pp. 140. Available at: www.carex-eu.org/
Carlson, C.J., Burgio, K.R., Dougherty, E.R., et al. (2017). Parasite biodiversity faces extinction and redistribution in a changing climate. Science Advances, 3(9), e1602422.
Cavicchioli, R., Siddiqui, K.S., Andrews, D., Sowers, K.R. (2002). Low-temperature extremophiles and their applications. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 13, 253261.
Chapelle, G., Peck, L.S. (1999). Polar gigantism dictated by oxygen availability. Nature, 399, 114115.
Chaves, M.M., Maroco, J.P., Pereira, J.S. (2003). Understanding plant responses to drought – from genes to the whole plant. Functional Plant Biology, 30, 239264.
Chen, I.-C., Hill, J.K., Ohlemüller, R., Roy, D.B., Thomas, C.D. (2011). Rapid range shifts of species associated with high levels of climate warming. Science, 333, 10241026.
Cheung, W.W.L., Lam, V.W.Y., Sarmiento, J.L., et al. (2009). Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios. Fish and Fisheries, 10, 235251.
Chevin, L.-M., Gallet, R., Gomulkiewicz, R., Holt, R.D., Fellous, S. (2013). Phenotypic plasticity in evolutionary rescue experiments. Phylosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 368, 20120089; https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2012.0089.
Chinnusamy, W., Zhu, J.-K. (2009). Epigenetic regulation of stress responses in plants. Current Opinions in Plant Biology, 12, 133139.
Chown, S.L., Brooks, C.M., Terauds, A., et al. (2017). Antarctica and the strategic plan for biodiversity. PLoS Biology, 15(3), e2001656. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2001656.
Christmas, M.J., Breed, M.F., Lowe, A.J. (2016). Constraints to and conservation implications for climate change adaptation in plants. Conservation Genetics, 17, 305320.
Clark, M.S., Peck, L.S. (2009). HSP70 Heat shock proteins and environmental stress in Antarctic marine organisms: a mini-review. Marine Genomics, 2, 1118.
Clark, M.S., Husmann, G., Thorne, M.A.S., et al. (2013). Hypoxia impacts large adults first: consequences in a warming world. Global Change Biology, 19, 22512263.
Clark, M.S., Thorne, M.A.S., King, M., et al. (2018). Life in the intertidal: cellular responses, methylation and epigenetics. Functional Ecology, 32, 19821994.
Clarke, A., Griffith, H.J., Linse, K., Crame, J.A. (2007). How well do we know the Antarctic marine fauna? A preliminary study of macroecological and biogeographic patterns in Southern Ocean gastropod and bivalve molluscs. Diversity and Distributions, 13(5), 620632; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2007.00380.x
Cocca, E., Ratnayake-Lecamwasam, M., Parker, S.K., et al. (1995). Genomic remnants of α-globin genes in the hemoglobinless Antarctic icefishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 92, 18171821.
Coker, J.A. (2016). Extremophiles and biotechnology: current uses and prospects. F1000 Research, Faculty Reviews-396; https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.7432.1. eCollection 2016.
Colwell, R.K., Brehm, G.,Cardelús, C.L., Gilman, A.C., Longino, J.C. (2008). Global warming, elevational range shifts, and lowland biotic attrition in the wet tropics. Science, 322, 258261.
Considine, M.J., Considine, J.A. (2016). On the language and physiology of dormancy and quiescence in plants. Journal of Experimental Botany, 67, 31893203; https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erw138.
Dalmaso, G.Z.L., Ferreira, D., Vermelho, A.B. (2015). Marine extremophiles: A source of hydrolases for biotechnological applications. Marine Drugs, 13, 1925 –1965.
Danovaro, R., Corinaldesi, C., Dell’Anno, A., Rastelli, E. (2017). Potential impact of global climate change on benthic deep-sea microbes. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 364(23); https://doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnx214..
Das, K., Roychoudhury, A. (2014). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and response of antioxidants as ROS-scavengers during environmental stress in plants. Frontiers in Environmental Science; https://doi.org 10.3389/fenvs.2014.00053.
De Micco, V., Aronne, G. (2012). Morpho-anatomical traits for plant adaptation to drought. In: R. Aroca (ed.) Plant Responses to Drought Stress. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp. 3762; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32653-0_1.
de Pascale, D., De Santi, C., Fu, J., Landfald, B. (2012). The microbial diversity of Polar environments is a fertile ground for bioprospecting. Marine Genomics, 8, 1522.
De Vries, A.L., Cheng, C.-H.C. (2005). Antifreeze proteins and organismal freezing avoidance in polar fishes. In: Farrell, A.P., Steffensen, J.F. (eds) The Physiology of Polar Fishes, Vol. 22. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 155201.
Dhamankar, H., Prather, K.L.J. (2011). Microbial chemical factories: recent advances in pathway engineering for synthesis of value added chemicals. Current Opinion in Structural Biology, 21, 488494.
Di Fraia, R., Wilquet, V., Ciardiello, M.A., et al. (2000). NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in the Antarctic psychrotolerant bacterium Psychrobacter sp. TAD1. European Journal of Biochemistry, 267, 121131.
di Prisco, G., Cocca, E., Parker, S., Detrich, H. (2002). Tracking the evolutionary loss of hemoglobin expression by the white-blooded Antarctic icefishes. Gene, 295, 185191.
di Prisco, G., Convey, P., Gutt, J., Cowan, D., Conlan, K., Verde, C. (2012a). Understanding and protecting the world’s biodiversity: The role and legacy of the SCAR programme ‘Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic’. Marine Genomics, 8, 38.
di Prisco, G., Giordano, D., Russo, R., Verde, C. (2012b). The challenges of low temperature in the evolution of bacteria. In: di Prisco, G, Verde, C (eds) Pole to Pole, Adaptation and Evolution in Marine Environments, Vol. 1. A book series on the scientific achievements of environmental research during the International Polar Year (IPY). Springer, pp. 183195.
Dirnböck, T., Essl, F., Rabitsch, W. (2011). Disproportional risk for habitat loss of high-altitude endemic species under climate change. Global Change Biology, 17, 990996.
Dobrowski, S.Z., Abatzoglou, J., Swanson, A.K., et al. (2013). The climate velocity of the contiguous United States during the 20th century. Global Change Biology, 19, 241251; https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12026
Duman, J.G., Olsen, T.M. (1993). Thermal hysteresis protein activity in bacteria, fungi, and phylogenetically diverse plants. Cryobiology, 30, 322328.
Dunton, K. (1992). Arctic biogeography – The paradox of the marine benthic fauna and flora. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 7, 183189.
Duplantis, B.N., Osusky, M., Schmerk, C.L., et al. (2010). Essential genes from Arctic bacteria used to construct stable, temperature-sensitive bacterial vaccines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 107, 1345613460.
Easterling, D.R., Meehl, G.A., Parmesan, C., et al. (2000). Climate extremes: observations, modeling, and impacts. Science, 289, 20682074.
Ekblom, R., Galindo, J. (2011). Applications of next generation sequencing in molecular biology of non-model organisms. Heredity, 107, 115.
Fox-Powell, M.G., Hallsworth, J.E., Cousins, C.R., Cockell, C.S. (2016). Ionic strength is a barrier to the habitability of Mars. Astrobiology, 16, 427442. https://doi.org/10.1089/ast.2015.1432.
Gomes, J., Steiner, W. (2004). The biocatalytic potential of extremophiles and extremozymes. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 42, 223235.
Grace, J., Berninger, F., Nagy, L. (2002). Impacts of climate change on the tree line. Annals of Botany, 90, 537544.
Graham, J.E., Clark, M.E., Nadler, D.C., et al. (2011). Identification and characterization of a multidomain hyperthermophilic cellulase from an archaeal enrichment. Nature Communications, 2, 375; https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1373.
Gribaldo, S., Brochier-Armanet, C. (2006). The origin and evolution of Archaea: a state of the art. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 361, 10071022.
Gunderson, L.H. (2000). Ecological resilience – in theory and application. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31, 425439.
Gutt, J., Isla, E., Bertler, A.N., et al. (2018). Cross-disciplinarity in the advance of Antarctic ecosystem research. Marine Genomics, 37, 1–18; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margen.2017.09.006.
Hamilton, J.A., Miller, J.M. (2015). Adaptive introgression as a resource for management and genetic conservation in a changing climate. Conservation Biology, 30, 3341; https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12574.
Hampe, A. (2011). Plants on the move: the role of seed dispersal and initial population establishment for climate-driven range expansion. Acta Oecologica, 37, 666673.
Hansen, J., Sato, M., Ruedy, R., Lo, K., Lea, D.W., Medina-Elizade, M. (2006). Global temperature change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the USA, 103, 1428814293.
Harrison, J.P., Gheeraert, N., Tsigelnitskiy, D., Cockell, C.S. (2013). The limits for life under multiple extremes. Trends in Microbiology, 21, 204212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim2013.01.006.
Hasselmann, K., Latif, M., Hooss, G. et al. (2003). The challenge of long-term climate change. Science, 302, 1923–1925.
Hewitt, G. (2000). The genetic legacy of the Quaternary ice ages. Nature, 405, 907913.
Hoffman, J.I., Clarke, A., Linse, K., Peck, L.S. (2011). Effects of brooding and broadcasting reproductive modes on the population genetic structure of two Antarctic gastropod molluscs. Marine Biology, 158, 287296.
Hooper, D.U., Adair, E.C., Cardinale, B.J., et al. (2012). A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change. Nature, 486, 105109.
Hughes, I.I. (2000). Biological consequences of global warming: is the signal already apparent?Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15(2), 5661.
IPCC (2014). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the First Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Edited by Core Writing Team,Pachauri, R.K.,Meyer, L.A.. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland.
Johannessen, O.M., Bengtsson, L., Miles, M.W., et al. (2004). Arctic climate change: observed and modelled temperature and sea-ice variability. Tellus, 56A, 328341.
Johnston, I.A., Fernandez, D.A., Calvo, J., et al. (2003). Reduction in muscle fibre number during the adaptive radiation of notothenioid fishes: a phylogenetic perspective. Journal of Experimental Biology, 206, 25952609.
Joseph, B., Ramteke, P.W., Thomas, G. (2008). Cold active microbial lipases: Some hot issues and recent developments. Biotechnology Advances, 26, 457470.
Kapsenberg, L., Kelley, A.L., Shaw, E.C., et al. (2015). Near-shore Antarctic pH variability has implications for the design of ocean acidification experiments. Scientific Reports, 5, 10497; https://doi.org/10.1038/srep10497.
Klanderud, K., Birks, H.J.B. (2003). Recent increases in species richness and shifts in altitudinal distributions of Norwegian mountain plants. Holocene, 13, 16.
Kremer, A., Ronce, O., Robledo-Arnuncio, J.J., et al. (2012). Long-distance gene flow and adaptation of forest trees to rapid climate change. Ecology Letters, 15, 378392.
Kristensen, T.N., Ketola, T., Kronholm, I. (2018). Adaptation to environmental stress at different timescales. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13974. [Epub ahead of print].
Lawyer, F.C., Stoffel, S., Saiki, R.K., et al. (1993). High-level expression, purification, and enzymatic characterization of full-length Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase and a truncated form deficient in 5’ to 3’ exonuclease activity. Genome Research, 2, 275287.
Leary, D. (2008). Bioprospecting in the Arctic. United Nations University Institute of Advanced Study Report (UNU-IAS 2008 report), Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Japan, pp. 145.
Li, H., Wei, J.C. (2016). Functional analysis of thioredoxin from the desert lichen-forming fungus, Endocarpon pusillum Hedwig, reveals its role in stress tolerance. Scientific Reports, 6, Article number 27184; https://doi.org/10.1038/srep27184.
Li, S.-J., Hua, Z.-S., Huang, L.N., et al. (2014). Microbial communities evolve faster in extreme environments. Scientific Reports, 4, Article number 6205.
Liszka, M.J., Clark, M.E., Schneider, E., Clark, D.S. (2012). Nature versus nurture: developing enzymes that function under extreme conditions. Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 3, 77102.
López-Maury, L., Marguerat, S., Bähler, J. (2008). Tuning gene expression to changing environments: from rapid responses to evolutionary adaptation. Nature Reviews Genetics, 9, 583593; https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg2398.
Lunine, J.L. (2006). Physical conditions on the early Earth. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 361, 17211731.
Maher, B. (2009). Evolution: biology’s next top model? Nature, 458, 695698.
Maksym, T. (2018). Arctic and antarctic sea ice change: contrasts, commonalities, and causes. Annual Review of Marine Science, 11; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060610.
Margesin, R., Schinner, F. (2001). Potential of halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms for biotechnology. Extremophiles, 5, 7383.
Margesin, R., Neuner, G., Storey, B. (2007). Cold-loving microbes, plants, and animals-fundamentals and applied aspects. Naturwissenschaften, 94, 7799.
Marques, C.R. (2018). Extremophilic Microfactories: applications in Metal and Radionuclide Bioremediation. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9, 1191.
Martin, T.G., Watson, J.E.M. (2016). Intact ecosystems provide best defence against climate change. Nature Climate Change, 6, 122124.
Mecklenburg, C.W., Møller, P.R., Steinke, D. (2011). Biodiversity of Arctic marine fishes: taxonomy and zoogeography. Marine Biodiversity, 41, 109140.
Meidlinger, K., Tyler, P.A., Peck, L.S. (1998). Reproductive patterns in the Antarctic brachiopod Liothyrella uva. Marine Biology, 132, 153162.
Meredith, M.P., King, J.C. (2005). Climate change in the ocean to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula during the second half of the 20th century. Geophysics Research Letters, 32, L19604.
Merilä, J., Hendry, A.P. (2014). Climate change, adaptation, and phenotypic plasticity: the problem and the evidence. Evolutionary Applications, 7, 114; https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12137.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Board (2005). Dryland systems. In: U. Safriel, Z. Adeel (Lead Authors) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp. 625656.
Moline, M.A., Karnovsky, N.J., Brown, Z., et al. (2008). High latitude changes in ice dynamics and their impact on polar marine ecosystems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1134, 267319.
Moore, S.E., Reeves, R.R. (2018). Tracking arctic marine mammal resilience in an era of rapid ecosystem alteration. PLoS Biology, 16(10); doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.2006708.
Naudts, K., Chen, Y., McGrath, M.J., et al. (2016). Europe’s forest management did not mitigate climate warming. Science, 351, 597.
Notz, D., Stroeve, J. (2016). Observed Arctic sea-ice loss directly follows anthropogenic CO2 emission. Science, 354, 747750.
Parmesan, C. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 37, 637669.
Pearson, R.G. (2006). Climate change and the migration capacity of species. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 111113.
Peck, L.S. (2011). Organisms and responses to environmental change. Marine Genomics, 4, 237243.
Peck, L.S. (2018). Antarctic marine biodiversity: adaptations, environments and responses to change. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review, 56, 105236.
Peck, L.S., Clark, M.S., Morley, S.A., Massey, A., Rossetti, H. (2009). Animal temperature limits and ecological relevance: effects of size, activity and rates of change. Functional Ecology, 23, 248253.
Peck, L.S., Barnes, D.K.A., Cook, A.J., Fleming, A.H., Clarke, A. (2010a). Negative feedback in the cold: ice retreat produces new carbon sinks in Antarctica. Global Change Biology, 16, 26142623; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02071.
Peck, L.S., Morley, S.A., Clark, M.S. (2010b). Poor acclimation capacities in Antarctic marine ectotherms. Marine Biology, 157, 20512059.
Peck, L.S., Morley, S.A., Richard, J., Clark, M.S. (2014). Acclimation and thermal tolerance in Antarctic marine ectotherms. Journal of Experimental Biology, 217, 1622.
Pedersen, M.W., Ruter, A., Schweger, C., et al. (2016). Postglacial viability and colonization in North America’s ice-free corridor. Nature, 537, 4549.
Pellissier, L., Bronken Eidesen, P., Ehrich, D., et al. (2016). Past climate-driven range shifts and population genetic diversity in arctic plants. Journal of Biogeography, 43, 461470.
Petersen, J.M., Dubilier, N. (2009). Methanotrophic symbioses in marine invertebrates. Environmental Microbiology Reports, 1(5), 319335; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1758-2229.2009.00081.x.
Petit, R.J., Hampe, A. (2006). Some evolutionary consequences of being a tree. Annual Reviews of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 37, 187214.
Pörtner, H.-O., Farrell, A.P. (2008). Physiology and climate change. Science, 322, 690692.
Pörtner, H.-O., Knust, R. (2007). Climate change affects marine fishes through the oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance. Science, 315, 9597.
Reaser, J.K., Pomerance, R., Thomas, P.O. (2000). Coral bleaching and global climate change: scientific findings and policy recommendations. Conservation Biology, 14, 15001511.
Rintoul, S.R., Chown, S.L., DeConto, R.M., et al. (2018). Choosing the future of Antarctica. Nature, 558, 233241. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0173-4.
Rogers, A.D. (2007). Evolution and biodiversity of Antarctic organisms: a molecular perspective. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 362, 21912214.
Rothschild, L.J., Mancinelli, R.L. (2001). Life in extreme environments. Nature, 409, 10921101.
Runting, R.K., Bryan, B.A., Dee, L.E., et al. (2017). Incorporating climate change into ecosystem service assessments and decisions: a review. Global Change Biology, 23, 2841; https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13457.
Seufferheld, M.J., Alvarez, H.M., Farias, M.E. (2008). Role of polyphosphates in microbial adaptation to extreme environments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74, 58675874; https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00501-08.
Siddiqui, K.S., Cavicchioli, R. (2006). Cold-adapted enzymes. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 75, 403433.
Smetacek, V., Nicol, S. (2005). Polar ocean ecosystems in a changing world. Nature, 437, 362368.
Smith, W.O., Jr, Ainley, D.G., Arrigo, K.R., Dinniman, M.S. (2014). The oceanography and ecology of the Ross Sea Annual Review of Marine Science, 6, 469487.
Somero, G.N. (2010). The physiology of climate change: how potentials for acclimatization and genetic adaptation will determine ‘winners’ and ‘losers’. Journal of Experimental Biology, 213, 912920.
Somero, G.N. (2012). The physiology of global change: linking patterns to mechanisms. Annual Review of Marine Science, 4, 3961.
Taylor, B.L., Chivers, S.J., Larese, J., Perrin, W.F. (2007). Generation length and percent mature estimates for IUCN assessments of cetaceans. Administrative Report LJ-07–01, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, 8604 La Jolla Shores Blvd., La Jolla, CA 92038, USA.
Thomas, C.D., Cameron, A., Green, R.E., et al. (2004). Extinction risk from climate change. Nature, 427, 145148.
Thuiller, W. (2003). BIOMOD: optimising predictions of species distributions and projecting potential future shifts under global change. Global Change Biology, 9, 13531362.
Thuiller, W. (2004). Patterns and uncertainties of species’ range shifts under climate change. Global Change Biology, 10, 20202027.
Thuiller, W., Lavorel, S., Arau, M.B., Sykes, M.T., Prentice, I.C. (2005). Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 102, 82458250.
Travis, J.M.J. (2003). Climate change and habitat destruction: a deadly anthropogenic cocktail. Proceedings of the Royal Society B – Biological Science, 270, 467473.
Verde, C., di Prisco, G., Giordano, D., Russo, R., Anderson, D., Cowan, D. (2012). Antarctic psychrophiles: models for understanding the molecular basis of survival at low temperature and responses to climate change. Biodiversity, 13, 349356.
Verde, C., Giordano, D., Bellas, C.M., di Prisco, G., Anesio, A.M. (2016). Polar marine microorganisms and climate change. Advances in Microbial Physiology, 69, 187215.
Volis, S., Ormanbenkova, D., Shulgina, I. (2016). Role of selection and gene flow in population differentiation at the edge vs. interior of the species range differing in climatic conditions. Molecular Ecology, 25, 14491464.
Walker, M.D., Wahren, C.H., Hollister, R.D., et al. (2006). Plant community responses to experimental warming across the tundra biome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103, 13421346.
Walther, G.-R. (2010). Community and ecosystem responses to recent climate change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Biological Sciences B, 365, 20192024; https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0021.
Walther, G.-R., Post, E., Convey, P., et al. (2002). Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature, 416, 389395.
Weber, W., Fussenegger, M. (2012). Emerging biomedical applications of synthetic biology. Nature Reviews Genetics, 13, 2135.
Wenzel, L., Gilbert, N., Goldsworthy, L., et al. (2016). Polar opposites? Marine conservation tools and experiences in the changing Arctic and Antarctic: Marine Conservation Tools and Experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic. Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 26(S2), 6184; https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2649.
Wilkins, D., Yau, S., Williams, T.J., et al. (2013). Key microbial drivers in Antarctic aquatic environments. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 37(3), 303–303; https://doi.org/10.1111/1574-6976.12007.
Zhu, K., Woodall, C., Clark, J.S. (2012). Failure to migrate: lack of tree range expansion in response to climate change. Global Change Biology, 18, 10421052.
Zona, D., Gioli, B., Commane, R., et al. (2016). Cold season emissions dominate the Arctic tundra methane budget. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 113, 4045; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1516017113.