Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: July 2014

7 - Persons not deserving protection

Summary

This chapter takes up the provisions of the Convention that deem some persons who face the real chance of being persecuted nonetheless to be undeserving of international protection. Inspired by the prohibition in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on the granting of asylum “in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations” and following the precedent of the Constitution of the International Refugee Organization, persons seeking to evade legitimate prosecution or punishment for serious domestic crimes, those who have committed serious international crimes, and anyone who is guilty of actions contrary to the principles and purposes of the UN must be denied refugee status.

The decision to exclude these three limited categories of persons from refugee status – even assuming they face the real chance of being persecuted – followed in part from concern to ensure that serious criminals not be able to evade prosecution and punishment for their crimes by claiming asylum. But most fundamentally, the drafters were persuaded that if state parties were expected to admit serious criminals as refugees, they would simply not be willing to be bound to the Convention. France, the most ardent advocate of this view, insisted that the right to exclude limited categories of serious criminals from refugee status was “a prime factor in determining France’s attitude towards the Convention as a whole.” The Yugoslav drafter feared that without a rule on exclusion “there would be a good chance that [his government] would be unable to sign the Convention.” Even the British and Belgian representatives, despite their initial opposition to such a provision, ultimately conceded that the exclusion of serious criminals from refugee status was necessary “to promote maximum adherence to the Convention” and “to make the Convention acceptable to as large a number of governments as possible.” Thus, as the Court of Justice of the European Union determined, the fundamental purpose of Art. 1(F) is essentially instrumentalist, to “maintain the credibility of the protection system.”

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
J. Rikhof, The Criminal Refugee: The Treatment of Asylum Seekers with a Criminal Background in International and Domestic Law (2012)
Ad Hoc Committee on Statelessness and Related Problems, Corrigendum to the Proposal for a Draft Convention Submitted by France, UN Doc. E/AC.32/L.3/Corr.1 (Jan. 18, 1950)
Zrig v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2003]
Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration) v. Mehmet, [1992] 2 FC 598 (Can. FCA, Apr. 1, 1992)
UNHCR, Guidelines on International Protection No. 5: Application of the Exclusion Clauses: Article 1F of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, UN Doc. HCR/GIP/03/05 (Sept. 4, 2003)
Suresh v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2002] 1 SCR 3 (Can. SC, Jan. 11, 2002)
Bundesrepublik Deutschland v. B and D, C-57/09 and C-101/09, [2010] ECR I-10979 (CJEU, Nov. 9, 2010), at [115]; see also Ezokola v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2013] SCC 40 (Can. SC, Jul. 19, 2013)
Mehmet (Can. FCA, 1992)
Scalia, J. observed that refugee status is about more than simply identifying culpability; it also reflects “a more general consideration: desirability”: Negusie v. Holder, Attorney General, (2009) 555
Attorney General (Minister of Immigration) v. Tamil X, [2011] 1 NZLR 721 (NZSC, Aug. 27, 2010)
Pushpanathan v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1998] 1 SCR 982 (Can. SC, Jun. 4, 1998)
Al-Sirri v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2012] 3 WLR 1263 (UKSC, Nov. 21, 2012)
A (Iraq) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2006]
Tamil X (NZSC, 2010)
Ad Hoc Committee on Statelessness and Related Problems, Draft Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: Decisions of the Working Group Taken on 9 February 1950, UN Doc. E/AC.32/L.32 (Feb. 9, 1950)
Robinson, N., Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: Its History, Contents and Interpretation (1953)
Bundesrepublik (CJEU, 2010)
Bundesrepublik (CJEU, 2010)
McAdam, J., Complementary Protection in International Refugee Law (2007)
Interpreting the Refugees Convention – An Australian Contribution (2002)
Pushpanathan (Can. SC, 1998)
J. C. Hathaway, The Rights of Refugees under International Law (2005)
Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, UN Doc. HCR/IP/4/Eng/REV.3 (2011)
Zimmermann, A. and Wennholz, P., “Article 1 F (Definition of the Term ‘Refugee’/ Définition du Terme ‘Réfugié’),” in A. Zimmermann (ed.), The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol: A Commentary (2011) 579
JMS v. Secretary of State for Justice (Neth. RvS [Dutch Council of State], 1992)
Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs v. Singh, (2002) 209 CLR 533 (Aus. HC, Mar. 7, 2002)
MT (Algeria) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2008]
Gurung v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2003]
Refugee Appeal No. 76157 (NZ RSAA, Jun. 26, 2008)
Carlier, J.-Y., Droit d’asile et des réfugiés: de la protection aux droits (2008), at 243–47
RB (Algeria) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2010] 2 AC 110 (UKHL, Feb. 18, 2009)
Pushpanathan (Can. SC, 1998)
Ramirez v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1992]
Re Anwar Haddam, 2000 BIA LEXIS 20 (USBIA, Dec. 1, 2000)
Sumaida v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2000] 3 FC 66 (Can. FCA, Jan. 7, 2000)
Zrig (Can. FCA, 2003), at 840 [174]. Much the same test has been adopted in New Zealand in Tamil X (NZSC, 2010)
R (JS (Sri Lanka)) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2011] 1 AC 184 (UKSC, Mar. 17, 2010): Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
R (JS (Sri Lanka)) (UKSC, 2010)
Al-Sirri (UKSC, 2012)
Tamil X v. Refugee Status Appeals Authority, [2010]
SRYYY v. Minister for Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, (2005) 147 FCR 1 (Aus. FFC, Mar. 17, 2005)
Bundesrepublik (CJEU, 2010)
Tamil X (NZSC, 2010)
Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
Gurung (UKIAT, 2002); Tamil X (NZCA, 2009)
Tamil X (NZSC, 2010)
Bundesrepublik (CJEU, 2010)
Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
WAKN v. Minister for Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, (2004)
Cardenas v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1994]
Al-Sirri (UKSC, 2012)
Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
Darcy, S., “Defences to International Crimes,” in W. A. Schabas and N. Bernaz (eds.), Routledge Handbook of International Criminal Law (2011) 231, at 231
for which the claimant may be held responsible”: Zrig (Can. FCA, 2003)
Ward v. Canada (Attorney General), [1993] 2 SCR 689 (Can. SC, Jun. 30, 1993), at 743; affirmed in Pushpanathan (Can. SC, 1998), at 1024–25
Florea v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2005]
Ovcharuk v. Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, (1998)
Febles v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2012]
Grahl-Madsen, A., The Status of Refugees in International Law (Vol. I, 1966)
Germov, R. and Motta, F., Refugee Law in Australia (2003)
Guide to Refugee Law in Australia (2012) (“Refugee Law in Australia”), at 7–39
Jayasekara v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2009] 4 FCR 164 (Can. FCA, Dec. 17, 2008)
Febles (Can. FCA, 2012)
Zrig (Can. FCA, 2003)
Pushpanathan (Can. SC, 1998)
T v. Immigration Officer, [1996]
Bundesrepublik (CJEU, 2010)
Ovcharuk (Aus. FFC, 1998)
Tamil X (NZSC, 2010)
Ward (Can. SC, 1993)
Manuel de procédures d’asile (1996), at 144
Chan v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2000]
Pushpanathan v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1998]
Canada (Attorney General) v. Ward, [1993]
Zrig (Can. FCA, 2003)
Jayasekara (Can. FCA, 2008); Noha v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2009] FC 683 (Can. FC, Jun. 30, 2009); Hidrovo v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2010] FC 111 (Can. FC, Feb. 2, 2010); Flores v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2010]
Febles (Can. FCA, 2012)
Feimi v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2012] FCJ 1610 (Can. FCA, Dec. 7, 2012)
Tamil X (NZSC, 2010); Applicant NABD of 2001 v. Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, [2002] FCAFC 326 (Aus. FFC, Oct. 31, 2002)
AA (Exclusion Clause) Palestine, [2005]
to crimes committed whilst seeking asylum in the UK”: UK Border Agency, “Exclusion: Articles 1(F) and 33(2) of the Refugee Convention” (Apr. 2008)
Ovcharuk (Aus. FFC, 1998)
Dhayakpa v. Minister for Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, (1995) 62 FCR 556 (Aus. FC, Nov. 9, 1995), at 565; affirmed in NABD of 2001 (Aus. FFC, 2002)
Dhayakpa (Aus. FC, 1995)
Malouf v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1995] 1 FC 537 (Can. FCTD, Oct. 31, 1994), at 553; Li v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2010] 3 FCR 347 (Can. FCA, Mar. 17, 2010), at 362–63 [26]
Interpretation of the Convention Refugee Definition in the Case Law (Dec. 31, 2010)
Toal, R., Immigration Law and Practice in the United Kingdom (8th edn., 2010)
Refugee Appeal No. 76157 (NZ RSAA, 2008)
Xie v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2004] 2 FCR 372 (Can. FC, Sept. 4, 2003)
Anker, D., Law of Asylum in the United States (2011)
R v. Secretary of State for the Home Department; Ex parte Adan, [2001] 2 AC 477 (UKHL, Dec. 19, 2000)
AH (Algeria) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2012]
Rudyak v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2006]
T v. Immigration Officer (UKHL, 1996)
Pushpanathan (Can. SC, 1998)
Németh v. Canada (Minister of Justice), [2010] 3 SCR 281 (Can. SC, Nov. 25, 2010). Equally shocking is the finding in the companion case of Gavrila v. Canada (Minister of Justice), [2010]
Gil v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1995]
Cherif Bassiouni, M., International Extradition: United States Law and Practice (1996)
Norris v. Government of the United States of America (No. 2), [2010] 2 AC 487 (UKSC, Feb. 24, 2010)
Barapind v. Attorney General, (2000)
Goodwin-Gill, G. S. and McAdam, J., The Refugee in International Law (3rd edn., 2007)
Brzezinski v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1998]
G. Gilbert, Transnational Fugitive Offenders in International Law: Extradition and Other Mechanisms (1998), at 104–12
United States of America v. Cullinane, [2003]
Biron, H. C. and Chalmers, K. E., The Law and Practice of Extradition (1903), at 11
Xie v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2005] 1 FCR 304 (Can. FCA, Jun. 30, 2004)
Tantoush v. Refugee Appeal Board, [2007] ZAGPHC 191 (SA HC, Sept. 11, 2007)
S v. Refugee Status Appeals Authority, [1998] 2 NZLR 291 (NZCA, Apr. 2, 1998)
AH (Algeria) (Eng. CA, 2012), at 3486 [52], citing in support Bundesrepublik (CJEU, 2010)
Bundesrepublik (CJEU, 2010)
S v. Refugee Status Appeals Authority (NZCA, 1998)
Re YYMT and FRFJ, (2010) 115 ALD 590 (Aus. AAT, Jun. 16, 2010)
Jayasekara (Can. FCA, 2008)
Chan (Can. FCA, 2000)
H, 319840 (Fr. CE [French Council of State], Apr. 7, 2010)
Refugee Appeal No. 76157 (NZ RSAA, 2008), at [196]–[200]
SRCCCC v. Minister for Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, [2004] AATA 315 (Aus. AAT, Mar. 26, 2004)
AH (Algeria) (Eng. CA, 2012)
R (Government of the United States of America) v. Bow Street Magistrates’ Court, [2007] 1 WLR 1157 (Eng. HC, Sept. 6, 2006)
T v. Immigration Officer (UKHL, 1996)
Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Aguirre-Aguirre, (1999)
Barapind (USCA, 9th Cir., 2000)
Tamil X (NZSC, 2010)
A v. Swiss Federal Office for Migration, E-7449/2009 (Sw. BverwG [Swiss Federal Administrative Court], Sept. 20, 2011)
Singh v. Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, (2000) 102 FCR 51 (Aus. FFC, Aug. 15, 2000); Singh (Aus. HC, 2002)
10 C 48.07 (Ger. BverwG [German Federal Administrative Court], Oct. 14, 2008); 10 C 24.08 (Ger. BverwG, Nov. 24, 2009); 10 C 7.09 (Ger. BverwG, Feb. 16, 2010)
T v. Immigration Officer (UKHL, 1996)
Gonzalez v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1994]
Aguirre-Aguirre (USSC, 1999)
Singh (Aus. HC, 2002)
T v. Immigration Officer (UKHL, 1996)
Singh (Aus. HC, 2002)
R, 594649 (Fr. CNDA [French National Court of Asylum], Jan. 15, 2009)
A v. Swiss Federal Office for Migration, E-7449/2009 (Sw. BverwG [Swiss Federal Administrative Court], Sept. 20, 2011)
Tamil X (NZSC, 2010)
Aguirre-Aguirre (USSC, 1999); Malouf v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1995] 190 NR 230 (Can. FCA, Nov. 9, 1995); Shamlou v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1995] FCJ 1537 (Can. FCTD, Nov. 15, 1995); 02-2607/F2192 (Bel. CPRR [Belgian Permanent Refugee Appeals Commission]
Aguirre-Aguirre (USSC, 1999)
Gil (Can. FCA, 1994)
T v. Immigration Officer (UKHL, 1996)
McMullen v. Immigration and Naturalization Service, (1986) 788 F.2d 591 (USCA, 9th Cir., Apr. 25, 1996)
Barapind v. Enomoto, (2005) 400 F.3d 744 (USCA, 9th Cir., Mar. 9, 2005)
T v. Immigration Officer (UKHL, 1996)
Saul, B., Defining Terrorism in International Law (2006)
Interlocutory Decision on the Applicable Law: Terrorism, Conspiracy, Homicide, Perpetration, Cumulative Charging, STL-11-01/I (UN Sp. Trib. Leb., Feb. 16, 2011)
T v. Immigration Officer (UKHL, 1996)
Bundesrepublik (CJEU, 2010)
Matthew, P., “Resolution 1373 – A Call to Pre-empt Asylum Seekers? (or ‘Osama, the Asylum Seeker’),” in J. McAdam (ed.), Forced Migration, Human Rights and Security (2008)
Ahani v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2000] FCJ 53 (Can. FCA, Jan. 18, 2000)
Council Common Position of 27 December 2001 on Combating Terrorism, 2001/930/CFSP, [2001] OJ L 344/90 (Dec. 28, 2001)
Attorney General v. Humanitarian Law Project, (2010) 130 S.Ct. 2705 (USSC, Jun. 21, 2010)
Saadi v. Italy, (2009) 49 EHRR 730 (ECtHR [GC], Feb. 28, 2008)
A v. Swiss Federal Office for Migration, E2284/2007 (Sw. BverwG, Jul. 21, 2011)
Malouf (Can. FCA, 1995); affirmed in Xie (Can. FCA, 2004) and Jayasekara (Can. FCA, 2008), at 186
Pushpanathan (Can. SC, 1998)
T v. Immigration Officer (UKHL, 1996)
S v. Refugee Status Appeals Authority (NZCA, 1998)
Tamil X (NZSC, 2010)
Aguirre-Aguirre (USSC, 1999)
NABD of 2001 (Aus. FFC, 2002), at [41]. See also Dhayakpa (Aus. FC, 1995)
Bundesrepublik (CJEU, 2010)
10 C 26.10 (Ger. BverwG [German Federal Administrative Court], Jul. 7, 2011)
Svazas v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2002] 1 WLR 1891 (Eng. CA, Jan. 31, 2002)
S v. Refugee Status Appeals Authority (NZCA, 1998)
Pushpanathan (Can. SC, 1998)
Dhayakpa (Aus. FC, 1995), at 563, per French J. See also Gonzalez (Can. FCA, 1994)
Malouf (Can. FCA, 1995)
Shamlou (Can. FCTD, 1995), at [49]. See also Tamil X (NZSC, 2010)
S v. Refugee Status Appeals Authority (NZCA, 1998)
Tamil X (NZCA, 2009)
Ramirez (Can. FCA, 1992)
R (JS (Sri Lanka)) (UKSC, 2010); Tamil X (NZSC, 2010); Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
Re SK, (2006)
Aiken, S., “Manufacturing ‘Terrorists’: Refugees, National Security, and Canadian Law,” (2000) 19 Refuge54
Re W97/164 v. Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, (1998) 51 ALD 432 (Aus. AAT, Jun. 10, 1998)
SRYYY (Aus. FFC, 2005); X, Turquie, 2006/29-310 (Sw. ARK/CRA [Swiss Asylum Appeal Commission], Sept. 19, 2006)
Tamil X (NZSC, 2010), at 736 [27]. While Sumaida (Can. FCA, 2000)
Rome Statute”: Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
SRYYY (Aus. FFC, 2005)
Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
Brown, B. S. (ed.), Research Handbook on International Criminal Law (2011)
Darcy, S. and Powderly, J. (eds.), Judicial Creativity at the International Criminal Tribunals (2010)
Moreno v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1995] 1 FC 298 (Can. FCA, Sept. 14, 1993)
Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
SRYYY (Aus. FFC, 2005), at 35–36
Gonzalez (Can. FCA, 1994)
Goodwin-Gill, G. S., The Refugee in International Law (1st edn., 1983), at 61–62
Amberber, 00/TH/01570 (UKIAT, Jun. 30, 2000)
Provost, R., International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law (2002)
Sivakumar v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1994]
Moreno (Can. FCA, 1993)
A v. Minister voor Immigratie, 20070207/1, [2007] LJN BA9903 (Neth. RvS [Dutch Council of State], Jul. 11, 2007)
Tagaga v. Immigration and Naturalization Service, (2000) 228 F.3d 1030 (USCA, 9th Cir., Sept. 21, 2000)
Equizabal v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1994] 3 FC 514 (Can. FCA, May 26, 1994)
SRYYY (Aus. FFC, 2005)
Manual of Military Law (1907)
Equizabal (Can. FCA, 1994)
Equizabal (Can. FCA, 1994)
Sivakumar (Can. FCA, 1993)
Re AH, (2005) 23 I & N Dec. 774 (USBIA, Jan. 26, 2005)
van Sliedregt, E., Individual Criminal Responsibility in International Law (2012)
Mendoza v. Immigration and Naturalization Service, (2001) 11 Fed. Appx. 888 (USCA, 9th Cir., Apr. 18, 2001)
Diaz v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1995] FCJ 623 (Can. FCTD, Apr. 24, 1995)
Gracias-Luna v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1995]
Cabrera v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1998] FCJ 1862 (Can. FCTD, Dec. 23, 1998)
Sumaida (Can. FCA, 2000)
Naredo v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1990]
Refugee Appeal No. 72653/01 (NZ RSAA, Sept. 6, 2002)
Torkchin v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1995] FCJ 113 (Can. FCA, Jan. 24, 1995)
Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
Moreno (Can. FCA, 1993)
Khan v. Attorney General, (2009) 584 F.3d 773 (USCA, 9th Cir., Sept. 9, 2009)
Matter of DR, [2011] 25 I & N Dec. 445 (USBIA, Apr. 6, 2011)
Bazargan v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), (1996) 205 NR 282 (Can. FCA, Sept. 18, 1996)
Ramirez (Can. FCA, 1992)
Kathiripillai v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2011] FC 1172 (Can. FC, Oct. 19, 2011)
Srour v. Canada (Solicitor General), [1995] FCJ 133 (Can. FCTD, Jan. 26, 1995), at [25], citing Penate v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1994] 2 FC 79 (Can. FCTD, Nov. 26, 1993)
Cabrera (Can. FCTD, 1998)
Refugee Appeal No. 72653/01 (NZ RSAA, 2002)
Moreno (Can. FCA, 1993)
Penate (Can. FCTD, 1993)
Zolfagharkhani v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1993]
Gutierrez v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1994] FCJ 1494 (Can. FCTD, Oct. 11, 1994); Zadeh v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1995] FCJ 94 (Can. FCTD, Jan. 21, 1995); Cabrera (Can. FCTD, 1998)
Bedoya v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2005] FC 1092 (Can. FC, Aug. 10, 2005)
Sivakumar (Can. FCA, 1993)
Mutumba v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2009] FC 19 (Can. FC, Jan. 7, 2009)
Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
R (JS (Sri Lanka)) (UKSC, 2010)
Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
Tamil X (NZSC, 2010)
Tamil X (NZSC, 2010)
R (JS (Sri Lanka)) (UKSC, 2010)
Tamil X (NZSC, 2010)
Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
Decision on the Applicability of Joint Criminal Enterprise, 002/19-09-2007/ECCC/TC (ECCC, Sept. 12, 2011)
Prosecutor v. Callixte Mbarushimana, ICC-01/04-01/10 (ICC, Dec. 16, 2011)
Cassese, A., International Criminal Law (2nd edn., 2008)
Ramirez (Can. FCA, 1992)
Ramirez (Can. FCA, 1992), at 327–28, and Florian v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2002] FCJ 322 (Can. FCTD, Mar. 1, 2002)
Sivakumar (Can. FCA, 1993)
Ezokola (Can. SC, 2013)
Hernandez v. Attorney General, (2001) 258 F.3d 806 (USCA, 8th Cir., Aug. 15, 2001)
Negusie (USSC, 2009), finding that the precedent in Fedorenko v. United States, (1981) 449 US 490 (USSC, Jan. 21, 1981)
(Parlak v. Holder, (2009) 589 F.3d 818 (USCA, 6th Cir., Nov. 24, 2009)
Abdallahi v. Holder, (2012) 690 F.3d 467 (USCA, 6th Cir., Jul. 31, 2012), at 476, citing Diaz-Zanatta v. Holder, (2009) 558 F.3d 450 (USCA, 6th Cir., Mar. 4, 2009)
Negusie (USSC, 2009)
The Flick Case,” in Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10 (Vol. VI, 1949–53), at 1201; see also “Opinion and Judgment: The Einsatzgruppen Case,” in Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10 (Vol. IV, 1949–53),
Equizabal (Can. FCA, 1994)
81962 and 81963 (Fr. CE [French Council of State], Jul. 31, 1992)
M90-07224 (Can. IRB, Aug. 19, 1991)
Aden v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1994]
Josef B v. Ministry of the Interior, 71 ILR 278 (Au. VwGH, Dec. 16, 1969)
02-2607/F2192 (Bel. CPRR, Nov. 12, 2002)
Avetisan, 303164 (Fr. CRR [French Refugee Appeals Commission], Apr. 4, 1997); B, 629222 (Fr. CNDA [French National Court of Asylum], Dec. 3, 2008)
10 C 48.07 (Ger. BverwG [German Federal Administrative Court], Oct. 14, 2008)
JMS v. Secretary of State for Justice (Neth. RvS [Dutch Council of State], 1992), reported at (1995)
Al-Sirri (UKSC, 2012); MH (Syria) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2009]
RB (Algeria) (UKHL, 2009)
Bundesrepublik (CJEU, 2010)
KJ (Sri Lanka) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2009]
Pushpanathan v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1995]
Pushpanathan (Can. SC, 1998), at 985
Al-Sirri v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2009] Imm AR 624 (Eng. CA, Mar. 18, 2009), at [51], appeal allowed in part on other grounds in Al-Sirri (UKSC, 2012)
Pushpanathan (Can. FCA, 1995)
Pushpanathan (Can. SC, 1998)
AA (UKIAT, 2005)
T, 585731 (Fr. CRR [French Refugee Appeals Commission], Oct. 17, 2006); 10 C 48.07 (Ger. BverwG [German Federal Administrative Court], Oct. 14, 2008); Bundesrepublik (CJEU, 2010)
Secretary of State for the Home Department v. DD (Afghanistan), [2010] EWCA Civ 1407 (Eng. CA, Dec. 10, 2010)
DD (Afghanistan) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2012]
Pushpanathan v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1993]
Manikkam U91-01945, [1992] 17 Imm.L. R. (2d) 236 (Can. IRB, Jul. 8, 1992)
Pushpanathan (Can. SC, 1998)
Al-Sirri (UKSC, 2012)
RB (Algeria) (UKHL, 2009)
MH (Syria) (Eng. CA, 2009)
KJ (Sri Lanka) (Eng. CA, 2009)
Atef v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1995]
Pushpanathan (Can. SC, 1998)
RB (Algeria) (UKHL, 2009)
MT (Algeria) (Eng. CA, 2007)
Pushpanathan (Can. SC, 1998)
Al-Sirri (UKSC, 2012)
JMS v. Secretary of State for Justice (Neth. RvS, 1992)
Al-Sirri (UKSC, 2012)
27479 (Bel. CCE [Belgian Council for Alien Law Litigation], May 18, 2009). See also M, 611731 (Fr. CNDA [French National Court of Asylum], Jun. 27, 2008)
Bundesrepublik (CJEU, 2010)
Al-Sirri (UKSC, 2012)
DD (Afghanistan) (Eng. CA, 2010), at 1290 [65] (appeal rejected in Al-Sirri (UKSC, 2012)
B v. Refugee Appeals Tribunal and Anor, [2011] IEHC 198 (Ir. HC, May 5, 2011)
Al-Sirri (UKSC, 2012)
Pushpanathan (Can. SC, 1998)
G. Clayton, Textbook on Immigration and Asylum Law (5th edn., 2012)