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  • Cited by 6
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: June 2011

1 - China



The People's Republic of China (hereinafter China, or PRC) is the current name of the Chinese nation which has lasted for several thousand years as a country and civilisation. China is also the world's most populous country, with a population estimated at 1.34 billion in 2009. Although officially there are 56 ethnic groups in China, Han Chinese forms about 92 per cent of the population. It is also one of the largest countries in land size, in which there are tremendous disparities among regions in economic development, culture, dialects and traditions. Although the numbers of believers of the religions Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and Taoism in China are among the world's largest, they constitute nevertheless a very small portion of the Chinese population. In fact, there has never been a dominant religion that was able to convert the majority of the Chinese people.

After several decades of rapid economic growth, China is now the world's second largest economy, simultaneously the largest exporter and second largest importer in world trade. It is also a self-proclaimed socialist state governed by one political party, the Communist Party of China (CPC or Party), which took over power in 1949 after defeating the Nationalist Party in a civil war. Chinese society has undergone tremendous change since 1949, including the socialist transformation of the economy in the 1950s, the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s and 1970s, the Tiananmen Square event in 1989, the abandonment of the planned economy in favour of capitalism, the market economy and privatisation during the reform era of 1979 to the present, accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, and the Beijing Olympics Games in 2008.

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China's Partnership Enterprise Law (1997; Rev 2006)
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Lawyers Law (1996; Rev 2007)
Legislation Law [Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Lifafa] (2000)
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Organic Law of the People's Procuratorates (1979; Rev 1983)
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