Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2020
  • Online publication date: February 2020

1 - Hunter-Gatherer Anthropology and Language

from Part I - Introduction


Foragers are often portrayed as “others” standing outside the main trajectory of human social evolution, which began with the Neolithic Revolution. In some forms of this narrative, foragers are static, left behind in the tide of history by their dynamic cousins, the farmers.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Aikhenvald, Alexandra. (2008). The Manambu language of East Sepik, Papua New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Allen, Nick J. (2004). Tetradic theory: An approach to kinship. In Parkin, R. and Stone, L. (eds.), Kinship and family: An anthropological reader. Oxford: Blackwell, 231235.
Arnold, Jeanne. (1996). The archaeology of complex hunter-gatherers. Journal of Archeological Method and Theory 3(2): 77126.
Aubin, George F. (1975). A Proto-Algonquian dictionary. National Museum of Man, Mercury Series. Canadian Ethnology Service Paper no. 29. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada.
Bahuchet, Serge. (1992). Histoire d’une civilisation forestière 1: dans la forêt d’Afrique centrale; les pygmées aka et baka. Bibliothèque de la SELAF 322. Ethnoscience 8. Leuven: Peeters.
Bahuchet, Serge. (1993). Histoire d’une civilisation forestière 2: la rencontre des agriculteurs – les pygmées parmi les peuples d’Afrique centrale. Bibliothèque de la SELAF 344. Ethnoscience 9. Leuven: Peeters.
Bahuchet, Serge. (2012). Changing language, remaining Pygmy. Human Biology 84(1): 1143. Retrieved from:
Bailey, Robert, Jenike, M., Head, L., et al. (1989). Hunting and gathering in tropical rain forest: Is it possible? American Anthropologist 91: 5592.
Barnard, Alan. (2002). The foraging mode of thought. In Stewart, Henry, Barnard, Alan, and Omura, Keiichi (eds.), Self- and other images of hunter-gatherers. Senri Ethnological Studies 60. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology, 524.
Baugh, Timothy G., and Ericson, Jonathon E. (eds.). (1994). Prehistoric exchange systems in North America. New York: Plenum Press.
Bellwood, Peter. (1999). Archaeology of Southeast Asian hunters and gatherers. In Lee, Richard B., and Daly, Richard (eds.), The Cambridge encyclopaedia of hunters and gatherers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 284288.
Bellwood, Peter. (2005a). Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis in the East Asian context. In Sagart, Laurent, Blench, Roger, and Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia (eds.), The peopling of East Asia: Putting together archaeology, linguistics and genetics. Abingdon: RoutledgeCurzon,1730.
Bellwood, Peter. (2005b). First farmers: The origins of agricultural societies. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bellwood, Peter. (2011). Holocene population history in the Pacific Region as a model for worldwide food producer dispersals. Current Anthropology 52–54: S363S378.
Bellwood, Peter. (2013). First migrants: Ancient migration in global perspective. Chichester: Wiley/Blackwell.
Bellwood, P. (ed.). (2014). The global prehistory of human migration. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 327332.
Peter, Bellwood, and Renfrew, Colin (eds.). (2002). Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis. Cambridge: MacDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge.
Bettinger, Robert. (1991). Doing Great Basin archaeology recently: Coping with variability. Journal of Archaeological Research 1: 4366.
Bettinger, Robert L. (1994). How, when, and why Numic spread. In Madsen, David B. and Rhode, David (eds.), Across the west: Human population movement and the expansion of the Numa. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 4455.
Bettinger, Robert, and Baumhoff, Martin. (1982). The Numic spread: Great Plains cultures in competition. American Antiquity 47: 485505.
Binford, Lewis. (2002). In pursuit of the past: Decoding the archaeological record. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bird, Douglas, and O’Connell, James. (2006). Behavioral ecology and archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Research 14: 143188.
Birdsell, Joseph Benjamin. (1953). Some environmental and cultural factors influencing the structuring of Australian aboriginal populations. American Naturalist 87: 171207.
Blench, Roger. (1999). Are the African Pygmies an ethnographic fiction? In Biesbrouck, H., Elders, S., and Rossel, G. (eds.), Central African hunter-gatherers in a multidisciplinary perspective: Challenging elusiveness. Leiden: Research School for Asian, African, and Amerindian Studies (CNWS), Leiden University, 4160.
Blench, Roger, and Walsh, Martin T.. (2010). The vocabularies of Vazimba and Beosi: Do they represent the languages of the pre-Austronesian populations of Madagascar? Retrieved from:
Bliege-Bird, Rebecca, Smith, Eric, and Bird, Douglas. (2001). The hunting handicap: Costly signalling in human foraging strategies. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 50: 919.
Bloomfield, Leonard. (1925). On the sound system of central Algonquian. Language 1 (4): 130156.
Blust, Robert A. (1974). The Proto-North Sarawak vowel deletion hypothesis. PhD thesis, University of Hawai‘i.
Bowern, Claire, Epps, P., Gray, R., Hill, J., McConvell, P., and Zentz, J.. (2011). Does lateral transmission obscure inheritance in hunter-gatherer languages? PLoS ONE 6(9): e25195.
Bowern, Claire, Haynie, H., Sheard, C., et al. (2014). Loan and inheritance patterns in hunter-gatherer ethnobiological systems. Journal of Ethnobiology 34(2): 195227.
Brugge, David M. (1983). Navajo prehistory and history to 1850. In Ortiz, Alfonso (vol. ed.), Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 10: Southwest. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 489501.
Burch, Ernest. (1971). The caribou/wild reindeer as a human resource. American Antiquity 37(3): 339361.
Comrie, Bernard. (2002). Farming dispersal in Europe and the spread of the Indo-European language family. In Bellwood, P. and Renfrew, C. (eds.), Examining the Farming language dispersal hypothesis. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 409419.
DeMallie, Raymond J. (vol. ed.). (2001). Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 13: Plains. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Denny, J. Peter. (1991). The Algonquian migration from plateau to midwest: Linguistics and archaeology. In Cowan, W. (ed.), Papers of the 22nd Algonquian conference. Ottawa: Carleton University, 103124.
Denny, J. Peter. (1992). The entry of the Algonquian language into the Boreal Forest. Paper read to the Canadian Archaeological Association, London, Ontario, May 1992.
Diamond, Jared M. (1997). Linguistics: The language steamrollers. Nature 389: 544546.
Diamond, Jared, and Bellwood, Peter (2003). Farmers and their languages: The first expansions. Science 300(5619): 597603.
Diebold, Richard. (1992). The traditional view of the Indo-European paleo-economy: Contradictory evidence from anthropology and linguistics. In Polome, E. and Winter, W. (eds.), Reconstructing languages and cultures. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton. 317368.
Dixon, R. M. W. (1976).Tribes, languages and other boundaries in northeast Queensland. In Peterson, Nicholas (ed.), Tribes and boundaries in Australia. Canberra: AIAS, 204238.
Dixon, R. M. W. (2002). Australian languages: Their nature and development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Doornbos, Paul, and Lionel Bender, M.. (1983). Languages of Wadai-Darfur. In Bender, M. Lionel (ed.), Nilo-Saharan language studies. Committee on Northeast African Studies Monographs 13. East Lansing: African Studies Center, Michigan State University, 4279.
Driver, Harold E. (1969). Indians of North America (2nd edn). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Driver, Harold E., and Massey, William C.. (1957). Comparative studies of North American Indians. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series 47(Pt. 2).
Ehret, Christopher. (2011). History and the testimony of language. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ellen, Roy. (1994). Modes of subsistence: Hunting and gathering to agriculture and pastoralism. In Ingold, Tim (ed.), Companion encyclopedia of anthropology: Humanity, culture and social life. London: Routledge, 197225.
Ember, Carol. (1978). Myths about hunter-gatherers. Ethnology 17: 439444.
Ember, Carol, and Ember, Melvin. (2010). Cultural anthropology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Epps, Patience. (2013). Inheritance, calquing or independent innovation? Reconstructing morphological complexity in Amazonian numerals. Journal of Language Contact 6(2): 323357.
Epps, Patience, and Stenzel, Kristine. (2013). Introduction. In Epps, Patience and Stenzel, Kristine (eds.), Upper Rio Negro: Cultural and linguistic interaction in northwestern Amazonia. Rio de Janeiro: Museu Nacional; Museu do Índio/Funai, 1350.
Evans, N., and McConvell, P.. (1998). The enigma of Pama-Nyungan expansion in Australia. In Blench, Roger and Spriggs, Matthew (eds.), Archaeology and language, Vol. 2. London: Routledge, 174191.
Feest, Christian F., and Feest, Johanna E.. (1978). Ottawa. In Trigger, Bruce G. (ed.), Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 772786.
Feit, Harvey A. (2004). Hunting and the quest for power: The James Bay Cree and Whitemen in the 20th century. In Morrison, R. Bruce and Wilson, C. Roderick (eds.), Native peoples: The Canadian experience (3rd edn). Toronto: McCelland & Stewart, 101128.
Fix, Alan. (1994). Migration and colonization in human micro-evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Flannery, Kent. (1969). Origins and ecological effects of early domestication in Iran and the Near East. In Ucko, P. and Dimbleby, G. (eds.), The domestication and exploitation of plants and animals. Chicago: Aldine, 73100.
Foley, William. (2008). The Papuan languages of New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ford, Richard I. (1981). Gardening and farming before A.D. 1000: Patterns of prehistoric cultivation north of Mexico. Journal of Ethnobiology 1(1): 627.
Fortescue, Michael. (1997). Dialect distribution and intergroup interaction in Greenlandic Eskimo. In McConvell, P. and Evans, N. (eds.), Archaeology and Linguistics: Aboriginal Australia in global perspective. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 111122.
Fowler, Melvin L., and Hall, Robert L.. (1978). Late prehistory of the Illinois area. In Trigger, Bruce G. (vol. ed.), Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15: Northeast. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 560568.
Fox, Richard G. (1969). “Professional primitives”: Hunters and gatherers of nuclear South Asia. Man in India 49(2): 139160.
Galinat, William. (1985). Domestication and diffusion of maize. In Ford, R. (ed.), Prehistoric food production in North America. Anthropological Papers, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, No. 75. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 245278.
Gibbon, Guy E., and Ames, Kenneth M. (1998). Archaeology of prehistoric Native America: An encyclopedia. New York: Routledge.
Gibson, Thomas, and Sillender, Kenneth. (2011). Anarchic solidarity: Autonomy, equality and fellowship in South-east Asia. Yale South-east Asian Studies Monographs. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Goddard, R. H. Ives. (1994). The west-to-east cline in Algonquian dialectology. In Cowan, William (ed.), Actes du 25e congrès des Algonquinistes. Ottawa: Carleton University, 187211.
Gremillion, Kristen. (2003). Eastern Woodlands overview. In Minnis, Paul E. (ed.), People and plants in ancient eastern North America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1749.
Griffin, P. Bion. (1981). Hunting, farming and sedentism in a rain-forest foraging society. In Kent, S. (ed.), Farmers as Hunters: The implications of sedetism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 6175.
Grimm, Nadine. (2015). A grammar of Gyeli. PhD thesis, Institute for Asian and African Studies, Humboldt University Berlin.
Gruhn, Ruth. (1997). Language classification and models of the peopling of the Americas. In McConvell, P. and Evans, N. (eds.), Archaeology and Linguistics: Aboriginal Australia in global perspective. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Headland, Thomas. (1986). Why foragers do not become farmers: A historical study of a changing ecosystem and its effect on a Negrito hunter-gatherer group in the Philippines. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Hawaii.
Headland, Thomas. (1987). The wild yam question: How well could independent hunter-gatherers live in a tropical rain forest ecosystem? Human Ecology 15: 463491.
Headland, Thomas N., and Reid, Lawrence. (1989). Hunter-gatherers and their neighbors from prehistory to the present. Current Anthropology 30(1): 4351.
Hill, Jane H. (1996). Languages on the land: Toward an anthropological dialectology. David Skomp Distinguished Lectures in Anthropology. Bloomington: Department of Anthropology, Indiana University.
Hill, Jane H. (2001). Proto-Uto-Aztecan. American Anthropologist New Series 103(4): 913934.
Hill, Jane H. (2008). Northern Uto-Aztecan and Kiowa-Tanoan: Evidence of contact between the Proto-languages? IJAL 74: 155188.
Hiscock, Peter. (2008). Archaeology of ancient Australia. London: Routledge.
Hoffman, Carl L. (1986). The Punan: Hunters and gatherers of Borneo. Studies in Cultural Anthropology, 12. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International Research Press.
Hunn, Eugene. (1994). Place-names, population density and the magic number 500. Current Anthropology 35(1): 8185.
Isaac, Barry. (1990). Economy, ecology and analogy: The !Kung San and the generalised foraging model. In Tankersley, K. and Isaac, B. (eds.), Early Paleoindian economies of Eastern North America. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 323335.
Ives, John. (1990). A theory of northern Athabaskan prehistory. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Kaestle, F., and Smith, D.. (2001). Ancient mitochondrial DNA evidence for prehistoric movement: The Numic expansion. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 115: 112.
Keen, Ian. (1982). How some Murngin men marry ten wives. Man New Series 17(4): 620642.
Keen, Ian. (2004). Aboriginal economy and society. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
Keen, Ian. (2006). Constraints on the development of enduring inequality in late Holocene Australia. Current Anthropology 17(1): 738.
Keen, I. (ed.) (2010). Indigenous participation in Australian economies. New South Wales: ANU Press.
Kelly, R. I. (1995). The foraging spectrum: Diversity in hunter-gatherer lifeways. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Kelly, Robert. (2003). Colonization of new land by hunter-gatherers. In Rockman, H. and Steele, J. (eds.), The colonization of unfamiliar landscapes: The archaeology of adaptation. London: Routledge, 4457.
Kennett, Douglas J., and Winterhalder, Bruce (eds.). (2006). Behavioral ecology and the transition to agriculture. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lathrap, Donald. (1968). The ‘hunting’ economies of the tropical forest zone of South America: An attempt at historical perspective. In Lee, Richard and Devore, Irven, eds. Man the hunter. Chicago: Aldine, 2329.
Layton, R., Foley, R., Williams, E., et al. (1991). The transition between hunting and gathering and the specialized husbandry of resources: A socio-biological approach. Current Anthropology 32(3): 255274.
Lee, Richard, and deVore, Irene (eds.). (1968). Man the hunter. Chicago: Aldine.
Letouzey, René. (1976). Contribution de la botanique au problème d’une éventuelle langue pygmée. Bibliothèque de la SELAF 57/8. Paris: SELAF.
Levi-Strauss, Claude. (1968). The concept of ‘primitiveness’. In Lee, Richard and Devore, Irven (eds.), Man the hunter. Chicago: Aldine, 349352.
Lourandos, Harry. (1997). Continent of hunter-gatherers: New perspectives on Australian prehistory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lovestrand, Joey. (2013). East Chadic B: Classification and description progress report. Journal of West African Languages 40(1): 105130.
Madsen, David B., and Rhode, David. (1994). Across the west: Human population movement and the expansion of the Numa. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
McConvell, Patrick. (1996). Backtracking to Babel: The chronology of Pama-Nyungan expansion in Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 31: 125144.
McConvell, Patrick. (2001). Language shift and language spread among hunter-gatherers. In Panter-Brick, C., Rowley-Conwy, P., and Layron, R. (eds.), Hunter-gatherers: Social and biological perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 143169.
McConvell, Patrick. (2009). Loanwords in Gurindji, a Pama-Nyungan language of Australia. Chapter and database in Haspelmath, M and Tadmor, U. (eds.), Loanwords in the world’s languages: A comparative handbook. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 790822.
McConvell, Patrick. (2010). The archaeolinguistics of migration. In Lucassen, J., Lucassen, L., and Manning, P. (eds.), Migration history in world history: Multidisciplinary approaches. Leiden: Brill, 151190.
McConvell, Patrick. (2013). Comment on Denham’s ‘Beyond Fictions of Closure’. Mathematical Anthropology and Cultural Theory. 5(3).
McConvell, Patrick. (2018). The birds and the bees: The origins of sections in Queensland. In McConvell, P., Kelly, P., and Lacrampe, S. (eds.), Skin, kin and clan: the dynamics of social categories in indigenous Australia. Canberra: ANU Press, 219270.
McConvell, Patrick, and Smith, Mike. (2003). Millers and mullers: The archaeolinguistic stratigraphy of seed-grinding in Central Australia. In Andersse, H. (ed.), Language contact in prehistory: Studies in stratigraphy. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 177200.
Minnis, Paul E. (ed.). (2003). People and plants in ancient eastern North America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Minnis, Paul E. (ed.). (2004). People and plants in ancient western North America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Moore, John. (2001). Evaluating five models of human colonization. American Anthropologist 163(2): 395408.
Murdock, George. (1949). Social structure. New York: Macmillan.
Myers, Fred. (1988). Pintupi country, Pintupi self: Sentiment and politics among Western Desert Aborigines. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Nettle, Daniel. (1999). Linguistic diversity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nichols, Johanna, and Rhodes, Richard A.. (2018). Vectors of language spread at the central steppe periphery: Finno-Ugric as a catalyst language. In Iversen, R. and Kroonen, G. (eds.), Digging for Words: Archaeolinguistic case studies from the XV Nordic TAG Conference held at University of Copenhagen, April 16–18, 2015. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 5868.
Ortiz, Alfonso (vol. ed.) (1983). Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 10: Southwest. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Pálsson, Gísli. (1988). Hunters and gatherers of the sea. In Ingold, Tim, Riches, David, and Woodburn, James (eds.), Hunters and gatherers 1: History, evolution and social change. New York: Berg, 189204.
Radisson, Pierre Esprit. (1961). The explorations of Pierre Esprit Radisson, from the original manuscript in the Bodleian Library and the British Museum, edited by Adams, Arthur T., modernized by Kallsen, Loren. Minneapolis, MN: Ross and Haines.
Reid, Lawrence A. (1992). The Tasaday language: A key to Tasaday prehistory. In Headland, Thomas N. (ed.), The Tasaday controversy: An assessment of the evidence. Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association, 180193.
Reid, Lawrence A. (1994). Possible non-Austronesian lexical elements in Philippine Negrito languages. Oceanic Linguistics 33(1): 3772.
Reid, Lawrence A. (1996). The Tasaday tapes. In Pan-Asiatic linguistics: Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on languages and linguistics, January 8–10, 1996, Vol. 5. Salaya, Thailand: Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University, 17431766.
Reid, Lawrence A. (1997). Linguistic archaeology: Tracking down the Tasaday language. In Blench, Roger and Spriggs, Matthew (eds.), Theoretical and methodological orientations: Archaeology and language 1. One World Archaeology 27. London: Routledge, 184208.
Reid, Lawrence A. (2009). Hunter-gatherer and farmer symbiosis from a linguist’s point of view. In Ikeya, Kazunobu, Ogawa, Hidefumi, and Mitchell, Peter (eds.), Interactions between hunter-gatherers and farmers: From prehistory to present. Senri Ethnological Studies 73. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology, 263269.
Renfrew, A. Colin. (1989a). Models of change in language and archaeology. Transactions of the Philological Society 87(2): 103155.
Renfrew, A. Colin. (1989b). Archaeology and language: The puzzle of Indo-European origins. London: Penguin.
Renfrew, A. Colin. (2003). Figuring it out: What are we? Where do we come from? London: Thames & Hudson.
Rhodes, Richard A. (1982). Algonquian trade languages. In Cowan, Wm. (ed.), Papers of the thirteenth Algonquian conference. Ottawa: Carleton University, 110.
Rhodes, Richard A. (2012). Algonquian trade languages revisited. In Hele, K. and Valentine, J. R. (eds.), Papers of the fortieth Algonquian conference. Albany: SUNY Press, 358369.
Richerson, Peter, Boyd, Robert, and Bettinger, Robert. (2001). Was agriculture impossible during the Pleistocene but mandatory during the Holocene? American Antiquity 66(3): 387411.
Rottland, Franz, and Voßen, Rainer. (1977). Grundlagen für eine Klärung des Dorobo-Problems. In Möhlig, Wilhelm J. G., Rottland, Franz, and Heine, Bernd (eds.), Zur Sprachgeschichte und Ethnohistorie in Afrika: Neue Beiträge afrikanistischer Forschungen. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, 213238.
Rumsey, A. (1993). Language and territoriality in Aboriginal Australia. In Walsh, M. and Yallop, C. (eds.), Language and culture in Aboriginal Australia. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press,191206.
Sapir, Edward. (1949/1936). Internal linguistic evidence suggestive of the northern origin of the Navaho. In Mandelbaum, D. (ed.), Selected writings in language, culture and personality, 213224. Berkeley: University of California Press. American Anthropologist 38(2): 224–235 [1936].
Sarich, Steven. (2010). Deconstructing the Hopewell Interaction Sphere. Nebraska Anthropologist. Paper 59.
Scarry, C. Margaret. (2003). Patterns of wild plant utilization in the prehistoric eastern woodlands. In Minnis, Paul E. (ed.), People and plants in ancient eastern North America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 50104.
Schnoebelen, Tyler. (2009). (Un)classifying Shabo: Phylogenetic methods and results. In Austin, Peter K., Bond, Oliver, Charette, Monik, et al. (eds.), Proceedings of conference on language documentation and linguistic theory 2. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, 275284.
Seeman, Mark F. (1979). Hopewell Interaction Sphere: The evidence for interregional trade and structural complexity. Indianapolis, IN: Indian Historical Society.
Smith, Bruce D., and Cowan, C. Wesley. (2003). Domesticated crop plants and the evolution of food production economies in eastern North America. In Minnis, Paul E. (ed.), People and plants in ancient eastern North America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 105125.
Snow, Dean. (1978). Late prehistory of the East Coast. In Trigger, Bruce G. (vol. ed.), Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15: Northeast. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 5869.
Specht, Jim. (2003). On New Guinea hunters and gatherers. Current Anthropology 44(2): 269271.
Struever, Stuart, and Houart, Gail L.. (1990). Analysis of the Hopewell Interaction Sphere. In Suttles, Wayne (vol. ed.), Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7: Northwest Coast. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1990.
Suttles, Wayne. (1990). Handbook of the North American Indians, Vol. 7: North-west Coast. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Szalay, Miklós. (1995). The San and the colonization of the Cape: 1770–1879; conflict, incorporation, acculturation. Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung 11. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
Thomas, D. H. (1981). Complexity among Great Basin Shoshones, the world’s least affluent hunter-gatherers? In Koyoma, S. and Thomas, D. H. (eds.), Affluent foragers: Pacific coast, east and west. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology, 1952.
Trigger, Bruce G. (vol. ed.). (1978). Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15: Northeast. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Trigger, Bruce G. (1998). Sociocultural evolution: Calculation and contingency. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Turney, Christian, and Hobbs, Douglas. (2006). ENSO influence on Holocene Aboriginal populations in Queensland, Australia. Journal of Archaeological Science 33(12): 17441748.
Veth, Peter. (2006). Social dynamism in the archaeology of the Western Desert. In David, B., Barker, B., and McNiven, I. (eds.), The social archaeology of Australian indigenous societies. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 242253.
Veth, P., Smith, M., and Hiscock, P. (eds.). (2005). Desert peoples: Archaeological Perspectives. Oxford: Blackwell.
Whalen, Doug, and Simons, Gary F. (2012). Endangered language families. Language 88: 151173.
White, Douglas (ed.) (1986). Introduction. Ethnographic atlas. World Cultures. 6(3). (based on G. Murdock et al.).
White, Douglas. (1990). Ethnographic atlas map tabulations. Retrieved from: (with Michael Fischer).
Williams, Alan N., Ulm, Sean, Turney, Chris S. M., Rohde, David, and White, Gentry (2015). Holocene demographic changes and the emergence of complex societies in prehistoric Australia. PLoS June 17, 2015. Retrieved from:
Winship, George Parker (ed. and trans.). (1904). The journey of Coronado, 1540–1542, from the City of Mexico to the Grand Canon of the Colorado and the Buffalo Plains of Texas. New York: A. S. Barnes & Company,
Winterhalder, Bruce. (1986). Diet choice, risk and food sharing in a stochastic environment. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 5(4): 369392.
Woodburn, James. (1980). Hunters and gatherers today and reconstruction of the past. In Gellner, E. (ed.), Soviet and Western anthropology. London: Duckworth.
Woodburn, James. (1990). Hunters and gatherers today and reconstruction of the past. In Gellner, E. (ed.), Soviet and Western Anthropology. London: Duckworth.
Yuan, Yi-F. (1990). Topophilia: A study of environmental perceptions, attitudes, and values. New York: Columbia University Press.