Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: December 2009

Section 2 - Language lateralization and psychosis

  • Edited by Iris E. C. Sommer, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands, René S. Kahn, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • pp 119-196

References

Annett, M. (1970). A classification of hand preference by association analysis. Br J Psychol, 61, 303–21.
Annett, M. (1999). The theory of an agnosic right shift gene in schizophrenia and autism. Schizophr Res, 39, 177–82.
Annett, M. (2004). Hand preference observed in large healthy samples: classification, norms and interpretations of increased non-right-handedness by the right shift theory. Br J Psychol, 95, 339–53.
Annett, M. & Moran, P. (2006). Schizotypy is increased in mixed-handers, especially right-handed writers who use the left hand for primary actions. Schizophr Res, 81, 239–46.
Appels, M. C., Sitskoorn, M. M., Vollema, M. G. & Kahn, R. S. (2004). Elevated levels of schizotypal features in parents of patients with a family history of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Schizophr Bull, 30, 781–90.
Barnett, K. J. & Corballis, M. C. (2002). Ambidexterity and magical ideation. Laterality, 7, 75–84.
Broks, P., Claridge, G., Matheson, J. & Hargreaves, J. (1984). Schizotypy and hemisphere function-IV. Story comprehension under binaural and monaural listening conditions. Personal Indiv Diff, 5(6), 665–70.
Bryden, P. J., Pryde, K. M. & Roy, E. A. (2000). A developmental analysis of the relationship between hand preference and performance: II. A performance-based method of measuring hand preference in children. Brain Cogn, 43, 60–4.
Burch, G. S., Pavelis, C., Hemsley, D. R. & Corr, P. J. (2006). Schizotypy and creativity in visual artists. Br J Psychol, 97, 177–90.
Chapman, L. J., Chapman, J. P. & Raulin, M. L. (1978). Body-image aberration in Schizophrenia. J Abnorm Psychol, 87, 399–407.
Chen, W. J. & Su, C. H. (2006). Handedness and schizotypy in non-clinical populations: influence of handedness measures and age on the relationship. Laterality, 11, 331–49.
Chiarello, C., Burgess, C., Richards, L. & Pollock, A. (1990). Semantic and associative priming in the cerebral hemispheres: some words do, some words don’t . . . sometimes, some places. Brain Lang, 38, 75–104.
Claridge, G. & Broks, P. (1984). Schizotypy and hemisphere function: I. Theoretical considerations and the measurement of schizotypy. Personal Indiv Diff, 5(6), 633–48.
Claridge, G., Clark, K., Davis, C. & Mason, O. (1998). Schizophrenia risk and handedness: a mixed picture. Laterality, 3, 209–20.
Corballis, M. C., Hattie, J. & Fletcher, R. (2008). Handedness and intellectual achievement: an even-handed look. Neuropsychologia, 46, 374–8.
Crow, T. J. (1997). Is schizophrenia the price that Homo sapiens pays for language? Schizophr Res, 28, 127–41.
Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J. & Leask, S. (1998). Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. Neuropsychologia, 36, 1275–82.
Cyhlarova, E. & Claridge, G. (2005). Development of a version of the Schizotypy Traits Questionnaire (STA) for screening children. Schizophr Res, 80, 253–61.
Dragovic, M. & Hammond, G. (2005). Handedness in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of evidence. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 111, 410–19.
Dragovic, M., Hammond, G. & Jablensky, A. (2005). Schizotypy and mixed-handedness revisited. Psychiatry Res, 136, 143–52.
Eckblad, M. & Chapman, L. J. (1983). Magical ideation as an indicator of schizotypy. J Consult Clin Psychol, 51, 215–25.
Foster, L. M., Hynd, G. W., Morgan, A. E. & Hugdahl, K. (2002). Planum temporale asymmetry and ear advantage in dichotic listening in Dev Dyslexia and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). J Int Neuropsychol Soc, 8, 22–36.
Giedd, J. N., Blumenthal, J., Molloy, E. & Castellanos, F. X. (2001). Brain imaging of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 931, 33–49.
Gregory, A. M., Claridge, G., Clark, K. & Taylor, P. D. (2003). Handedness and schizotypy in a Japanese sample: an association masked by cultural effects on hand usage. Schizophr Res, 65, 139–45.
Hedges L. V. & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical Methods for Meta-analysis. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press.
Herbert, M. R., Harris, G. J., Adrien, K. T. et al. (2002). Abnormal asymmetry in language association cortex in autism. Ann Neurol, 52, 588–96.
Higgins, J. P., Thompson, S. G., Deeks, J. J. & Altman, D. G. (2003). Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ, 327, 557–60.
Isaacs, K. L., Barr, W. B., Nelson, P. K. & Devinsky, O. (2006). Degree of handedness and cerebral dominance. Neurology, 66, 1855–8.
Jung-Beeman, M., Bowden, E. M., Haberman, J. et al. (2004). Neural activity when people solve verbal problems with insight. PLoS Biol, 2, E97.
Kim, D., Raine, A., Triphon, N. & Green, M. F. (1992). Mixed handedness and features of schizotypal personality in a nonclinical sample. J Nerv Ment Dis, 180, 133–5.
Kircher, T. T., Liddle, P. F., Brammer, M. J. et al. (2002). Reversed lateralization of temporal activation during speech production in thought disordered patients with schizophrenia. Psychol Med, 32, 439–49.
Knecht, S., Drager, B., Deppe, M. et al. (2000). Handedness and hemispheric language dominance in healthy humans. Brain, 123(12), 2512–18.
Knecht, S., Drager, B., Floel, A. et al. (2001). Behavioural relevance of atypical language lateralization in healthy subjects. Brain, 124, 1657–65.
Kreher, D. A., Holcomb, P. J., Goff, D. & Kuperberg, G. R. (2008). Neural evidence for faster and further automatic spreading activation in schizophrenic thought disorder. Schizophr Bull, 34(3), 473–82.
Leonhard, D. & Brugger, P. (1998). Creative, paranormal, and delusional thought: a consequence of right hemisphere semantic activation? Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol, 11, 177–83.
Li, X., Branch, C. A., Ardekani, B. A. et al. (2007a). fMRI study of language activation in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and in individuals genetically at high risk. Schizophr Res, 96, 14–24.
Li, X., Branch, C. A., Bertisch, H. C. et al. (2007b). An fMRI study of language processing in people at high genetic risk for schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, 91, 62–72.
Lipsey, M. W. & Wilson, D. B. (2001). The way in which intervention studies have “personality” and why it is important to meta-analysis. Eval Health Prof, 24, 236–54.
Mason, O. & Claridge, G. (2006). The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE): further description and extended norms. Schizophr Res, 82, 203–11.
Mason, O., Claridge, G. & Jackson, M. (1995). New scales for the assessment of schizotypy. Personal Individ Diff, 18(1), 7–13.
McManus, I. C. (1985). Handedness, language dominance and aphasia: a genetic model. Psychol Med Monogr Suppl, 8, 1–40.
Mednick, S. A. (1962). The associative basis of the creative process. Psychol Rev, 69, 220–32.
Nalcaci, E., Kalaycioglu, C., Cicek, M. & Budanur, O. E. (2000). Magical ideation and right-sided hemispatial inattention on a spatial working memory task: influences of sex and handedness. Percept Mot Skills, 91, 883–92.
Nicholls, M. E., Orr, C. A. & Lindell, A. K. (2005). Magical ideation and its relation to lateral preference. Laterality, 10, 503–15.
Oldfield, R. C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9, 97–113.
Peters, E. R., Joseph, S. A. & Garety, P. A. (1999). Measurement of delusional ideation in the normal population: introducing the PDI (Peters et al. Delusions Inventory). Schizophr Bull, 25, 553–76.
Peters, M. (1998). Description and validation of a flexible and broadly usable handedness questionnaire. Laterality, 3, 77–96.
Peters, M., Reimers, S. & Manning, J. T. (2006). Hand preference for writing and associations with selected demographic and behavioral variables in 255,100 subjects: the BBC internet study. Brain Cogn, 62, 177–89.
Poreh, A. M., Whitman, D. R. & Ross, T. P. (1994). Creative thinking abilities and hemispheric asymmetry in schizotypal college students. Curr Psych, 12, 344–52.
Preti, A., Sardu, C. & Piga, A. (2007). Mixed-handedness is associated with the reporting of psychotic-like beliefs in a non-clinical Italian sample. Schizophr Res, 92, 15–23.
Preti, A. & Vellante, M. (2007). Creativity and psychopathology: higher rates of psychosis proneness and nonright-handedness among creative artists compared to same age and gender peers. J Nerv Ment Dis, 195, 837–45.
Pujol, J., Deus, J., Losilla, J. M. & Capdevila, A. (1999). Cerebral lateralization of language in normal left-handed people studied by functional MRI. Neurology, 52, 1038–43.
Raine, A. (1991). The SPQ: a scale for the assessment of schizotypal personality based on DSM-III-R criteria. Schizophr Bull, 17, 555–64.
Raine, A., Reynolds, C., Lencz, T. et al. (1994). Cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized features of schizotypal personality. Schizophr Bull, 20, 191–201.
Rawlings, D. & Borge, A. (1987). Personality and hemisphere function: two experiments using the dichotic shadowing technique. Personality and Individual Differences, 8(4), 483–8.
Rowe, G., Hirsh, J. B. & Anderson, A. K. (2007). Positive affect increases the breadth of attentional selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 104, 383–8.
Rust, J. (1988). The Rust Inventory of Schizotypal Cognitions (RISC). Schizophr Bull, 14, 317–22.
Shaw, J., Claridge, G. & Clark, K. (2001). Schizotypy and the shift from dextrality: a study of handedness in a large non-clinical sample. Schizophr Res, 50, 181–9.
Sommer, I., Ramsey, N., Kahn, R., Aleman, A. & Bouma, A. (2001a). Handedness, language lateralisation and anatomical asymmetry in schizophrenia: meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry, 178, 344–51.
Sommer, I. E., Ramsey, N. F. & Kahn, R. S. (2001b). Language lateralization in schizophrenia, an fMRI study. Schizophr Res, 52, 57–67.
Sommer, I. E., Ramsey, N. F., Mandl, R. C. & Kahn, R. S. (2003). Language lateralization in female patients with schizophrenia: an fMRI study. Schizophr Res, 60, 183–90.
Sommer, I. E., Ramsey, N. F., Mandl, R. C., van Oel, C. J. & Kahn, R. S. (2004). Language activation in monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 184, 128–35.
Sommer, I. E., Vd Veer, A. J., Wijkstra, J., Boks, M. P. & Kahn, R. S. (2007). Comparing language lateralization in psychotic mania and psychotic depression to schizophrenia; a functional MRI study. Schizophr Res, 89, 364–5.
Spaniel, F., Tintera, J., Hajek, T. et al. (2007). Language lateralization in monozygotic twins discordant and concordant for schizophrenia. A functional MRI pilot study. Eur Psychiatry, 22, 319–22.
Spitzer, R. L., Skodol, A. E., Gibbon, M. & Williams, J. B. W. (1987). DSM-III-R:Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Stefanis, N. C., Vitoratou, S., Smyrnis, N. et al. (2006). Mixed handedness is associated with the disorganization dimension of schizotypy in a young male population. Schizophr Res, 87, 289–96.
Straaten, v. A. (1955). [Considerations on the occurrence of manifest left-handedness in schizophrenia.] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 99, 706–10.
Szaflarski, J. P., Holland, S. K., Schmithorst, V. J. & Byars, A. W. (2006). fMRI study of language lateralization in children and adults. Hum Brain Mapp, 27, 202–12.
Weinstein, S. & Graves, R. E. (2002). Are creativity and schizotypy products of a right hemisphere bias? Brain Cogn, 49, 138–51.

References

Adcock, J. E., Wise, R. G., Oxbury, J. M., Oxbury, S. M. & Matthews, P. M. (2003). Quantitative fMRI assessment of the differences in lateralization of language-related brain activation in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuroimage, 18, 423–38.
Artiges, E., Martinot, J. L., Verdys, M. et al. (2000). Altered hemispheric functional dominance during word generation in negative schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull, 26, 709–21.
Ashton, L., Barnes, A., Livingston, M. & Wyper, D. (2000). Cingulate abnormalities associated with PANSS negative scores in first episode schizophrenia. Behav Neurol, 12, 93–101.
Belin, P. & Zatorre, R. J. (2003). Adaptation to speaker’s voice in right anterior temporal lobe. Neuroreport, 14, 2105–9.
Belin, P., Zatorre, R. J., Lafaille, P., Ahad, P. & Pike, B. (2000). Voice-selective areas in human auditory cortex. Nature, 403, 309–12.
Binder, J. R., Frost, J. A., Hammeke, T. A. et al. (1997). Human brain language areas identified by functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci, 17, 353–62.
Boksman, K., Theberge, J., Williamson, P. et al. (2005). A 4.0-T fMRI study of brain connectivity during word fluency in first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, 75, 247–63.
Broca, P. (1861). Perte de la parole, ramollissement chronique et destruction partielle du lobe antérieur gauche du cerveau. Bull Soc Anthropol Paris, 2, 235–8.
Callicott, J. H., Mattay, V. S., Verchinski, B. A. et al. (2003). Complexity of prefrontal cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia: more than up or down. Am J Psychiatry, 160, 2209–15.
Crinion, J. T., Lambon-Ralph, M. A., Warburton, E. A., Howard, D. & Wise, R. J. (2003). Temporal lobe regions engaged during normal speech comprehension. Brain, 126, 1193–201.
Crow, T. J. (1997a). Is schizophrenia the price that Homo sapiens pays for language? Schizophr Res, 28, 127–41.
Crow, T. J. (1997b). Schizophrenia as failure of hemispheric dominance for language. Trends Neurosci, 20, 339–43.
Curtis, V. A., Bullmore, E. T., Brammer, M. J. et al. (1998). Attenuated frontal activation during a verbal fluency task in patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry, 155, 1056–63.
Curtis, V. A., Bullmore, E. T., Morris, R. G. et al. (1999). Attenuated frontal activation in schizophrenia may be task dependent. Schizophr Res, 37, 35–44.
Dollfus, S. & Brazo, P. (2003). Bases neurales des troubles du langage dans la schizophrénie. Cerveau et langage, Traité des sciences cognitives, Hermès Science Publications, Caen et Paris, 5, 249–74.
Dollfus, S., Buijsrogge, J. A., Benali, K., Delamillieure, P. & Brazo, P. (2002). Sinistrality in subtypes of schizophrenia. Eur Psychiatry, 17, 272–7.
Dollfus, S., Razafimandimby, A., Delamillieure, P. et al. (2005). Atypical hemispheric specialization for language in right-handed schizophrenia patients. Biol Psychiatry, 57, 1020–8.
Dollfus, S., Razafimandimby, A., Maiza, O. et al. (2008). Functional deficit in the medial prefrontal cortex during a language comprehension task in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, 99(1–3), 304–11.
Dye, S. M., Spence, S. A., Bench, C. J. et al. (1999). No evidence for left superior temporal dysfunction in asymptomatic schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PET study of verbal fluency. Br J Psychiatry, 175, 367–74.
Fernandez, G., Specht, K., Weis, S. et al. (2003). Intrasubject reproducibility of presurgical language lateralization and mapping using fMRI. Neurology, 60, 969–75.
Frith, C. D. & Done, D. J. (1988). Towards a neuropsychology of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 153, 437–43.
Frith, C. D., Friston, K. J., Herold, S. et al. (1995). Regional brain activity in chronic schizophrenic patients during the performance of a verbal fluency task. Br J Psychiatry, 167, 343–9.
Frost, J. A., Binder, J. R., Springer, J. A. et al. (1999). Language processing is strongly left lateralized in both sexes. Evidence from functional MRI. Brain, 122(Pt 2), 199–208.
Fu, C. H., Abel, K. M., Allin, M. P. et al. (2005a). Effects of ketamine on prefrontal and striatal regions in an overt verbal fluency task: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Psychopharmacology, 183, 92–102.
Fu, C. H., Suckling, J., Williams, S. C. et al. (2005b). Effects of psychotic state and task demand on prefrontal function in schizophrenia: an fMRI study of overt verbal fluency. Am J Psychiatry, 162, 485–94.
Gabrieli, J. D., Poldrack, R. A. & Desmond, J. E. (1998). The role of left prefrontal cortex in language and memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 95, 906–13.
Gallagher, A. G., Dinan, T. G. & Baker, L. J. (1994). The effects of varying auditory input on schizophrenic hallucinations: a replication. Br J Med Psychol, 67(Pt 1), 67–75.
Geschwind, N. & Levitsky, W. (1968). Human brain: left-right asymmetries in temporal speech region. Science, 161, 186–7.
Green, M. F., Satz, P., Smith, C. & Nelson, L. (1989). Is there atypical handedness in schizophrenia? J Abnorm Psychol, 98, 57–61.
Herve, P. Y., Razafimandimby, A., Dollfus S. & Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. (2006). Functional laterality imaged. Neurosci Imag, 1(3), 183–205.
Hickok, G. & Poeppel, D. (2007). The cortical organization of speech processing. Nat Rev Neurosci, 8, 393–402.
Highley, J. R., McDonald, B., Walker, M. A., Esiri, M. M. & Crow, T. J. (1999). Schizophrenia and temporal lobe asymmetry. A post-mortem stereological study of tissue volume. Br J Psychiatry, 175, 127–34.
Hubrich-Ungureanu, P., Kaemmerer, N., Henn, F. A. & Braus, D. F. (2002). Lateralized organization of the cerebellum in a silent verbal fluency task: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in healthy volunteers. Neurosci Lett, 319, 91–4.
Jansen, A., Menke, R., Sommer, J. et al. (2006). The assessment of hemispheric lateralization in functional MRI – robustness and reproducibility. Neuroimage, 33, 204–17.
Jones, H. M., Brammer, M. J., O’Toole, M. et al. (2004). Cortical effects of quetiapine in first-episode schizophrenia: a preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry, 56, 938–42.
Kasai, K., Shenton, M. E., Salisbury, D. F. et al. (2003). Progressive decrease of left superior temporal gyrus gray matter volume in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry, 160, 156–64.
Kircher, T. T., Liddle, P. F., Brammer, M. J. et al. (2002). Reversed lateralization of temporal activation during speech production in thought disordered patients with schizophrenia. Psychol Med, 32, 439–49.
Koeda, M., Takahashi, H., Yahata, N. et al. (2006). Language processing and human voice perception in schizophrenia: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry, 59, 948–57.
Lennox, B. R., Park, S. B., Medley, I., Morris, P. G. & Jones, P. B. (2000). The functional anatomy of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res, 100, 13–20.
Li, X., Branch, C. A., Ardekani, B. A. et al. (2007). fMRI study of language activation in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and in individuals genetically at high risk. Schizophr Res, 96, 14–24.
Lurito, J. T., Kareken, D. A., Lowe, M. J., Chen, S. H. & Mathews, V. P. (2000). Comparison of rhyming and word generation with FMRI. Hum Brain Mapp, 10, 99–106.
Maiza, O., Razafimandimby, P., Delamillieure, P. et al. (2008). Functional deficit in medial prefrontal cortex: a common neural basis for impaired communication in chronic schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Schizophr Res, 98(1), 39.
Manoach, D. S. (1994). Handedness is related to formal thought disorder and language dysfunction in schizophrenia. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol, 16, 2–14.
Mazoyer, B., Tzourio-Mazoyer, N., Frak, V. et al. (1993). The cortical representation of speech. J Cogn Neurosci, 5, 467–79.
McGuire, P. K., Silbersweig, D. A., Murray, R. M. et al. (1996). Functional anatomy of inner speech and auditory verbal imagery. Psychol Med, 26, 29–38.
McGuire, P. K., Silbersweig, D. A., Wright, I. (1995). Abnormal monitoring of inner speech: a physiological basis for auditory hallucinations. Lancet, 346, 596–600.
Nayani, T. H. & David, A. S. (1996). The auditory hallucination: a phenomenological survey. Psychol Med, 26, 177–89.
Papathanassiou, D., Etard, O., Mellet, E. et al. (2000). A common language network for comprehension and production: a contribution to the definition of language epicenters with PET. Neuroimage, 11, 347–57.
Pearlson, G. D., Petty, R. G., Ross, C. A. & Tien, A. Y. (1996). Schizophrenia: a disease of heteromodal association cortex? Neuropsychopharmacology, 14, 1–17.
Perani, D., Dehaene, S., Grassi, F. et al. (1996). Brain processing of native and foreign languages. Neuroreport, 7, 2439–44.
Pujol, J., Deus, J., Losilla, J. M. & Capdevila, A. (1999). Cerebral lateralization of language in normal left-handed people studied by functional MRI. Neurology, 52, 1038–43.
Razafimandimby, A., Maiza, O., Herve, P. Y. et al. (2007). Stability of functional language lateralization over time in schizophrenia patients. Schizophr Res, 94, 197–206.
Razafimandimby, A., Tzourio-Mazoyer, N., Herve, P. Y. et al. (2006). Handedness and hemispheric specialization for language in schizophrenic patients. Schizophr Res, Supplement 1, 33–4.
Rutten, G. J., Ramsey, N. F., van Rijen, P. C. & van Veelen, C. W. (2002). Reproducibility of fMRI-determined language lateralization in individual subjects. Brain Lang, 80, 421–37.
Satz, P. & Green, M. F. (1999). Atypical handedness in schizophrenia: some methodological and theoretical issues. Schizophr Bull, 25, 63–78.
Schaufelberger, M., Senhorini, M. C., Barreiros, M. A. (2005). Frontal and anterior cingulate activation during overt verbal fluency in patients with first episode psychosis. Rev Bras Psiquiatr, 27, 228–32.
Schlosser, M. J., Aoyagi, N., Fulbright, R. K., Gore, J. C. & McCarthy, G. (1998). Functional MRI studies of auditory comprehension. Hum Brain Mapp, 6, 1–13.
Shapleske, J., Rossell, S. L., Woodruff, P. W. & David, A. S. (1999). The planum temporale: a systematic, quantitative review of its structural, functional and clinical significance. Brain Res Brain Res Rev, 29, 26–49.
Shergill, S. S., Bullmore, E., Simmons, A., Murray, R. & McGuire, P. (2000). Functional anatomy of auditory verbal imagery in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations. Am J Psychiatry, 157, 1691–3.
Sommer, I. E., Ramsey, N. F. & Kahn, R. S. (2001). Language lateralization in schizophrenia, an fMRI study. Schizophr Res, 52, 57–67.
Sommer, I. E., Ramsey, N. F., Mandl, R. C. & Kahn, R. S. (2003). Language lateralization in female patients with schizophrenia: an fMRI study. Schizophr Res, 60, 183–90.
Sommer, I. E., Ramsey, N. F., Mandl, R. C., van Oel, C. J. & Kahn, R. S. (2004b). Language activation in monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 184, 128–35.
Sommer, I. E., Ramsey, N. F., Mandl, R. C., van Oel, C. J. & Kahn, R. S. (2004a). Language activation in monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 184, 128–35.
Sommer, I. E., Vd Veer, A. J., Wijkstra, J., Boks, M. P. & Kahn, R. S. (2007). Comparing language lateralization in psychotic mania and psychotic depression to schizophrenia: a functional MRI study. Schizophr Res, 89, 364–5.
Spence, S. A., Hirsch, S. R., Brooks, D. J. & Grasby, P. M. (1998). Prefrontal cortex activity in people with schizophrenia and control subjects. Evidence from positron emission tomography for remission of “hypofrontality” with recovery from acute schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 172, 316–23.
Spence, S. A., Liddle, P. F., Stefan, M. D. (2000). Functional anatomy of verbal fluency in people with schizophrenia and those at genetic risk. Focal dysfunction and distributed disconnectivity reappraised. Br J Psychiatry, 176, 52–60.
Szymanski, S., Kane, J. & Lieberman, J. (1994). Trait Markers in Schizophrenia: Are They Diagnostic? DSM-IV Source Book, Washington DC, pp. 477–92.
Tzourio, N., Crivello, F., Mellet, E., Nkanga-Ngila, B. & Mazoyer, B. (1998). Functional dominance for speech comprehension in left handers vs right handers. Neuroimage, 8, 1–16.
Tzourio-Mazoyer, N., Josse, G., Crivello, F. & Mazoyer, B. (2004). Interindividual variability in the hemispheric organization for speech. Neuroimage, 21, 422–35.
Tzourio-Mazoyer, N., Landeau, B., Papathanassiou, D. (2002). Automated anatomical labeling of activations in SPM using a macroscopic anatomical parcellation of the MNI MRI single-subject brain. Neuroimage, 15, 273–89.
Weiss, E. M., Hofer, A., Golaszewski, S. (2004). Brain activation patterns during a verbal fluency test-a functional MRI study in healthy volunteers and patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, 70, 287–91.
Weiss, E. M., Hofer, A., Golaszewski, S. et al. (2006). Language lateralization in unmedicated patients during an acute episode of schizophrenia: a functional MRI study. Psychiatry Res, 146, 185–90.
Whalley, H. C., Simonotto, E., Moorhead, W. (2006). Functional imaging as a predictor of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry, 60, 454–62.
Whitford, T. J., Grieve, S. M., Farrow, T. F. (2006). Progressive grey matter atrophy over the first 2–3 years of illness in first-episode schizophrenia: a tensor-based morphometry study. Neuroimage, 32, 511–19.
Woodruff, P. W., Wright, I. C., Bullmore, E. T. (1997). Auditory hallucinations and the temporal cortical response to speech in schizophrenia: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Am J Psychiatry, 154, 1676–82.
Yurgelun-Todd, D. A., Coyle, J. T., Gruber, S. A. et al. (2005). Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of schizophrenic patients during word production: effects of D-cycloserine. Psychiatry Res, 138, 23–31.
Yurgelun-Todd, D. A., Waternaux, C. M., Cohen, B. M. et al. (1996). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of schizophrenic patients and comparison subjects during word production. Am J Psychiatry, 153, 200–5.

References

Ahrens, K., Liu, H. L., Lee, C. Y. et al. (2007). Functional MRI of conventional and anomalous metaphors in Mandarin Chinese. Brain Lang., 100(2), 163–71.
Allen, J. & Schuldberg, D. (1989). Positive thought disorder in a hypothetically psychosis-prone population. J. Abnorm. Psychol., 98, 491.
Anand, A., Wales, R. J., Jackson, H. J. & Copolov, D. L. (1994). Linguistic impairment in early psychosis. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 182(9), 488–93.
Andreasen, N. C. (1977). Reliability and validity of proverb interpretation to assess mental status. Compr. Psychiatry, 18(5), 465–72.
Annett, M. (1970). A classification of hand preference by association analysis. Br. J. Psychol., 61, 303–21.
Besche, C., Passerieux, C., Segui, J., Mesure, G. & Hardy-Baylé, M. C. (1996). Processing of contextual syntactic information in a decision making task in schizophrenic subjects. Can. J. Psychiatry, 41(9), 587–94.
Bihrle, A. M., Brownell, H. H., Powelson, J. A. & Gardner, H. (1986). Comprehension of humorous and nonhumorous materials by left and right brain-damaged patients. Brain Cogn., 5, 399–412.
Bookheimer, S. (2002). Functional MRI of language: new approaches to understanding the cortical organization of semantic processing. Annu. Rev. Neurosci., 25, 151–88.
Bottini, G., Corcoran, R., Sterzi, R. et al. (1994). The role of the right hemisphere in the interpretation of figurative aspects of language. A positron emission tomography activation study. Brain, 117, 1241–53.
Burgess, C. & Chiarello, C. (1996). Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying metaphor comprehension and other figurative language. Metaphor. Symb. Act., 11, 67–84.
Brune, M. (2005). “Theory of mind” in schizophrenia: a review of the literature. Schizophr. Bull., 31(1), 21–42.
Brune, M. & Bodenstein, L. (2005). Proverb comprehension reconsidered – “theory of mind” and the pragmatic use of language in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res., 75, 233.
Carroll, D. (1999). Psychology of Language, 3rd edn, Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole, pp. 142–6.
Champagne-Lavau, M., Stip, E. & Joanette, Y. (2006). Social cognition deficits in schizophrenia: accounting for pragmatic deficits in communication abilities? Curr. Psychiatry Reviews, 2(3), 309–15.
Champagne-Lavau, M., Stip, E. & Joanette, Y. (2007). Language functions in right-hemisphere damage and schizophrenia: apparently similar pragmatic deficits may hide profound differences. Brain, 130(2), e67.
Chapman, L. J. (1960). Confusion of figurative and literal usages of words by schizophrenics and brain damaged patients. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol., 60, 412–16.
Corcoran, R., Mercer, G. & Frith, C. D. (1995). Schizophrenia, symptomatology and social inference: investigating ‘‘theory of mind’’ in people with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res., 17, 5–13.
Crow, T. J. (1997). Schizophrenia as failure of hemispheric dominance for language. Trends Neurosci., 29, 339–43.
Crow, T. J. (2000). Schizophrenia as the price that Homo sapiens pays for language: a resolution of the central paradox in the origin of the species. Brain Res. Rev., 31, 118–29.
Crow, T. J. (2004). Auditory hallucinations as primary disorders of syntax: an evolutionary theory of the origins of language. Cogn. Neuropsychiatry, 9(1–2), 125–45.
Cutting, J. & Murphy, D. (1990). Preference for denotative as opposed to connotative meanings in schizophrenics. Brain Lang., 39, 459–68.
De-Bonis, M., Epelbaum, C., DeVez, V. & Feline, A. (1997). The comprehension of metaphors in schizophrenia. Psychopathology, 30, 149–54.
Dennis, M., Lazenby, A. L. & Lockyer, L. (2001). Inferential language in high-function children with autism. J. Autism Dev. Disord., 31, 47–54.
Drury, V. M., Robinson, E. J. & Birchwood, M. (1998). “Theory of mind” skills during an acute episode of psychosis and following recovery. Psychol. Med., 28, 1101–2.
Duden, D. (1998). Duden, Redewendungen und sprichwörtliche Redensarten: Wörterbuch der deutschen Idiomatik. Dudenverlag, Mannheim, Leipzig, Wien, Zürich.
Eviatar, Z. & Just, M. A. (2006). Brain correlates of discourse processing: an fMRI investigation of irony and conventional metaphor comprehension. Neuropsychologia, 44(12), 2348–59.
Falkenberg, I., Kluegel, K., Bartels, M. & Wild, B. (2007). Sense of humor in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res., 95(1–3), 259–61.
Faust, M. & Weisper, S. (2000). Understanding metaphoric sentences in the two cerebral hemispheres. Brain Cogn., 43, 186–91.
Finckh, J. (1906). Zur Frage der Intelligenzprüfung. Zentralbl. Nervenheilkd. Psychiatr., 29, 945–57.
Gagnon, L., Goulet, P., Giroux, F. & Joanette, Y. (2003). Processing of metaphoric and non-metaphoric alternative meanings of words after right- and left-hemispheric lesion. Brain Lang., 87, 217–26.
Gibbs Jr., R. W. (1990). Comprehending figurative referential descriptions. J. Exp. Psychol.: Learn., Mem., Cogn., 16, 56–66.
Giora, R. (1997). Understanding figurative and literal language: the graded salience hypothesis. Cogn. Linguist., 8, 183–206.
Giora, R. (2003). On Our Mind: Salience, Context, and Figurative Language. New York: Oxford University Press.
Giora, R. (2007). Is metaphor special? Brain Lang., 100(2), 111–14.
Giora, R., Zaidel, E., Soroker, N., Batori, G. & Kasher, A. (2000). Differential effects of right- and left-hemisphere damage on understanding sarcasm and metaphor. Metaphor Symbol, 1(1/2), 63–83.
Glucksberg, S. (2003). The psycholinguistics of metaphor. Trends Cogn. Sci., 7(2), 92–6.
Gorham, D. R. (1956). Use of the proverbs test for differentiating schizophrenics from normals. J. Consult. Psychol., 20, 435–40.
Hensler, M., Markert, K., Saur, R., Bartels, M. & Rapp, A. M. (2007). Sind konkretistische Denkstoerungen eine homogene Entitaet? Studie zum Verständnis verschiedener Arten nicht-wörtlicher Sprache bei schizophrenen Patienten. Paper presented at “Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie und Nervenheilkunde”, Berlin, Germany, 21–24 November 2007.
Herold, R., Tenyi, T., Lenard, K. & Trixler, M. (2002). Theory of mind deficit in people with schizophrenia during remission. Psychol. Med., 32, 1125.
Hillekamp, U., Knobloch, J. & Buelau, P. (1996). Metaphorische Sprachverarbeitung bei Hirngeschädigten: Anwendung und Analyse eines Metapherntests. Neurol. Rehabil., 4, 232–36.
Iakimova, G., Passerieux, C., Laurent, J. P. & Hardy-Bayle, M. C. (2005). ERPs of metaphoric, literal, and incongruous semantic processing in schizophrenia. Psychophysiology, 42, 380–90.
Janssen, I., Krabbendam, L., Jolles, J. & Van Os, J. (2003). Alterations in theory of mind in patients with shizophrenia and non-psychotic relatives. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 108, 110–17.
Kacinik, N. A. & Chiarello, C. (2007). Understanding metaphoric language: is the right hemisphere uniquely involved? Brain Lang., 100, 188–207.
Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A. & Opler, L. A. (1987). The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull., 13(2), 261–76.
Kircher, T. T., Bullmore, E. T., Brammer, M. J. et al. (2001). Differential activation of temporal cortex during sentence completion in schizophrenic patients with and without formal thought disorder. Schizophr. Res., 50, 27–40.
Kircher, T. T., Liddle, P. F., Brammer, M. J. et al. (2002). Reversed lateralization of temporal activation during speech production in thought disordered patients with schizophrenia. Psychol. Med., 32(3), 439–49.
Kircher, T. T., Leube, D. T., Erb, M., Grodd, W. & Rapp, A. M. (2007). Neural correlates of metaphor processing in schizophrenia. Neuroimage, 34(1), 281–9.
Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Langdon, R. & Coltheart, M. (2004). Recognition of metaphor and irony in young adults: the impact of schizotypal personality traits. Psychiatry Res., 125, 9–20.
Langdon, R., Coltheart, M., Ward, P. B. & Catts, S. V. (2002). Disturbed communication in schizophrenia: the role of poor pragmatics and poor mind-reading. Psychol. Med., 32, 1273–84.
Lauro, L. J., Tettamanti, M., Cappa, S. F. & Papagno, C. (2007). Idiom comprehension: a prefrontal task? Cereb. Cortex., 18(1), 162–70.
Lee, S. S. & Dapretto, M. (2006). Metaphorical versus literal word meanings: fMRI evidence against a selective role of the right hemisphere. Neuroimage, 29, 536–44.
Lehrl, S., Triebig, G. & Fischer, B. (1995). Multiple choice vocabulary test MWT as a valid and short test to estimate premorbid intelligence. Acta Neurol. Scand., 91, 335–45.
Leitman, D. I., Ziwich, R., Pasternak, R. & Javitt, D. C. (2006). Theory of mind (ToM) and counterfactuality deficits in schizophrenia: misperception or misinterpretation? Psychol. Med., 36(8), 1075–83.
Lindell, A. K. (2006). In your right mind: right hemisphere contributions to language processing and production. Neuropsychol. Rev., 16(3), 131–48.
MacKenzie, C., Begg, T., Brady, M. & Lees, K. R. (1997). The effects on verbal communication skills of right hemisphere stroke in middle age. Aphasiology, 11, 929–45.
Mashal, N., Faust, M. & Hendler, T. (2005). The role of the right hemisphere in processing nonsalient metaphorical meanings: application of principal components analysis to fMRI data. Neuropsychologia, 43(14), 2084–100.
Mashal, N., Faust, M., Hendler, T. & Jung-Beeman, M. (2007). An fMRI investigation of the neural correlates underlying the processing of novel metaphoric expressions. Brain Lang., 100(2), 115–26.
McDonald, S. (2000). Neuropsychological studies of sarcasm. Metaphor Symbol, 15(1/2), 85–98.
McIntyre, M., Pritchard, P. B. & Lombroso, C. T. (1976). Left and right temporal lobe epileptics: a controlled investigation of some psychological differences. Epilepsia, 17, 377–86.
Mitchell, R. L. & Crow, T. J. (2005). Right hemisphere language functions and schizophrenia: the forgotten hemisphere? Brain, 128(5), 963–78.
Mitchell, R. L., Elliott, R., Barry, M., Cruttenden, A. & Woodruff, P. W. (2004). Neural response to emotional prosody in schizophrenia and in bipolar affective disorder. Br. J. Psychiatry, 184, 223–30.
Mitchley, N. J., Barber, J., Gray, J. M., Brooks, N. & Livingston, M. G. (1998). Comprehension of irony in schizophrenia. Cogn. Neuropsychiatry, 3, 127.
Nunn, J. & Peters, E. (2001). Schizotypy and patterns of lateral asymmetry on hemisphere-specific language tasks. Psychiatry Res., 103, 179–92.
Oliveri, M., Romero, L., Papagno, C. (2004). Left but not right temporal involvement in opaque idiom comprehension: a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study. J. Cogn. Neurosci, 16 (5) 848–855.
Papagno, C. (2001). Comprehension of metaphors and idioms in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a longitudinal study. Brain, 124, 1450–60.
Papagno, C. & Caporali, A. (2007). Testing idiom comprehension in aphasic patients: the effects of task and idiom type. Brain Lang., 100(2), 208–20.
Papagno, C., Curti, R., Rizzo, S., Crippa, F. & Colombo, M. R. (2006). Is the right hemisphere involved in idiom comprehension? A neuropsychological study. Neuropsychology, 20(5), 598–606.
Rapp, A. M., Leube, D. T., Erb, M., Grodd, W. & Kircher, T. T. (2004). Neural correlates of metaphor processing. Cogn. Brain Res., 20, 395–402.
Rapp, A. M., Leube, D. T., Erb, M., Grodd, W. & Kircher, T. T. (2007a). Laterality in metaphor processing: lack of evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging for the right hemisphere theory. Brain Lang., 100(2), 142–9.
Rapp, A. M., Bayer, W. & Langle, G. (2007b). Is language-related psychopathology a predictor of psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia? Results from a 4 year follow up study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 602.
Rhodes, J. E. & Jakes, S. (2004). The contribution of metaphor and metonymy to delusions. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 77, 1–17.
Rinaldi, M. C., Marangolo, P. & Baldassarri, F. (2004). Metaphor comprehension in right brain-damaged patients with visuo-verbal and verbal material: a dissociation (re)considered. Cortex, 40, 479–90.
Rizzo, S., Sandrini, M. & Papagno, C. (2007). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in idiom interpretation: an rTMS study. Brain Res. Bull., 71(5), 523–8.
Shamay-Tsoory, S. G., Tomer, R. & Aharon-Peretz, J. (2005). The neuroanatomical basis of understanding sarcasm and its relationship to social cognition. Neuropsychology, 19(3), 288–300.
Sponheim, S. R., Surerus-Johnson, C., Leskela, J. & Dieperink, M. E. (2003). Proverb interpretation in schizophrenia: the significance of symptomatology and cognitive processes. Schizophr. Res., 65, 117.
Stringaris, A. K., Medford, N., Giora, R. et al. (2006). How metaphors influence semantic relatedness judgments: the role of the right frontal cortex. Neuroimage, 33(2), 784–93.
Stringaris, A. K., Medford, N. C., Giampietra, V., Brammer, M. J. & David, A. S. (2007). Deriving meaning: distinct neural mechanisms for metaphoric, literal, and non-meaningful sentences. Brain Lang., 100(2), 150–62.
Thoma, P. & Daum, I. (2006). Neurocognitive mechanisms of figurative language processing-evidence from clinical dysfunctions. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 30(8), 1182–205.
Titone, D., Holzman, P. S. & Levy, D. L. (2002). Idiom processing in schizophrenia: literal implausibility saves the day for idiom priming. J. Abnorm. Psychol., 111, 313–20.
Vigotsky, L. S. (1934). Thought in schizophrenia. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 31, 1063–77.
Wang, A. T., Lee, S. S., Sigman, M. & Dapretto, M. (2006). Neural basis of irony comprehension in children with autism: the role of prosody and context. Brain, 129(4), 932–43.
Watson, C. G., Plemel, D. & Burke, M. (1979). Proverb test deficit in schizophrenic and brain-damaged patients. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 167, 561–5.
Wildgruber, D., Ackermann, H., Kreifelts, B. & Ethofer, T. (2006). Cerebral processing of linguistic and emotional prosody: fMRI studies. Prog. Brain Res., 156, 249–68.
Winner, E. & Gardner, H. (1977). The comprehension of metaphor in brain damaged patients. Brain., 100, 717–29.
Winner, E. & Gardner, H. (1993). Metaphor and irony: two levels of understanding. In: Ortony, A. (ed.) Metaphor and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 425–46.
Zaidel, E., Kasher, A., Soroker, N. & Batori, G. (2002). Effects of right and left hemisphere damage on performance of the “Right Hemisphere Communication Battery”. Brain Lang., 80(3), 510–35.
Zempleni, M. Z. (2006). Functional imaging of the hemispheric contribution to language processing. Doctoral Dissertation, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Netherlands, pp. 84–108.
Zempleni, M. Z., Haverkort, M., Renken, R. A. & Stowe, L. (2007). Evidence for bilateral involvement in idiom comprehension: an fMRI study. Neuroimage, 34(3), 1280–91.

References

Aleman, A., Sommer, I. E. & Kahn, R. S. (2007). Efficacy of slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of resistant auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry, 68(3), 416–21.
Allen, P., Larøi, F., McGuire, P. K. & Aleman, A. (2008). The hallucinating brain: a review of structural and functional neuroimaging studies of hallucinations. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 32(1), 175–91.
Andreasen, N C., Flaum. M. & Arndt, S. (1992). The comprehensive assessment of symptoms and history (CASH): an instrument for assessing psychopathology and diagnosis. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 49, 615–23.
Artiges, E., Martinot, J. L., Verdys, M. et al. (2000). Altered hemispheric functional dominance during word generation in negative schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull, 26(3), 709–21.
Benjamini, Y. & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Statist Soc, Ser B (Methodol), 57(1), 289–300.
Bloom, J. S. & Hynd, G. W. (2005). The role of the corpus callosum in interhemispheric transfer of information: excitation or inhibition? Neuropsychol Rev, 15(2), 59–71.
Burklund, C. W. & Smith, A. (1977). Language and the cerebral hemispheres. Observations of verbal and nonverbal responses during 18 months following left (“dominant”) hemispherectomy. Neurology, 27(7), 627–33.
Copolov, D. L., Seal, M. L., Maruff, P. et al. (2003). Cortical activation associated with the experience of auditory hallucinations and perception of human speech in schizophrenia: a PET correlation study. Psychiatry Res, 122(3), 139–52.
Creutzfeldt, O., Ojemann, G. & Lettich, E. (1989). Neuronal activity in the human lateral temporal lobe. II. Responses to the subject’s own voice. Exp Brain Res, 77(3), 476–89.
David, A. S. (1999). Auditory hallucinations: phenomenology, neuropsychology and neuroimaging update. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 99(suppl 394), 95–104.
Dierks, T., Linden, D. J. E., Jandl, M. et al. (1999). Activation of Heschl’s gyrus during auditory hallucinations. Neuron, 22, 615–21.
Dollfus, S., Razafimandimby, A., Delamillieure, P. et al. (2005). Atypical hemispheric specialization for language in right-handed schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry, 57(9), 1020–8.
Ford, J. M., Roach, B. J., Faustman, W. O. & Mathalon, D. H. (2007). Synch before you speak: auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry, 164(3), 458–66.
Frith, C. D. (1992). The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia. Hove: Erlbaum.
Hoffman, R. E., Hampson, M., Wu, K. et al. (2007). Probing the pathophysiology of auditory/verbal hallucinations by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Cereb Cortex, 7(11), 2733–43.
Jackson, J. H. (1931–1932). Selected Writings of John Hughlings Jackson. Vols I, II. Taylor, J. (ed.). London: Hodder.
Jaynes, J. (1976). On the Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Lennox, B. R., Park, S. B., Jones, P. B. & Morris, P. G. (1999). Spatial and temporal mapping of neural activity associated with auditory hallucinations. Lancet, 353(9153), 644.
Lennox, B. R., Park, S. B. G., Medley, I. et al. (2000). The functional anatomy of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res Neuroimag, 100, 13–20.
Nasrallah, H. A. (1985). The unintegrated right cerebral hemispheric consciousness as alien intruder: a possible mechanism for Schneiderian delusions in schizophrenia. Compr Psychiatry, 26(3), 273–82.
Neggers, S. F. W., Hermans, E. J. & Ramsey, N. F. (2008). Enhanced sensitivity with fast three-dimensional BOLD fMRI: comparison of SENSE-PRESTO and 2D-EPI at 3 T. NMR in Biomed, 21(7), 663–76.
Noppeney, U., Price, C. J., Duncan, J. S. & Koepp, M. J. (2005). Reading skills after left anterior temporal lobe resection: an fMRI study. Brain, 128(6), 1377–85.
Oldfield, R. C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9(1), 97–113.
Razafimandimby, A., Maiza, O., Herve, P. Y. et al. (2007). Stability of functional language lateralization over time in schizophrenia patients. Schizophr Res, 94(1–3), 197–206.
Roth, Y., Amir, A., Levkovitz, Y. & Zangen, A. (2007). Three-dimensional distribution of the electric field induced in the brain by transcranial magnetic stimulation using figure-8 and deep H-coils. J Clin Neurophysiol, 24(1), 31–8.
Roth, Y., Zangen, A. & Hallett, M. (2002). A coil design for transcranial magnetic stimulation of deep brain regions. J Clin Neurophysiol, 19(4), 361–70.
Shergill, S. S., Brammer, M. J., Williams, S. C. R. et al. (2000). Mapping auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 57, 1033–8.
Shergill, S. S., Cameron, L. A., Brammer, M. J. et al. (2001). Modality specific neural correlates of auditory and somatic hallucinations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 71(5), 688–90.
Silbersweig, D. A., Stern, E., Frith, C. et al. (1995). A functional neuroanatomy of hallucinations in schizophrenia. Nature, 378, 176–9.
Slade, P. D. & Bentall, R. P. (1988). Sensory Deception: A Scientific Analysis of Hallucinations. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Sommer, I. E. C., Ramsey, N. F. & Kahn, R. S. (2001). Lateralization in schizophrenia: an fMRI study. Schizophr Res, 52, 57–67.
Sommer, I. E. C., Ramsey, N. F., Mandl, R. C. W. & Kahn, R. S. (2003). Language lateralization in women with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, 60(2–3), 183–90.
Sommer, I. E., Ramsey, N. F., Mandl, R. C., van Oel, C. J. & Kahn, R. S. (2004). Language activation in monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 184, 128–35.
Sommer, I. E., Vd Veer, A. J., Wijkstra, J., Boks, M. P. & Kahn, R. S. (2007). Comparing language lateralization in psychotic mania and psychotic depression to schizophrenia: a functional MRI study. Schizophr Res, 89(1–3), 364–5.
Spaniel, F., Tintera, J., Hajek, T. et al. (2007). Language lateralization in monozygotic twins discordant and concordant for schizophrenia. A functional MRI pilot study. Eur Psychiatry, 22(5), 319–22.
Springer, J., Binder, J., Hammeke, T. et al. (1999). Language dominance in neurologically normal and epilepsy subjects: a functional MRI study. Brain, 122, 2033–46.
Stephane, M., Barton, S. & Boutros, N. N. (2001). Auditory verbal hallucinations and dysfunction of the neural substrates of speech. Schizophr Res, 50(1–2), 61–78.
Thiel, A., Habedank, B., Herholz, K. et al. (2005). From the left to the right: how the brain compensates progressive loss of language function. Brain Lang, 98(1), 57–65.
Thiel, A., Herholz, K., Koyuncu, A. et al. (2001). Plasticity of language networks in patients with brain tumors: a positron emission tomography activation study. Ann Neurol, 50(5), 620–9.
Thiel, A., Schumacher, B., Wienhard, K. et al. (2006). Direct demonstration of transcallosal disinhibition in language networks. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, 26(9), 1122–7.
Thivard, L., Hombrouck, J., du Montcel, S. T. et al. (2005). Productive and perceptive language reorganization in temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuroimage, 24(3), 841–51.
Tzourio-Mazoyer, N., Landeau, B., Papathanassiou, D. et al. (2002). Automated anatomical labeling of activations in SPM using a macroscopic anatomical parcellation of the MNI MRI single-subject brain. Neuroimage, 15(1), 273–89.
Van Lancker, D. & Cummings, J. L. (1999). Expletives: neurolinguistic and neurobehavioral perspectives on swearing. Brain Res Brain Res Rev, 31(1), 83–104.
Van Lancker, D. (1997). Rags to riches: our increasing appreciation of cognitive and communicative abilities of the human right cerebral hemisphere. Brain Lang, 57(1), 1–11.
Voets, N. L., Adcock, J. E., Flitney, D. E. et al. (2006). Distinct right frontal lobe activation in language processing following left hemisphere injury. Brain, 129(3), 754–66.
Weiss, E. M., Hofer, A., Golaszewski, S. et al. (2006). Language lateralization in unmedicated patients during an acute episode of schizophrenia: a functional MRI study. Psychiatry Res, 146(2), 185–90.
Winhuisen, L., Thiel, A., Schumacher, B. et al. (2005). Role of the contralateral inferior frontal gyrus in recovery of language function in poststroke aphasia: a combined repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and positron emission tomography study. Stroke, 36(8), 1759–63.
Worsley, K. J. & Friston, K. J. (1995). Analysis of fMRI time-series revisited – again. Neuroimage, 2(3), 173–81.
Zangen, A., Roth, Y., Voller, B. & Hallett, M. (2007). Transcranial magnetic stimulation of deep brain regions: evidence for efficacy of the H-coil. Clin Neurophysiol, 116(4), 775–9.
Zangwill, O. L. (1967). Speech and the minor hemisphere. Acta Neurol Psychiatr Belg, 67(11), 1013–20.

References

Adams, J., Faux, S., McCarley, R. W., Marcy, B. & Shenton, M. (1989). The N400 and language processing in schizophrenia. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Event Related Potentials of the Brain (EPIC IX Congress). Noordwijk, the Netherlands, pp. 12–13.
Andrews, S., Shelley, A. M., Ward, P. B. et al. (1993). Event-related potential indices of semantic processing in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry, 34, 443–58.
Baker, N., Adler, L. E., Franks, R. D. et al. (1987). Neurophysiological assessment of sensory gating in psychiatric inpatients: comparison between schizophrenia and other diagnoses. Biol Psychiatry, 22, 603–17.
Barrera, A., McKenna, P. J. & Berrios, G. E. (2005). Formal thought disorder in schizophrenia: an executive or a semantic deficit? Psychol Med, 35, 121–32.
Beeman, M., Friedman, R. B., Grafman, J. et al. (1994). Summation priming and coarse semantic coding in the right hemisphere. J Cogn Neurosci, 6, 26–45.
Bullen, J. G. & Hemsley, D. R. (1987). Schizophrenia: a failure to control the contents of consciousness? Br J Clin Psychol, 26, 25–33.
Cohen, J. D. & Servan-Schreiber, D. (1992). Context, cortex and dopamine: a connectionist approach to behavior and biology in schizophrenia. Psychol Rev, 99, 45–77.
Craven, R. (2002). Lateral thinking. Nature Rev Neurosci, 3, 414.
DeLisi, L. E., Hoff, A. L., Neale, C. & Kushner, M. (1994). Asymmetries in the superior temporal lobe in male and female first-episode schizophrenic patients: measures of the planum temporale and superior temporal gyrus by MRI. Schizophr Res, 12, 19–28.
Ditman, T. & Kuperberg, G. (2007). The time course of building discourse coherence in schizophrenia: an ERP investigation. Psychophysiology, 44(6), 991–1001.
Friston, K. J., Liddle, P. F., Frith, C. D., Hirsch, S. R. & Frackowiak, R. S. J. (1992). The left medial temporal region and schizophrenia. Brain, 115, 367–82.
Frith, C. D. (1979). Consciousness, information processing and schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 134, 225–35.
Frodl, T., Meisenzahl, E. M., Muller, D. et al. (2002). P300 subcomponents and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia. Int J Psychophysiol, 43, 237–46.
Goldberg, T. E., Aloia, M. S., Gourovitch, M. L. et al. (1998). Cognitive substrates of thought disorder, I: the semantic system. Am J Psychiatry, 155(12), 1671–6.
Goldberg, T. E. & Weinberger, D. R. (2000). Thought disorder in schizophrenia: a reappraisal of older formulations and an overview of some recent studies. Cogn Neuropsychiatry, 5, 1–19.
Han, S. D., Nestor, P. G., Hale-Spencer, M. et al. (2007). Functional neuroimaging of word priming in males with chronic schizophrenia. Neuroimage, 35, 273–82.
Higashima, M., Nagasawa, T., Kawasaki, Y. et al. (2003). Auditory P300 amplitude as a state marker for positive symptoms in schizophrenia: cross-sectional and retrospective longitudinal studies. Schizophr Res, 59, 147–57.
Higashima, M., Urata, K., Kawasaki, Y. et al. (1998). P300 and the thought disorder factor extracted by factor-analytic procedures in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry, 44, 115–20.
Iwanami, A., Okajima, Y., Kuwakado, D. et al. (2000). Event-related potentials and thought disorder in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, 42, 187–91.
Kaplan, R. D., Szechtman, H., Franco, S. et al. (1993). Three clinical syndromes of schizophrenia in untreated subjects: relation to brain glucose activity measured by positron emission tomography (PET). Schizophr Res, 11, 47–54.
Kasai, K., Iwanami, A., Yamasue, H. et al. (2002). Neuroanatomy and neurophysiology in schizophrenia. Neurosci Res, 43, 93–110.
Kawasaki, Y., Maeda, Y., Sakai, N. et al. (1996). Regional cerebral blood flow in patients with schizophrenia: relevance of symptom structures. Neuroimaging, 67, 49–58.
Kerns, J. G. & Berenbaum, H. (2002). Cognitive impairments associated with formal thought disorder in people with schizophrenia. J Abnor Psychol, 111, 211–34.
Kircher, T. T., Bulimore, E. T., Brammer, M. J. et al. (2001a). Differential activation of the temporal cortex during sentence completion in schizophrenic patients with and without formal thought disorder. Schizophr Res, 50, 27–40.
Kircher, T. T., Leube, D. T., Erb, M., Grodd, W. & Rapp, A. M. (2007). Neural correlates of metaphor processing in schizophrenia. Neuroimage, 34, 281–9.
Kircher, T. T., Liddle, P. F., Brammer, M. J. et al. (2001b). Neural correlates of formal thought disorder in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 58, 769–74.
Kircher, T. T., Liddle, P. F., Brammer, M. J. et al. (2002). Reversed lateralization of temporal activation during speech production in thought disordered patients with schizophrenia. Psychol Med, 32, 439–49.
Kircher, T. T., Oh, T. M., Brammer, M. J. & McGuire, P. K. (2005). Neural correlates of syntax production in schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 186, 209–14.
Kircher, T. T., Rapp, A., Grodd, W. et al. (2004). Mismatch responses in schizophrenia: a combined fMRI and whole-head MEG study. Am J Psychiatry, 161, 294–304.
Kircher, T. T., Whitney, C., Krings, T., Huber, W. & Weis, S. (2008). Hippocampal dysfunction during free word association in male patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, 101(1–3), 242–55.
Kirihara, K., Araki, T., Kasai, K. et al. (2005). Confirmation of a relationship between reduced auditory P300 amplitude and thought disorder in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, 80, 197–201.
Kostova, M., Passerieux, C., Laurent, J. P. & Hardy-Bayle, M. C. (2005). N400 anomalies in schizophrenia are correlated with the severity of formal thought disorder. Schizophr Res, 78, 285–91.
Kumar, N. & Debruille, J. B. (2004). Semantics and N400: insights for schizophrenia. J Psychiatry Neurosci, 29, 89–98.
Kuperberg, G. R. & Caplan, D. (2003). Language dysfunction in schizophrenia. In: R. B. Schiffers, S. M. Rao & B. S. Fogel (eds.) Neuropsychiatry, 2nd edn Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, pp. 444–66.
Kuperberg, G. R., Deckersbach, T., Holt, D., Goff, D. & West, W. C. (2007). Increased temporal and prefrontal activity to semantic associations in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 64, 138–51.
Kuperberg, G., McGuire, P. K. & David, A. S. (2000). Sensitivity to linguistic anomalies in spoken sentences: a case study approach to understanding thought disorder in schizophrenia. Psychol Med, 30, 345–57.
Kutas, M. & Hillyard, S. A. (1980). Event-related brain potentials to semantically inappropriate and surprisingly large words. Biol Psychol, 11, 99–116.
Landre, N. A. & Taylor, M. A. (1995). Formal thought disorder in schizophrenia. Linguistic, attentional, and intellectual correlates. J Nerv Ment Dis, 183, 673–80.
Leeson, V. C., Simpson, A., McKenna, P. J. & Laws, K. R. (2005). Executive inhibition and semantic association in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, 74, 61–7.
Liddle, P. F., Friston, K. J., Frith, C. D. et al. (1992). Patterns of cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 160, 179–86.
Liddle, P. F., Ngan, E. T. C., Caissie, S. L. et al. (2002). Thought and Language Index: an instrument for assessing thought and language in schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 181, 326–30.
Manschreck, T. C., Maher, B. A., Milavetz, J. J. et al. (1988). Semantic priming in thought disordered schizophrenic patients. Schizophr Res, 1, 61–6.
Mathiak, K. & Fallgatter, A. J. (2006). Combining magnetoencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Int Rev Neurobiol, 68, 121–48.
McCarley, R. W., Salisbury, D. F., Hirayasu, Y. et al. (2002). Association between smaller left posterior superior temporal gyrus volume on magnetic resonance imaging and smaller left temporal P300 amplitude in first-episode schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 59, 321–31.
McCarley, R. W., Shenton, M. E., O’Donnell, B. F. et al. (1993). Auditory P300 abnormalities and left posterior superior temporal gyrus reduction in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 50, 190–7.
McGuire, P. K., Quested, D. J., Spence, S. A. et al. (1998). Pathophysiology of “positive” thought disorder in schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 173, 231–5.
Meisenzahl, E. M., Frodl, T., Muller, D. et al. (2004). Superior temporal gyrus and P300 in schizophrenia: a combined ERP/ structural magnetic resonance imaging investigation. J Psychiatr Res, 38, 153–62.
Menon, R. R., Barta, P. E., Aylward, E. H. et al. (1995). Posterior superior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia: grey matter changes and clinical correlates. Schizophr Res, 16, 127–35.
Minzenberg, M. J., Ober, B. A. & Vinogradov, S. (2002). Semantic priming in schizophrenia: a review and synthesis. J Int Neuropsy Soc, 8, 699–720.
Mitchell, R. L. C. & Crow, T. J. (2005). Right hemisphere language functions and schizophrenia: the forgotten hemisphere? Brain, 128, 963–78.
Ngan, E. T. C., Vouloumanos, A., Cairo, T. A. et al. (2003). Abnormal processing of speech during oddball target detection in schizophrenia. Neuroimage, 20, 889–97.
Ohnishi, T., Hashimoto, R., Mori, T. et al. (2006). The association between the Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-0-methyl transferase gene and morphological abnormalities of the brain in chronic schizophrenia. Brain, 129, 399–410.
Pearlson, G. D. & Marsh, L. (1999). Structural brain imaging in schizophrenia: a selective review. Biol Psychiatry, 46, 627–49.
Potter, D., Summerfelt, A., Gold, J. & Buchanan, R. W. (2006). Review of clinical correlates of P50 sensory gating abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull, 32, 692–700.
Rajarethinam, R., DeQuardo, J. R., Miedler, J. et al. (2001). Hippocampus and amygdala in schizophrenia: assessment of the relationship of neuroanatomy to psychopathology. Psychiatry Res, 108, 79–87.
Rossi, A., Serio, A., Stratta, P. et al. (1994). Planum temporale asymmetry and thought disorder in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, 12, 1–7.
Salisbury, D. F., O’Donnell, B. F., McCarley, R. W., Nestor, P. G. & Shenton, M. E. (2000). Event-related potentials elicited during a context-free homograph task in normal versus schizophrenic subjects. Psychophysiology, 37, 456–63.
Shapleske, J., Rossell, S. L., Woodruff, P. W. & David, A. S. (1999). The planum temporale: a systematic, quantitative review of its structural, functional and clinical significance. Brain Res Brain Res Rev, 29, 26–49.
Shenton, M. E., Dickey, C. C., Frumin, M. & McCarley, R. W. (2001). A review of MRI findings in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, 49, 1–52.
Shenton, M. E., Kikinis, R., Jolesz, F. A. et al. (1992). Abnormalities of the left temporal lobe and thought disorder in schizophrenia. A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. N Engl J Med, 327, 604–12.
Shenton, M. E., O’Donnell, B. F., Nestor, P. G. et al. (1993). Temporal lobe abnormalities in a patient with schizophrenia who has word-finding difficulty: use of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and auditory P300 event-related potentials. Harvard Rev Psychiatry, 1, 110–17.
Spencer, M. D., Moorhead, T. W. J., McIntosh, A. M. et al. (2007). Grey matter correlates of early psychotic symptoms in adolescents at enhanced risk of psychosis: a voxel-based study. Neuroimage, 35, 1181–91.
Spitzer, M., Braun, U., Hermle, L. & Maier, S. (1993). Associative semantic network dysfunction in thought-disordered schizophrenic patients: direct evidence from indirect semantic priming. Biol Psychiatry, 34, 864–77.
Stirling, J., Hellewell, J., Blakey, A. & Deakin, W. (2006). Thought disorder in schizophrenia is associated with both executive dysfunction and circumscribed impairments in semantic function. Psychol Med, 36, 475–84.
Subotnik, K. L., Bartzokis, G., Green, M. F. & Nuechterlein, K. H. (2003). Neuroanatomical correlates of formal thought disorder in schizophrenia. Cogn Neuropsychiatry, 8, 81–8.
Titone, D., Levy, D. L. & Holzman, P. S. (2000). Contextual insensitivity in schizophrenic language processing: evidence from lexical ambiguity. J Abnorm Psychol, 109, 761–7.
Vita, A., Dieci, M., Giobbio, G. M. et al. (1995). Language and thought disorder in schizophrenia: brain morphological correlates. Schizophr Res, 15, 243–51.
Weinstein, S., Werker, J. F., Vouloumanos, A., Woodward, T. S. & Ngan, E. T. (2006). Do you hear what I hear? Neural correlates of thought disorder during listening to speech in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, 86, 130–7.
Weinstein, S., Woodward, T. S. & Ngan, E. T. C. (2007). Brain activation mediates the association between structural abnormality and symptom severity in schizophrenia. Neuroimage, 36, 188–93.
Weisbrod, M., Maier, S., Harig, S., Himmelsbach, U. & Spitzer, M. (1998). Lateralised semantic and indirect semantic priming effects in people with schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry, 172, 142–6.
Youn, T., Park, H.-J., Kim, J.-J., Kim, M. S. & Kwon, J. S. (2002). Altered hemispheric asymmetry and positive symptoms in schizophrenia: equivalent current dipole of auditory mismatch negativity. Schizophr Res, 59, 253–60.

References

Abecasis, G. R., Burt, R. A., Hall, D. et al. (2004). Genomewide scan in families with schizophrenia from the founder population of Afrikaners reveals evidence for linkage and uniparental disomy on chromosome 1. Am J Hum Genet, 74(3), 403–17.
Andrews, J., Wang, L., Csernansky, J. G., Gado, M. H. & Barch, D. M. (2006). Abnormalities of thalamic activation and cognition in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry, 163(3), 463–9.
Anneken, K., Konrad, C., Dräger, B. et al. (2004). Familial aggregation of strong hemispheric language lateralization. Neurology, 63, 2433–5.
Annett, M. (1972). The distribution of manual asymmetry. Br J Psychol, 63, 343–58.
Berlim, M. T., Mattevi, B. S., Belmonte-de-Abreu, P. & Crow, T. J. (2003). The etiology of schizophrenia and the origin of language: overview of a theory. Compr Psychiatry, 44(1), 7–14.
Bunzel, R., Blumcke, I., Cichon, S. et al. (1998). Polymorphic imprinting of the serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor gene in human adult brain. Mol Brain Res, 59(1), 90–2.
Csernansky, J. G., Schindler, M. K., Splinter, N. R. et al. (2004). Abnormalities of thalamic volume and shape in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry, 161(5), 896–902.
De Fosse, L., Hodge, S. M., Makris, N. et al. (2004). Language-association cortex asymmetry in autism and specific language impairment. Ann Neurol, 56(6), 757–66.
DeLisi, L. E., Sakuma, M., Kushner, M. et al. (1997). Anomalous cerebral asymmetry and language processing in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull, 23(2), 255–71.
DeLisi, L. E., Shaw, S. H., Crow, T. J. & et al. (2002a). A genome-wide scan for linkage to chromosomal regions in 382 sibling pairs with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Am J Psychiatry, 159(5), 803–12.
DeLisi, L. E., Svetina, C., Razi, K. et al. (2002b). Hand preference and hand skill in families with schizophrenia. Laterality, 7(4), 321–32.
Fisher, S. E., Francks, C., Marlow, A. J. et al. (2002). Independent genome-wide scans identify a chromosome 18 quantitative-trait locus influencing dyslexia. Nat Genet, 30(1), 86–91.
Fournier, A. E., GrandPre, T., Gould, G., Wang, X. & Strittmatter, S. M. (2002). Nogo and the Nogo-66 receptor. Prog Brain Res, 137, 361–9.
Francks, C., DeLisi, L. E., Fisher, S. E. et al. (2003a). Confirmatory evidence for linkage of relative hand skill to 2p12-q11. Am J Hum Genet, 72(2), 499–502.
Francks, C., DeLisi, L. E., Shaw, S. H. et al. (2003b). Parent-of-origin effects on handedness and schizophrenia susceptibility on chromosome 2p12-q11. Hum Mol Genet, 12(24), 3225–30.
Francks, C., Fisher, S. E., MacPhie, I. L. et al. (2002). A genomewide linkage screen for relative hand skill in sibling pairs. Am J Hum Genet, 70(3), 800–5.
Francks, C., Fisher, S. E., Marlow, A. J. et al. (2003e). Familial and genetic effects on motor coordination, laterality, and reading-related cognition. Am J Psychiatry, 160(11), 1970–7.
Francks, C., Maegawa, S., Laurén, J. et al. (2007). LRRTM1 on chromosome 2p12 is a maternally suppressed gene that is associated paternally with handedness and schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry, 12(12), 1129–39.
Geschwind, D. H., Miller, B. L., DeCarli, C. & Carmelli, D. (2002). Heritability of lobar brain volumes in twins supports genetic models of cerebral laterality and handedness. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 99(5), 3176–81.
Harrison, P. J. & Weinberger, D. R. (2004). Schizophrenia genes, gene expression, and neuropathology: on the matter of their convergence. Mol Psychiatry, 10(1), 40–68.
Herbert, M. R., Harris, G. J., Adrien, K. T. et al. (2002). Abnormal asymmetry in language association cortex in autism. Ann Neurol, 52(5), 588–96.
Hering-Hanit, R., Achiron, R., Lipitz, S. & Achiron, A. (2001). Asymmetry of fetal cerebral hemispheres: in utero ultrasound study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, 85(3), F194–F196.
Hugdahl, K. & Davidson, R. J. (eds.) (2003). The Asymmetrical Brain. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Hutsler, J. & Galuske, R. A. (2003). Hemispheric asymmetries in cerebral cortical networks. Trends Neurosci, 26(8), 429–35.
Imprinted Gene Catalogue http://igc.otago.ac.nz/home.html. Web. 20-11-2006.
Ioannidis, J. P. A., Ntzani, E. E., Trikalinos, T. A. & Contopoulos-Ioannidis, D. G. (2001). Replication validity of genetic association studies. Nat Genet, 29(3), 306–9.
Kimura, M. I., Kazuki, Y., Kashiwagi, A. et al. (2004). Dlx5, the mouse homologue of the human-imprinted DLX5 gene, is biallelically expressed in the mouse brain. J Hum. Genet, 49(5), 273–7.
Kochunov, P., Fox, P., Lancaster, J. et al. (2003). Localized morphological brain differences between English-speaking Caucasians and Chinese-speaking Asians: new evidence of anatomical plasticity. Neuroreport, 14(7), 961–4.
Kugoh, H., Mitsuya, K., Meguro, M. et al. (1999). Mouse A9 cells containing single human chromosomes for analysis of genomic imprinting. DNA Res, 6(3), 165–72.
Lauren, J., Airaksinen, M. S., Saarma, M. & Timmusk, T. (2003). A novel gene family encoding leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins differentially expressed in the nervous system. Genomics, 81(4), 411–21.
Lewis, C. M., Levinson, D. F., Wise, L. H. et al. (2003). Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, Part II: schizophrenia. Am J Hum Genet, 73(1), 34–48.
Majercak, J., Ray, W. J., Espeseth, A. et al. (2006). LRRTM3 promotes processing of amyloid-precursor protein by BACE1 and is a positional candidate gene for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. PNAS, 103(47), 17967–72.
McManus, I. C. (1985). Handedness, language dominance and aphasia: a genetic model. Psychological Medicine, Monograph Supplement 8.
McManus, I. C. & Bryden, M. P. (1992). The Genetics of Handedness, Cerebral Dominance and Lateralization. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Mevorach, C., Humphreys, G. W. & Shalev, L. (2005). Attending to local form while ignoring global aspects depends on handedness: evidence from TMS. Nat Neurosci, 8(3), 276–7.
Morison, I. M., Ramsay, J. P. & Spencer, H. G. (2005). A census of mammalian imprinting. Trends Genet, 21(8), 457–65.
Orr, K. G., Cannon, M., Gilvarry, C. M., Jones, P. B. & Murray, R. M. (1999). Schizophrenic patients and their first-degree relatives show an excess of mixed-handedness. Schizophr Res, 39(3), 167–76.
Paulesu, E., Demonet, J. F., Fazio, F. et al. (2001). Dyslexia: cultural diversity and biological unity. Science, 291(5511), 2165–7.
Prabhakar, S., Noonan, J. P., Paabo, S. & Rubin, E. M. (2006). Accelerated evolution of conserved noncoding sequences in humans. Science, 314, 786.
Reik, W. & Walter, J. (2001). Genomic imprinting: parental influence on the genome. Nat Rev Genet, 2(1), 21–32.
Risch, N. & Pringle, G. (1985). Segregation analysis of human hand preference. Behav Genet, 15(4), 385–400.
Rogers, L. J. & Andrew, R. (eds.) (2002). Comparative Vertebrate Lateralization. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Sakatani, T., Wei, M., Katoh, M. et al. (2001). Epigenetic heterogeneity at imprinted loci in normal populations. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 283(5), 1124–30.
Shenton, M. E., Dickey, C. C., Frumin, M. & McCarley, R. W. (2001). A review of MRI findings in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, 49(1–2), 1–52.
Sommer, I. E., Ramsey, N. F., Mandl, R. C. & Kahn, R. S. (2002). Language lateralization in monozygotic twin pairs concordant and discordant for handedness. Brain, 125(12), 2710–18.
Speder, P., Petzoldt, A., Suzanne, M. & Noselli, S. (2007). Strategies to establish left/right asymmetry in vertebrates and invertebrates. Curr Opin Genet Dev, 17(4), 351–8.
Sullivan, P. F., Kendler, K. S. & Neale, M. C. (2003). Schizophrenia as a complex trait: evidence from a meta-analysis of twin studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 60(12), 1187–92.
Sun, T., Patoine, C., Abu-Khalil, A. et al. (2005). Early asymmetry of gene transcription in embryonic human left and right cerebral cortex. Science, 308(5729), 1794–8.
Takahashi, S., Cui, Y. H., Kojima, T. et al. (2003). Family-based association study of markers on chromosome 22 in schizophrenia using African-American, European-American, and Chinese families. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet, 120(1), 11–17.
Thiselton, D. L., Webb, B. T., Neale, B. M. et al. (2004). No evidence for linkage or association of neuregulin-1 (NRG1) with disease in the Irish study of high-density schizophrenia families (ISHDSF). Mol Psychiatry, 9(8), 777–83.
Van den Oord, E. J. C. G., Rujescu, D., Robles, J. R. et al. (2006). Factor structure and external validity of the PANSS revisited. Schizophr Res, 82(2–3), 213–23.
Wilkins, J. F. & Haig, D. (2003). What good is genomic imprinting: the function of parent-specific gene expression. Nat Rev Genet, 4(5), 359–68.
Williams, N. A., Close, J. P., Giouzeli, M. & Crow, T. J. (2006). Accelerated evolution of Protocadherin11X/Y: a candidate gene-pair for cerebral asymmetry and language. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet, 141(6), 623–33.
Xiong, L., Rouleau, G. A., DeLisi, L. E. et al. (2005). CAA insertion polymorphism in the 3′UTR of Nogo gene on 2p14 is not associated with schizophrenia. Mol Brain Res, 133(1), 153–6.
Yamasaki, K., Joh, K., Ohta, T. et al. (2003). Neurons but not glial cells show reciprocal imprinting of sense and antisense transcripts of Ube3a. Hum Mol Genet, 12(8), 837–47.