Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Language Dominance in Bilinguals
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 12
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

With contributions from leading scholars of bilingualism, Language Dominance in Bilinguals is the first publication to survey different approaches to language dominance, along with suggested avenues for further research. It illustrates how a critical approach to the notion of language dominance, as well as its operationalization and measurement, can provide new insights into this burgeoning area of research. Drawing on adult and child data from a variety of language pairs, the chapters discuss how language dominance is to be conceptualized and distinguished from such related constructs as language proficiency and language competence. This volume is the first of its kind to present an overview of different approaches to language dominance from across the theoretical spectrum, as well as suggested avenues for further research. Accessibly written, Language Dominance in Bilinguals is a valuable new addition to the field and essential reading for students and scholars working in bilingualism, speech therapy and education.

Reviews

‘This ambitious book fills an important gap in bi- and multilingual research. Providing a well-motivated theoretical basis, it covers a broad variety of different ways of operationalising and measuring dominance.'

Heidi Rontu - Aalto University, Finland

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

Abrahamsson, N., & Hyltenstam, K. (2009). Age of onset and nativelikeness in L2: Listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny. Language Learning, 59, 249306.
Adragão, M., & Costa, J. (2003). On the status of preverbal subjects in null subject languages: evidence from acquisition. In van Kampen, J & Baauw, S. (Eds.), Proceedings of GALA 2003 (Vol. 1, pp. 6980). Utrecht: LOT.
Ågren, M., Granfeldt, J., & Thomas, A. (2014). Combined effects of age of onset and input on the development of different grammatical structures: A study of simultaneous and successive bilingual acquisition of French. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 4, 461492.
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park: Sage.
Alarcón, I. (2011). Spanish gender agreement under complete and incomplete acquisition: Early and late bilinguals’ linguistic behavior within the noun phrase. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14, 332350.
Altman, D. G. (1998). Categorizing continuous variables. In Armitage, P. & Colton, T. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of biostatistics (pp. 563567). New York: Wiley.
Altman, D. G., & Royston, P. (2006). The cost of dichotomizing continuous variables. British Medical Journal, 332, 1080.
Ameel, E., Malt, B., Storms, G., & Van Assche, F. (2009). Semantic convergence in the bilingual lexicon. Journal of Memory and Language, 60, 270290.
Annett, M. (1970). A classification of hand preference by association analysis. British Journal of Psychology, 61, 303321.
Annett, M. (1976). A coordination of hand preference and skill replicated. British Journal of Psychology, 67, 587592.
Annett, M. (1998a). The stability of handedness. In Connolly, K. J. (Ed.), Psychobiology of the hand (pp. 6376). London: Mac Keith Press (Clinics in Developmental Medicine).
Annett, M. (1998b). Handedness and cerebral dominance: The right shift theory. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10, 459469.
Antelmi, D. (1997). La prima grammatical dell’italiano: Indagine longitudinale sull’acquisizione della morfosintassi italiana. Bologna: il Mulino.
Arencibia Guerra, L. (2008). Sprachdominanz bei bilingualen Kindern mit Deutsch und Französisch, Italienisch oder Spanisch als Erstsprachen. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bergische Universität Wuppertal.
Argyri, E., & Sorace, A. (2007). Crosslinguistic influence and language dominance in older bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 7999.
Arias, J., Kintana, N., Rakow, M., & Rieckborn, S. (2005). Sprachdominanz: Konzepte und Kriterien. Working Papers on Multilingualism, 68. University of Hamburg.
Arnaus Gil, L. (2013). La selección copulativa y auxiliar: Las lenguas romances (español – italiano – catalán – francés) y el alemán en contacto – Su adquisición en niños bilingües y trilingües. Tübingen: Narr.
Au, T., Knightly, L, Jun, S., & Oh, J. (2002). Overhearing a language during childhood. Psychological Science, 13, 238243.
Averintseva-Klisch, M. (2008). German right dislocation and afterthought in discourse. In Benz, A. & Kühnlein, P. (Eds.), Constraints in discourse (pp. 225247). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Bachman, L. F. (1985). Performance on cloze tests with fixed ratio and rational deletions. TESOL Quarterly, 16, 6170.
Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. (2010). Language assessment in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bachman, L. F., & Savignon, S. J. (1990). Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Baetens Beardsmore, H. (1982). Bilingualism: Basic principles. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Bahrick, H. P., Hall, L. K., Goggin, J. P., Bahrick, L. E., & Berger, S. A. (1994). Fifty years of language maintenance and language dominance in bilingual Hispanic immigrants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123, 264283.
Baker, C. (2011). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (5th ed.). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Baker, C., & Prys Jones, S. (1998). Encyclopedia of bilingualism and bilingual education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Balukas, C., & Koops, C. (2014). Spanish–English bilingual VOT in spontaneous code-switching. International Journal of Bilingualism. Published online before print January 14, 2014, doi:10.1177/1367006913516035.
Barlow, J. A. (2002). Error patterns and transfer in Spanish–English bilingual phonological development. In Skarabela, B., Fish, S., & Do, A. H.-J. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Boston University Conference on Language Development, 26, 6071.
Barnes, J., & García, I. (2013). Vocabulary growth and composition in monolingual and bilingual Basque infants and toddlers. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17, 357374.
Bates, E., & Goodman, J. (1997). On the inseparability of grammar and the lexicon: Evidence from acquisition, aphasia and real-time processing. In. Altmann, G. (Ed.), Special issue on the lexicon. Language and Cognitive Processes, 12, 507586.
Bates, E., Dale, P. S., & Thal, D. (1995). Individual differences and their implications for theories of language development. In Fletcher, P. & MacWhinney, B. (Eds.), The handbook of child language (pp. 96151). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Bedore, L. M., Pena, E. D., Summers, C. L., Boerger, K. M., Resendiz, M. D., Greene, K., et al. (2012). The measure matters: Language dominance profiles across measures in Spanish–English bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 616629.
Belletti, A., Bennati, E., & Sorace, A. (2007). Theoretical and developmental issues in the syntax of subjects: Evidence from near-native Italian. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 25, 657689.
Benmamoun, E., Montrul, S., & Polinsky, M. (2013). Heritage languages and their speakers: Opportunities and challenges for linguistics. Theoretical Linguistics, 39, 129181.
Berman, R. (1979). The re-emergence of a bilingual: A case study of a Hebrew–English speaking child. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 19, 158180.
Berman, R. A., & Slobin, D. I. (1994). Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bernardini, P. (2003). Child and adult acquisition of word order in the Italian DP. In Müller, N. (Ed.), (In)vulnerable domains in multilingualism (pp. 4181). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Bernardini, P. (2004). L’Italiano come prima e seconda (madre)lingua. Indagine longitudinale sullo sviluppo del DP. In Études Romanes de Lund, 71. Doctoral dissertation, Lund University.
Bernardini, P., & Schlyter, S. (2004). Growing syntactic structure and code-mixing in the weaker language: The Ivy Hypothesis. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7, 4969.
Bettoni, C., Di Biase, B., & Nuzzo, E. (2009). Postverbal subject in Italian L2: A Processability Theory approach. In Keßler, J.-U. & Keatinge, D. (Eds.), Research in second language acquisition: Empirical evidence across languages (pp. 153174). Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Bialystok, E. (2009). Bilingualism: The good, the bad, and the indifferent. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 311.
Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., & Luk, G. (2008). Lexical access in bilinguals: Effects of vocabulary size and executive control. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 21, 522538.
Bialystok, E., Luk, G., Peets, K. F., & Yang, S. (2010). Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 525531.
Bianchi, G. (2013). Gender in Italian–German Bilinguals: A comparison with German L2 learners of Italian. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 538557.
Birdsong, D. (2006). Dominance, proficiency, and second language grammatical processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27, 4649.
Birdsong, D., & Gertken, L. M. (2013). In faint praise of folly: A critical review of native/non-native speaker comparisons, with examples from native and bilingual processing of French complex syntax. Language, Interaction and Acquisition, 4, 107133.
Birdsong, D., Gertken, L. M., & Amengual, M. (2013). Bilingual language profile: An easy-to-use instrument to assess bilingualism. COERLL, University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved from https://sites.la.utexas.edu/bilingual.
Bishop, D., & Adams, C. (1990). A prospective study of the relationship between specific language impairment, phonological disorders and reading retardation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 10271050.
Bishop, D. V. M., Ross, V. A., Daniels, M. S., & Bright, P. (1996). The measurement of hand preference: A validation study comparing three groups of right-handers. British Journal of Psychology, 87, 269285.
Blom, E. (2010). Effects of input on the early grammatical development of bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingualism, 14, 422446.
Blommaert, J. (1992). Codeswitching and the exclusivity of social identities: Some data from Campus Kiswahili. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 13, 5770.
Bloomfield, L. (1927). Literate and illiterate speech. American Speech, 432439.
Bloomfield, L. (1962). Language. Holt, New York. (Original work published 1933)
Bohman, T. M., Bedore, L. M., Peña, E. D., Méndez-Pérez, A., & Gillam, R. B. (2010). What you hear and what you say: Language performance in Spanish–English bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13, 325344.
Bonnesen, M. (2009). The status of the “weaker” language in unbalanced French/German bilingual language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 177192.
Bornstein, M. H., De Houwer, A., & Putnick, D. L. (submitted). Relations between lexical comprehension and production: Longitudinal evidence from bilingual infants and toddlers and neurodevelopmental implications.
De Houwer, A., Bornstein, M. H., & Leach, D. B. (2005). Assessing early communicative ability: A cross-reporter cumulative score for the MacArthur CDI. Journal of Child Language, 32, 735758.
De Houwer, A., Bornstein, M. H., & Putnick, D. L. (2014). A bilingual–monolingual comparison of young children’s vocabulary size: Evidence from comprehension and production. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35, 11891211.
Bornstein, M. H., Putnick, D. L., & De Houwer, A. (2006). Child vocabulary across the second year: Stability and continuity for reporter comparisons and a cumulative score. First Language, 26, 299316.
Bosch, L., Costa, A., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2000). First and second language vowel perception in early bilinguals. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 12, 189221.
Bottari, P., Cipriani, P., Chilosi, A. M., & Pfanner, L. (2001). The Italian determiner system in normal acquisition, specific language impairment, and childhood aphasia. Brain and Language, 77, 283293.
Bowles, M. (2011). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge: What can heritage language learners contribute? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 247271.
Brown, J. D. (1983). A closer look at cloze: Validity and reliability. In Oller, J. W., Jr. (Ed.), Issues in language testing research (pp. 237250). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bruhn de Garavito, J. (2002). Verb raising in Spanish: A comparison of early and late bilinguals. In Skarabela, B., Fish, S., & Do, A. H.-J. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 8494). Sommerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Brulard, I., & Carr, P. (2003). French–English bilingual acquisition of phonology: One production system or two? International Journal of Bilingualism, 7, 177202.
Bryden, M. P., Bulman-Fleming, M. B., & MacDonald, V. (1996). The measurement of handedness and its relation to neuropsychological issues. In Elliott, D. & Roy, E. A. (Eds.), Manual asymmetries in motor performance (pp. 5782). Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Bryden, M. P., Singh, M., Steenhuis, R. E., & Clarkson, K. L. (1994). A behavioral measure of hand preference as opposed to hand skill. Neuropsychologia, 32, 991999.
Bullock, B. E., Toribio, A. J., González, V., & Dalola, A. (2006). Language dominance and performance outcomes in bilingual pronunciation. In O’Brien, M. Grantham, Shea, M., & Archibald, J. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th Generative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition Conference (GASLA 2006) (pp. 616). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
Burling, R. (1959). Language development of a Garo and English speaking child. Word, 15, 4568.
Caldas, S. J., & Caron-Caldas, S. (1997). Cultural influences on French/English language dominance of three Louisiana children. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 10, 139155.
Cantone, K. F. (2007). Code-switching in bilingual children. Dordrecht: Springer.
Cantone, K. F., Müller, N., Schmitz, K., & Kupisch, T. (2008). Rethinking language dominance in bilingual children. Linguistische Berichte, 215, 307343.
Cantone, K. F., & Müller, N. (2005). Codeswitching at the interface of language-specific lexicons and the computational system. International Journal of Bilingualism, 9, 205225.
Carreira, M., & Kagan, O. (2011). The results of the National Heritage Language Survey: Implications for teaching, curriculum design, and professional development. Foreign Language Annals, 44, 4064.
Carreira, M., & Potowski, K. (2011). Pedagogical implications of experimental SNS research. Heritage Language Journal, 8, 134151.
Carroll, J. B. (1972). Fundamental considerations in testing for English language proficiency of foreign students. In Allen, H. B. & Campbell, R. N. (Eds.), Teaching English as a second language: A book of readings (pp. 364372). New York: McGraw Hill. (Original work published 1961)
Carroll, R., & Luna, D. (2011). The other meaning of fluency: Content accessibility and language in advertising to bilinguals. Journal of Advertising, 40, 7384.
Chen, H., Cohen, P., & Chen, S. (2007). Biased odds ratios from dichotomization of age. Statistics in Medicine, 26, 34873497.
Cherbuin, N., Perminder, S. S., & Anstey, K. J. (2011). Mixed handedness is associated with greater age-related decline in volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala: The PATH through life study. Brain and Behavior, 1, 125134.
Chiaro, D. (2009). Cultural divide or unifying factor? Humorous talk in the interaction of bilingual, cross-cultural couples. In Norrick, N. & Chiaro, D. (Eds.), Humor in interaction (pp. 211231). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Chincotta, D., & Underwood, G. (1999). Non-temporal determinants of bilingual memory capacity. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 117130.
Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. (1995). The minimalist program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chondrogianni, V., & Marinis, T. (2011). Differential effects of internal and external factors on the development of vocabulary, tense morphology and morpho-syntax in successive bilingual children. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1, 318342.
Cipriani, P., Chilosi, P., Bottari, P., & Pfanner, L. (1993). L’acquisizione della morfosintassi in italiano: Fasi e processi. Padova: Unipress.
Clahsen, H., Eisenbeiss, S., & Penke, M. (1996). Lexical learning in early syntactic development. In Clahsen, H. & Rutherford, W. (Eds.), Generative perspectives on language acquisition (pp. 129159). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Conboy, B. T., & Mills, D. L. (2005). Two languages, one developing brain: Event-related potentials to words in bilingual toddlers. Developmental Science, 9, F1F12.
Cook, V. (1994). Universal grammar and the learning and teaching of second languages. In Odlin, T. (Ed.), Perspectives on pedagogical grammar (pp. 2548). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cook, V. (1995). Multi-competence and effects of age. In Singleton, D. & Lengyel, Z. (Eds.), The age factor in second language acquisition (pp. 5166). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Cook, V. (2002). Portraits of the L2 user. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Cook, V. (Ed.). (2003). Effects of the second language on the first. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Cooper, R. (1971). Degree of bilingualism. In Fishman, J., Cooper, R., & Ma, R. (Eds.), Bilingualism in the barrio (pp. 273309). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Cornips, L. M. E. A., & Hulk, A. (2006). External and internal factors in bilingual and bidialectal language development: Grammatical gender of the Dutch definite determiner. L2 Acquisition and Creole Genesis: Dialogues (pp. 355377). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Costa, A., Hernández, M., Costa-Faidella, J., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2009). On the bilingual advantage in conflict processing: Now you see it, now you don’t. Cognition, 113, 135149.
Cromdal, J. (1999). Childhood bilingualism and metalinguistic skills: Analysis and control in young Swedish–English bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 120.
Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J., & Leask, S. (1998). Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. Neuropsychologia, 36, 12751282.
Cummins, J. (1976). The influence of bilingualism on cognitive growth: Synthesis of research findings and explanatory hypotheses. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 9, 144.
Cutler, A., Mehler, J., Norris, D., & Segui, J. (1989). Limits on bilingualism. Nature, 340, 229230.
Cutler, A., Mehler, J., Norris, D., (1992). The monolingual nature of speech segmentation by bilinguals. Cognitive Psychology, 24, 381410.
Cuza, A., & Frank, J. (2011). Transfer effects at the syntax–semantics interface: The case of double-que questions in heritage Spanish. The Heritage Language Journal, 8, 6689.
Dabrowska, E. (2012). Different speakers, different grammars: Individual differences in native language attainment. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 2, 219253.
Daller, H. (1999). Migration und Mehrsprachigkeit: Der Sprachstand türkischer Rückkehrer aus Deutschland. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Daller, M. (2011). The measurement of bilingual proficiency: Introduction. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 123127.
Daller, M. H., Malvern, D. D., Meara, P., Milton, J., Richards, B. J., & Treffers-Daller, J. (Eds.). (2011). Measurement of bilingual proficiency. Special Issue of the International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 123238.
Daller, H., Van Hout, R., & Treffers-Daller, J. (2003). Lexical richness in spontaneous speech of bilinguals. Applied Linguistics, 24, 197222.
Daller, M. H., Yıldız, C., de Jong, N. H., Kan, S., & Başbağı, R. (2011). Language dominance in Turkish–German bilinguals: Methodological aspects of measurements in structurally different languages. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 215236.
David, A., & Li, W. (2008). Individual differences in the lexical development of French–English bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11, 598618.
De Cat, C. (2002). French dislocations. Doctoral dissertation, University of Oxford.
De Groot, A. M. (2011). Language and cognition in bilinguals and multilinguals: An introduction. New York: Psychology Press.
De Houwer, A. (1990). The acquisition of two languages from birth: A case study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
De Houwer, A. (1998). By way of introduction: Methods in studies of bilingual first language acquisition. International Journal of Bilingualism, 2, 249263.
De Houwer, A. (2006). Bilingual development in the early years. In Brown, K. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of language and linguistics (pp. 781787). Oxford: Elsevier.
De Houwer, A. (2007). Parental language input patterns and children’s bilingual use. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28(3), 411424.
De Houwer, A. (2009). Bilingual first language acquisition. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
De Houwer, A. (2010). Assessing lexical development in bilingual first language acquisition: What can we learn from monolingual norms? In Cruz-Ferreira, M. (Ed.), Multilingual norms (pp. 279322). Frankfurt, Germany: Peter Lang.
De Houwer, A. (2011). Language input environments and language development in bilingual acquisition. Applied Linguistics Review, 2, 221240.
De Houwer, A. (2014). The absolute frequency of maternal input to bilingual and monolingual children: A first comparison. In Grüter, T. & Paradis, J. (Eds.), Input and experience in bilingual development (pp. 3758). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
De Houwer, A. (2015). Harmonious bilingual development: Young families’ well-being in language contact situations. International Journal of Bilingualism, 19(2): 169–184 (first published online on June 11, 2013, doi:10.1177/1367006913489202).
De Houwer, A. & Bornstein, M. H. (to appear). Bilingual mothers’ language choice in child-directed speech: continuity and change. Journal of Multicultural and Multilingual Development.
De Houwer, A., Bornstein, M. H., & De Coster, S. (2006). Early understanding of two words for the same thing: A CDI study of lexical comprehension in infant bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism, 10, 331347.
De Houwer, A., Bornstein, M. H. & Leach, D. B. (2005). Assessing early communicative ability: A cross-reporter cumulative score for the MacArthur CDI. Journal of Child Language, 32, 735758.
De Houwer, A., Bornstein, M. H. & Putnick, D. L. (2014). A bilingual–monolingual comparison of young children’s vocabulary size: Evidence from comprehension and production. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35, 11891211.
De Leeuw, E., Schmid, M., & Mennen, I. (2010). Perception of foreign accent in native speech. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 3340.
De Prada Pérez, A., & Pascual y Cabo, D. (2011). Invariable gusta in the Spanish of heritage speakers in the US. In Hershenschon, J. & Tanner, D. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th Generative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition (GASLA). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
Deuchar, M., & Muntz, R. (2003). Factors accounting for code-mixing in an early developing bilingual. In Müller, N. (Ed.), (In)vulnerable domains in multilingualism (pp. 161190). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Deuchar, M., & Quay, S. (1999). Language choice in the earliest utterances: A case study with methodological implications. Journal of Child Language, 26, 461475.
Deuchar, M., & Quay, S. (2000). Bilingual acquisition: Theoretical implications of a case study. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Dewaele, J.-M., & Pavlenko, A. (2003). Productivity and lexical diversity in native and non-native speech. A study of cross-cultural effects. In Cook, V. (Ed.), Effects of the second language on the first (pp. 120141). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Dickinson, O. K., & Tabors, P. O. (Eds.). (2001). Beginning literacy with language: Young children learning at home and school. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Dirim, I., & Auer, P. (Eds.). (2004). Türkisch sprechen nicht nur die Türken: über die Unschärfebeziehung zwischen Sprache und Ethnie in Deutschland. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Dodson, C. J. (1981). A reappraisal of bilingual development and education: Some theoretical and practical considerations. In Beardsmore, H. Baetens (Ed.), Elements of bilingual theory (pp. 1427). Brussels: Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Döpke, S. (1992). One parent one language: An interactional approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Döpke, S. (1996). The weaker language in simultaneous bilingualism: Why it is not like L2. Unpublished manuscript, Monash University.
Döpke, S. (1998). Competing language structures: The acquisition of verb placement by bilingual German–English children. Journal of Child Language, 25, 555584.
Döpke, S. (2000a). One parent–one language: An interactional approach. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Döpke, S. (2000b). Generation of and retraction from cross-linguistically motivated structures in bilingual first language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3, 209226.
Driessen, G., van der Slik, F., & De Bot, K. (2002). Home language and language proficiency: A large-scale longitudinal study in Dutch primary schools. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 3, 175194.
Duffield, N., & White, L. (1999). Assessing L2 knowledge of Spanish clitic placement: Convergent methodologies. Second Language Research, 15, 133160.
Dugast, D. (1980). La statistique lexicale. Genève: Slatkine.
Dunn, A., & Fox Tree, J. (2009). A quick, gradient bilingual dominance scale. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 273289.
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test (PPVT-4) (4th ed.). Minneapolis: Pearson.
Dunn, L. M., Dunn, L. M., & Schlichting, L. (2005). Peabody picture vocabulary test-III-NL. Amsterdam: Pearson.
Dunn, L. M., Dunn, L., Whetton, C., & Burley, J. (1997). British picture vocabulary scale–II. Windsor: NFER-NELSON.
Dunn, L. M., Padilla, E. R., Lugo, D. E., & Dunn, L. M. (1986). Test de vocabulario en imágenes Peabody (TVIP) [Peabody picture vocabulary test]. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Eckes, T., & Grotjahn, R. (2006). A closer look at the construct validity of C-tests. Language Testing, 23, 290325.
Edmondson, W., & House, J. (1991). Do learners talk too much? In Phillipson, R., Kellerman, E., Phillipson, R., Selinker, L., Smith, M. Sharwood, & Swain, M. (Eds.), Foreign/second language pedagogy research (pp. 273286). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Eisenstein, M. (1982). A study of social variation in adult second language aquisition. Language Learning, 32(2), 367391.
Elder, N., & Nicoladis, E. (2012). “I have three years old”: Evidence for compositional representation of fixed expressions in a bilingual child. Unpublished paper. University of Alberta.
Fairclough, M. (2011). Testing the lexical recognition task with Spanish/English bilinguals in the United States. Language Testing, 28, 273297.
Fantini, A. E. (1985). Language acquisition of a bilingual child: A sociolinguistic perspective. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Favreau, M., & Segalowitz, N. (1982). Second language reading in fluent bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 3, 329341.
Favreau, M., & Segalowitz, N. (1983). Automatic and controlled processes in the first – and second language reading of fluent bilinguals. Memory and Cognition, 11, 565574.
Fazio, R., Dunham, K. J., Griswold, S., & Denney, R. L. (2013). An improved measure of handedness: The Fazio Laterality Inventory. Applied Neuropsychology Adult, 20, 197202.
Fenson, L., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., Thal, D., Bates, E., Hartung, J., Pethick, S., & Reilly, J. S. (1993). The Macarthur communicative development inventories: User’s guide and technical manual. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.
Fenson, L., Dale, P., Reznick, J. S., Bates, E., Thal, D., Pethick, S., Tomasello, M., Mervis, C. B., & Stiles, J. (1994). Variability in early communicative development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59 (5, Serial No. 242).
Ferguson, C. A. (1993). The language factor in national development. Anthropological Linguistics, 35, 124129.
Ferrari, I., & Matteini, S. (2008). On the residual omission of determiners in Italian L1: A case study (STiL – Studies in Linguistics Vol. 2 – CISCL Working Papers). University of Siena.
Finlayson, R., & Slabbert, S. (1997). I’ll meet you halfway with language: Code-switching within a South African urban context. In Pütz, M. (Ed.), Language choices: Conditions, constraints and consequences (pp. 381421). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Fishman, J. A. (1971). Advances in the sociology of language. The Hague: Mouton.
Fishman, J. A. (2007). Who speaks what language to whom and when? In Li, W. (Ed.), The bilingualism reader (2nd ed., pp. 5570). London: Routledge.
Fishman, J. A., & Cooper, R. L. (1969). Alternative measures of bilingualism. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 276282.
Fishman, J. A., Cooper, R. L., & Ma, R. (1968). Alternative measures of bilingualism. In Fishman, J. A., Cooper, R. L., & Ma, R. (Eds.), Bilingualism in the barrio (pp. 483512). New York: Yeshiva University.
Flege, J. E., Munro, M. J., & MacKay, I. R. A. (1995). Effects of age of second language learning on the production of English consonants. Speech Communication, 16, 126.
Flege, J. E., MacKay, I. R., & Meador, D. (1999). Native Italian speakers’ perception and production of English vowels. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 106, 29732987.
Foroodi-Nejad, F., & Paradis, J. (2009). Crosslinguistic transfer in the acquisition of compound nouns in Persian–English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 411427.
Francis, N. (2012). Bilingual competence and bilingual proficiency in child development. MIT: Cambridge University Press.
Franks, S. (1995). Parameters of Slavic morphosyntax. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Gasser, C. (2000). Exploring the Complementarity Principle: The case of first generation English–German bilinguals in the Basle area. Master’s thesis, English Linguistics, University of Basle, Switzerland.
Gathercole, V. C. M. (Ed.). (2013). Issues in the assessment of bilinguals. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Gathercole, V. C. M., & Thomas, E. M. (2009). Bilingual first-language development: Dominant language takeover, threatened minority language take-up. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 213237.
Gavarró, A. (2003). Economy and word order patterns in English–Dutch acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 6(1), 6979.
Gawlitzek-Maiwald, I., & Tracy, R. (1996). Bilingual boot-strapping. Linguistics, 34, 901926.
Genesee, F. (1989). Early bilingual development: One language or two? Journal of Child Language, 16, 161179.
Genesee, F., & Nicoladis, E. (2007). Bilingual first language acquisition. In Hoff, E. & Shatz, M. (Eds.), Handbook on language acquisition (pp. 324343). Oxford: Blackwell.
Genesee, F., Nicoladis, E., & Paradis, J. (1995). Language differentiation in early bilingual development. Journal of Child Language, 22, 611631.
Gerken, K. C. (1978). Language dominance: A comparison of measures. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 9, 187196.
Gertken, L. M., Amengual, M., & Birdsong, D. (2014). Assessing language dominance with the bilingual language profile. In Leclercq, P., Edmonds, A., & Hilton, H. (Eds.), Measuring L2 proficiency: Perspectives from SLA (pp. 208225). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Goggin, J., Estrada, P., & Villarreal, R. (1994). Picture-naming agreement in monolinguals and bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 15, 177194.
Goldrick, M., Runnqvist, E., & Costa, A. (2014). Language switching makes pronunciation less nativelike. Psychological Science, 25, 10311036.
Goldstein, B. (2006). Clinical implications of research on language development and disorders in bilingual children. Topics in Language Disorders, 26, 305321.
Gollan, T. H., Fennema-Notestine, C., Montoya, R. I., & Jernigan, T. L. (2007). The bilingual effect on Boston Naming Test performance. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 197208.
Gollan, T. H., Forster, K. I., & Frost, R. (1997). Translation priming with different scripts: Masked priming with cognates and noncognates in Hebrew–English bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23, 11221139.
Gollan, T. H., Montoya, R. I., Cera, C., & Sandoval, T. C. (2008). More use almost always means a smaller frequency effect: Aging, bilingualism, and the weaker links hypothesis. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 787814.
Gollan, T. H., Weissberger, G. H., Runnqvist, E., Montoya, R. I., & Cera, C. M. (2012). Self-ratings of spoken language dominance: A Multilingual Naming Test (MINT) and preliminary norms for young and aging Spanish–English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 594615.
Groen, M. A., Whitehouse, A. J. O., Badcock, N. A., & Bishop, D. V. M. (2013). Associations between handedness and cerebral lateralization for language: A comparison of three measures in children. PLOS ONE, 8, 16.
Groenen, G. M. (2011). The effects of internal and external factors and cognates on the vocabulary scores of Dutch-English bilingual children. MPhil dissertation, Utrecht University.
Grosjean, F. (1982). Life with two languages: An introduction to bilingualism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Grosjean, F. (1985). The bilingual as a competent but specific speaker-hearer. Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development, 6, 467477.
Grosjean, F. (1989). Neurolinguists, beware! The bilingual is not two monolinguals in one person. Brain and Language, 36, 315.
Grosjean, F. (1997). The bilingual individual. Interpreting, 2, 163187.
Grosjean, F. (1998). Studying bilinguals: Methodological and conceptual issues. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 131149.
Grosjean, F. (2008). Studying bilinguals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Grosjean, F. (2010). Bilingual: Life and reality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Grosjean, F., & Miller, J. L. (1994). Going in and out of languages: An example of bilingual flexibility. Psychological Science, 5, 201206.
Guasti, M. T. (2007). L’acquisizione del linguaggio. Milan: Cortina.
Guasti, M. T., de Lange, J., Gavarró, A., & Caprin, C. (2008). Article omission across child languages. Language Acquisition, 15, 89119.
Guasti, M. T., Nespor, M., Christophe, A., & van Ooyen, B. (2001). Pre-lexical setting of the head-complement parameter through prosody. In Weissenborn, J. & Höhle, B. (Eds.), Approaches to bootstrapping: Phonological, lexical, syntactic and neurophysiological aspects of early language acquisition (Vol. 1, pp. 231248). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Guiraud, P. (1954). Les caractéristiques statistiques du vocabulaire. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. (1996). Language diversity: Implications for assessment. In Cole, K., Dale, P., & Thal, D. (Eds.), Assessment of communication and language (pp. 2956). Baltimore: Brookes.
Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F., & Kreiter, J. (2003). Understanding child bilingual acquisition using parent and teacher reports. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 267288.
Hacohen, A., & Schaeffer, J. (2007). Subject realization in early Hebrew/English bilingual acquisition: The role of crosslinguistic influence. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 333344.
Hager, M. (2014). Genuserwerb bei mehrsprachig aufwachsenden Kindern. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bergische Universität Wuppertal.
Hakuta, K., & D’Andrea, D. (1992). Some properties of bilingual maintenance and loss in Mexican background high-school students. Applied Linguistics, 13, 7299.
Hakuta, K., Ferdman, B., & Diaz, R. (1987). Bilingualism and cognitive development: Three perspectives. In Rosenberg, S. E. (Ed.), Advances in applied psycholinguistics (pp. 284319). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hamers, J. F., & Blanc, M. H. A. (2000). Bilinguality and bilingualism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hammer, C. S., Davison, M. D., Lawrence, F. R., & Miccio, A. W. (2009). The effect of maternal language on bilingual children’s vocabulary and emergent literacy development during Head Start and kindergarten. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13, 99121.
Hammer, C. S., Komaroff, E., Rodriguez, B. L., Lopez, L. M., Scarpino, S. E., & Goldstein, B. (2012). Predicting Spanish–English bilingual children’s abilities. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 55, 12511264.
Harrell, F. E. (2010). Regression modeling strategies: With applications to linear models, logistic regression, and survival analysis. New York: Springer.
Harris, A. J. (1958). Harris Tests of Lateral Dominance, manual of direction for administration and interpretation (3rd ed.). New York: The Psychological Corporation.
Harris, C. L., Gleason, J. B., & Ayçiçeği, A. (2006). When is a first language more emotional? Psychophysiological evidence from bilingual speakers. In Pavlenko, A. (Ed.), Bilingual minds: Emotional experience, expression, and representation (pp. 257283). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Haugen, E. (1953). The Norwegian language in America: A study in bilingual behavior. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hauser-Grüdl, N., Arencibia Guerra, L., Witzmann, F., Leray, E., & Müller, N. (2010). Cross-linguistic influence in bilingual children: Can input frequency account for it? Lingua, 120, 26382650.
Hazan, V., & Boulakia, G. (1993). Perception and production of a voicing contrast by French–English bilinguals. Language and Speech, 36, 1738.
Hempel, C. G., & Oppenheim, P. (1948). Studies in the logic of explanation. Philosophy of Science, 15(2), 135175.
Heye, J. (1979). Bilingualism and language maintenance in two communities in Santa Caterina, Brazil. In McCormack, W. & Wurm, S. (Eds.), Language and society (pp. 401422). The Hague: Mouton.
Hinzelin, O. (2003). The acquisition of subjects in bilingual children: Pronoun use in Portuguese–German children. In Müller, N. (Ed.), (In)vulnerable domains in multilingualism (pp. 107137). John Benjamins.
Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (1996). The origins of grammar: Evidence from early language comprehension. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hoff, E. (2006). How social contexts support and shape language development. Developmental Review, 26, 5588.
Hoff, E., Core, C., Place, S., Rumiche, R., Señor, M., & Parra, M. (2012). Dual language exposure and early bilingual development. Journal of Child Language, 39, 127.
Hoffman, G. (1971). Puerto Ricans in New York: A language-related ethnographic summary. In Fishman, J., Cooper, R., & Ma, R. (Eds.), Bilingualism in the barrio (pp. 1342). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Hohenstein, J., Eisenberg, A., & Naigles, L. (2006). Is he floating across or crossing afloat? Cross-influence of L1 and L2 in Spanish–English bilingual adults. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9(3), 249261.
Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). The four-factor index of social status. Unpublished manuscript, Yale University.
Hopp, H., & Schmid, M. (2013). Perceived foreign accent in first language attrition and second language acquisition: The impact of age of acquisition and bilingualism. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34, 361394.
Housen, A., & Kuiken, F. (2009). Complexity, accuracy and fluency in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 30, 461473.
Housen, A., Kuiken, F., & Vedder, I. (2012). Dimensions of L2 performance and proficiency: Complexity, accuracy and fluency in SLA. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Howard, M. (2013). La liaison en français langue seconde: Une étude longitudinale préliminaire. Language, Acquisition and Interaction, 4, 190231.
Hulk, A. (1997). The acquisition of French object pronouns by a Dutch/French bilingual child. In Sorace, A., Heycock, C., & Shillcock, R. (Eds.), Language acquisition: Knowledge, representation and processing – Proceedings of the GALA 1997 Conference on Language Acquisition (pp. 521526). Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.
Hulk, A., & Müller, N. (2000). Bilingual first language acquisition at the interface between syntax and pragmatics. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3, 227244.
Hulk, A., & Zuckerman, S. (2000). The interaction between input and economy: Acquiring optionality in French wh-questions. BULCD Proceedings, 24, 438449.
Hulk, A. C. J., & van der Linden, E. (1996). Language mixing in a French–Dutch bilingual child. In Kellerman, E., Weltens, B., & Borgaerts, T. (Eds.), Eurosla 6: A selection of papers (pp. 89103). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hulstijn, J. (2011). Language proficiency in native and nonnative speakers: An agenda for research and suggestions for second-language assessment. Language Assessment Quarterly, 8, 229249.
Hulstijn, J. H. (2012). The construct of language proficiency in the study of bilingualism from a cognitive perspective. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 422433.
Hymes, D. (1972). On communicative competence. In Pride, J. B. & Holmes, J. (Eds.), Sociolinguistics (pp. 269293). Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Ivanova, I., & Costa, A. (2008). Does bilingualism hamper lexical access in speech production? Acta Psychologica, 127, 277288.
Iverson, M. (2011). Advanced language attrition of Spanish in contact with Brazilian Portuguese. Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa.
Jaccard, R., & Cividin, V. (2001). Le principe de complémentarité chez la personne bilingue: Le cas du bilinguisme français-italien en Suisse Romande. Master’s thesis, Language Pathology Program, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
Jakobovits, L. A. (1969). Second language learning and transfer theory: A theoretical assessment. Language Learning, 19, 5556.
Jansen, V. (2013). Der Erwerb der Wortstellung im simultan-bilingualen Erstspracherwerb: Dislokationen bei deutsch-französisch aufwachsenden Kindern. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bergische Universität Wuppertal.
Jarrett-Kerr, N. (n.d.). Valuing and judging partners: Beyond the elephant test. Edge International articles and knowledge base. Retrieved November 8, 2014, from www.edge.ai/2014/05/valuing-judging-partners-beyond-elephant-test.
Jarvis, S. (2002). Short texts, best fitting curves, and new measures of lexical diversity. Language Testing, 19, 5784.
Jarvis, S., & Pavlenko, A. (2008). Crosslinguistic influence in language and cognition. London: Routledge.
Jia, G., & Aaronson, D. (2003). A longitudinal study of Chinese children and adolescents learning English in the United States. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 131161.
Jia, G., Aaronson, D., & Wu, Y. (2002). Long-term language attainment of bilingual immigrants: Predictive variables and language group differences. Applied Psycholinguistics, 23, 599621.
Jia, G., & Fuse, A. (2007). Acquisition of English grammatical morphology by native Mandarin speaking children and adolescents: Age-related differences. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 50, 12801299.
Jia, G., Kohnert, K., Collado, J., & Aquino-Garcia, F. (2006). Action naming in Spanish and English by sequential bilingual children and adolescents. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 49, 588602.
Jisa, H. (2000). Language mixing in the weak language: Evidence from two children. Journal of Pragmatics, 32, 13631386.
Johnson, C. E., & Wilson, I. L. (2002). Phonetic evidence for early language differentiation: Research issues and some preliminary data. International Journal of Bilingualism, 6, 271290.
Jones, M. A. (1996). Foundations of French syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Juan-Garau, M., & Pérez-Vidal, C. (2001). Mixing and pragmatic parental strategies in early bilingual acquisition. Journal of Child Language, 28, 5986.
Keating, G. D., VanPatten, B., & Jegerski, J. (2011). Who was walking on the beach? Anaphora resolution in Spanish heritage speakers and adult second language learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 193221.
Kehoe, M. M. (2002). Developing vowel systems as a window to bilingual phonology. International Journal of Bilingualism, 6, 315334.
Kehoe, M. M., Lleó, C., & Rakow, M. (2004). Voice onset time in bilingual German–Spanish children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7, 7188.
Keith, M., & Nicoladis, E. (2013). The role of within-language vocabulary size in bilingual children’s semantic development. Journal of Child Language, 40, 873884.
Kern, S., & Gayraud, F. (2010). L’inventaire français du développement communicatif. Grenoble, France: La Cigale.
Kilshaw, D., & Annett, M. (1983). Right- and left-hand skill I: Effects of age, sex and hand preference showing superior skill in left-handers. British Journal of Psychology, 74, 253268.
Kohnert, K., & Bates, E. (2002). Balancing bilinguals II: Lexical comprehension and cognitive processing in children learning Spanish and English. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 347359.
Kohnert, K., Bates, E., & Hernández, A. (1999). Balancing bilinguals: Lexical–semantic production and cognitive processing in children learning Spanish and English. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 42, 14001413.
Köpcke, K. M., & Zubin, D. (1983). Die kognitive Organisation der Genuszuweisung zu den einsilbigen Nomen der deutschen Gegenwartsprache. Zeitschrift für germanistische Linguistik, 11, 166182.
Köppe, R. (1994). The DUFDE Project. In Meisel, J. (Ed.), Bilingual first language acquisition: French and German grammatical development (pp. 1527). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Köppe, R. (1997). Sprachentrennung im frühen bilingualen Erstspracherwerb: Französisch, Deutsch. Tübingen: Narr.
Korybski, T. (2012). Polish–English code-switching and other language contact phenomena in the speech of Polish migrants in the United Kingdom. Doctoral dissertation, University of the West of England, Bristol.
Kraus, E. H. (2006). Handedness in children. In Henderson, A. & Pehoski, C. (Eds.), Hand functions in the child: Foundations for remediation (2nd ed., pp. 161191). St. Louis: Mosby.
Kroll, J. F., & Dussias, P. E. (2004). The comprehension of words and sentences in two languages. In Bhatia, T. K. & Ritchie, W. C. (Eds.), The handbook of bilingualism (pp. 169200). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Kroll, J., Bobb, S., & Wodniecka, Z. (2006). Language selectivity is the exception, not the rule: Arguments against a fixed locus of language selection in bilingual speech. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 119135.
Kupisch, T. (2007). Determiners in bilingual German–Italian children: What they tell us about the relation between language influence and language dominance. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 5778.
Kupisch, T. (2008). Dominance, mixing and cross-linguistic influence: On their relation in bilingual development. In Guijarro-Fuentes, P., Larrañaga, P., & Clibbens, J. (Eds.), First language acquisition of morphology and syntax: Perspectives across languages and learners (pp. 209234). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Kupisch, T. (2012). Generic subjects in the Italian of early German–Italian bilinguals and German learners of Italian as a second language. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 736756.
Kupisch, T. (2013). A new term for a better distinction? A view from the higher end of the proficiency scale. Theoretical Linguistics, 39, 203214.
Kupisch, T. (2014). Adjective placement in simultaneous bilinguals (German–Italian) and the concept of cross-linguistic overcorrection: A comparison of on-line and off-line data. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17, 222233.
Kupisch, T., Akpinar, D., & Stöhr, A. (2013). Gender assignment and gender agreement in adult bilingual and second language speakers of French. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 3, 150179.
Kupisch, T., Barton, D., Bianchi, G., & Stangen, I. (2012). The HABLA-Corpus (German–French and German–Italian). In Schmidt, T. & Wörner, K. (Eds.), Multilingual corpora and multilingual corpus analysis (pp. 163179). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Kupisch, T., Belikova, A., Özçelik, Ö., Stangen, I., & White, L. (in prep.). On complete acquisition in heritage speakers: The definiteness effect in German–Turkish bilinguals. Manuscript, Lund/Indiana University Bloomington/McGill.
Kupisch, T., & Bernardini, P. (2007). Determiner use in Italian Swedish and Italian German children: Do Swedish and German represent the same parameter setting? In Anderssen, M. & Westergaard, M. (Eds.), NORDLYD: University of Tromsø working papers on language and linguistics, 34, University of Tromsø.
Lambert, W. (1955). Measurement of the linguistic dominance of bilinguals. Journals of Abnormal Social Psychology, 50, 197200.
Lambert, W. E. (1956). Developmental aspects of second-language acquisition, I: Associational fluency, stimulus provocativeness, and word-order influence. The Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 8389.
Lambert, W. E. (1990). Persistent issues in bilingualism. In Harley, B., Allen, P., Cummins, J., & Swain, M. (Eds.), The development of second language proficiency (pp. 201218). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lambert, W. E., Havelka, J., & Gardner, R. C. (1959). Linguistic manifestations of bilingualism. The American Journal of Psychology, 72, 7782.
La Morgia, F. (2011). Bilingual first language acquisition: The nature of the weak language and the role of the input. Doctoral dissertation, Dublin City University.
Langdon, H. W., Wiig, E. H., & Nielsen, N. P. (2005). Dual-dimension naming speed and language-dominance ratings by bilingual Hispanic adults. Bilingual Research Journal, 29, 319336.
Lanvers, U. (1999). Lexical growth patterns in a bilingual infant: The occurrence and significance of equivalents in the bilingual lexicon. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 2, 3052.
Lanza, E. (2004). Language mixing in infant bilingualism: A sociolinguistic perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Larrañaga, P., & Guijarro-Fuentes, P. (2012). Collecting data and measuring competence. In Larrañaga, P. & Guijarro-Fuentes, P. (Eds.), Pronouns and clitics in early acquisition (pp. 1143). Berlin: Mouton DeGruyter.
Lemmon, C. R., & Goggin, J. P. (1989). The measurement of bilingualism and its relationship to cognitive ability. Applied Psycholinguistics, 10, 133155.
Leopold, W. F. (19391949). Speech development of a bilingual child: A linguist’s record. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 4 Volumes.
Leopold, W. (1978). A child’s learning of two languages. In Hatch, E. (Ed.), Second language acquisition (pp. 2332). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Levelt, W. J. (1993). Speaking: From intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.
Li, P., Zhang, F., Tsai, E., & Puls, B. (2014). Language history questionnaire (LHQ 2.0): A new dynamic web-based research tool. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17, 673680.
Li, W. (2000). The bilingualism reader. London: Routledge.
Li, W. (2007). Dimensions of bilingualism. In Li, W. (Ed.), The bilingualism reader (pp. 325). London: Routledge.
Liceras, J. M., Fernández Fuertes, R., & Pérez-Tattam, R. (2008). Null and overt subjects in the developing grammars (L1 English/L1 Spanish) of two bilingual twins. In Pérez-Vidal, C., Juan Garau, M., & Bel, A. (Eds.), A portrait of the young in the new multilingual Spain (pp. 111134). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Liceras, J. M., Fuertes, R. F., & de la Fuente, A. A. (2012). Overt subjects and copula omission in the Spanish and the English grammar of English–Spanish bilinguals: On the locus and directionality of interlinguistic influence. First Language, 32, 88115.
Lim, V. P., Lincoln, M., Chan, Y. H., & Onslow, M. (2008). Stuttering in English–Mandarin bilingual speakers: The influence of language dominance on stuttering severity. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 51, 1522.
Lim, V. P. C., Rickard Liow, S. J., Lincoln, M., Chan, Y.H., & Onslow, M. (2008). Determining language dominance in English–Mandarin bilinguals: Development of a self-report classification tool for clinical use. Applied Psycholinguistics, 29, 389412.
Lorusso, P., Caprin, C., & Guasti, M. T. (2004). Overt subject distribution in early Italian children. In Brugos, A., Micciulla, L., & Smith, C. E. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 28th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development. Boston: Cascadilla Press.
Luk, G., & Bialystok, E. (2013). Bilingualism is not a categorical variable: Interaction between proficiency and usage. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25, 605621.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15, 326.
Mack, M. (1989). Consonant and vowel perception and production: Early English–French bilinguals and English monolinguals. Perception & Psychophysics, 46, 187200.
Mackey, W. (1962). The description of bilingualism. Canadian Journal of Linguistics, 7, 5185.
Mackey, W. F. (1976). Bilinguisme et contact des langues. Paris: Klincksieck.
Flege, J. E., MacKay, I. R., & Piske, T. (2002). Assessing bilingual dominance. Applied Psycholinguistics, 23, 567598.
Macnamara, J. (1967). The bilingual’s linguistic performance: A psychological overview. Journal of Social Issues, 23, 5877.
Macnamara, J. (1969). How can one measure the extent of a person’s bilingual proficiency? In Kelly, L. G. (Ed.), Description and measurement of bilingualism (pp. 8097). Toronto: University of Toronto.
MacSwan, J. (2000). The threshold hypothesis, semilingualism, and other contributions to a deficit view of linguistic minorities. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 22, 345.
MacWhinney, B. (2000). The CHILDES Project: Tools for analyzing talk. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved from http://childes.psy.cmu.edu.
Mägiste, E. (1992). Second language learning in elementary and high school students. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 4, 355365.
Mahon, M., & Crutchley, A. (2006). Performance of typically-developing school-age children with English as an additional language on the British Picture Vocabulary Scales II. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 22, 333351.
Malvern, D. D., Richards, B. J., Chipere, N., & Durán, P. (2004). Lexical diversity and language development: Quantification and assessment. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mancilla-Martinez, J., & Vagh, S. B. (2013). Growth in toddlers’ Spanish, English, and conceptual vocabulary knowledge. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 555567.
Marchman, V. A., Fernald, A., & Hurtado, N. (2010). How vocabulary size in two languages relates to efficiency in spoken word recognition by young Spanish–English bilinguals. Journal of Child Language, 37, 817840.
Marchman, V. A., Martínez-Sussmann, C., & Dale, P. S. (2004). The language-specific nature of grammatical development: Evidence from bilingual language learners. Developmental Science, 7, 212224.
Marian, V., Blumenfeld, H. K., & Kaushanskaya, M. (2007). The Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q): Assessing language profiles in bilinguals and multilinguals. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 940967.
Marian, V., & Neisser, U. (2000). Language-dependent recall of autobiographical memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129, 361368.
Matthews, S., & Yip, V. (2011). Unbalanced bilingual acquisition as a mechanism of grammatical change. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14, 159161.
Mayer, M. (1969). Frog, where are you? New York: Dial Books for Young Readers.
Mayer, M. (1974). Frog goes to dinner. New York: Dial Books for Young Readers.
McCarthy, P. H. M., & Jarvis, S. (2007). Vocd: A theoretical and empirical evaluation. Language Testing, 24, 459488.
McCarthy, P. M., & Jarvis, S. (2010). MTLD, vocd-D, and HD-D: A validation study of sophisticated approaches to lexical diversity assessment. Behavior Research Methods, 42, 381392.
McCarthy, P. M., Watanabe, S., & Lamkin, T. A. (2012). The Gramulator: A tool to identify differential linguistic features of correlative text types. In McCarthy, P. M. & Boonthum-Denecke, C. (Eds.), Applied natural language processing: Identification, investigation, and resolution (pp. 312333). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Meara, P., & Buxton, B. (1987). An alternative to multiple choice vocabulary tests. Language Testing, 4, 142154.
Meara, P., & Jones, G. (1988). Vocabulary size as placement indicator. In Grunwell, P. (Ed.), Applied linguistics in society (pp. 8087). London: CILT.
Meara, P., & Milton, J. (2003). X_Lex, the Swansea Levels Test. Newbury: Express.
Meeuwis, M., & Blommaert, J. (1998). A monolectal view of code-switching: Layered code-switching among Zairians in Belgium. In Auer, P. (Ed.), Code-switching in conversation: Language, interaction and identity (pp. 7698). London: Routledge.
Meisel, J. (1989). Early differentiation of languages in bilingual children. In Hyltenstam, K. & Obler, L. (Eds.), Bilingualism across the lifespan: Aspects of acquisition, maturity and loss (pp. 1340). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Meisel, J. (2007). The weaker language in early child bilingualism: Acquiring a first language as a second language? Applied Pycholinguistics, 28, 495514.
Meisel, J. M. (2011). First and second language acquisition: Parallels and differences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Milroy, L. (1980). Language and social networks. Oxford: Blackwell.
Milton, J. (2009). Measuring second language vocabulary acquisition. Bristol: Multilingual.
Mohanty, A. K. (1994). Bilingualism in a multilingual society: Psycho-social and pedagogical implications. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Möhring, A. (2005). Erst- und Zweitspracherwerb im Vergleich (Französisch/Deutsch): Der Erwerb der Wortstellung bei bilingualen Kindern und erwachsenen Lernern. E-Dissertation Universität Hamburg. Retrieved from http://ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/volltexte/2005/2459.
Montanari, S. (2005). “I want to tell you the story but I don’t know what that’s called”: The narrative competence of Spanish–English bilingual children across their dominant and weaker language. In Cohen, J., McAlister, K., Rolstad, K., & MacSwan, J. (Eds.), ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism (pp. 16621678). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Montrul, S. (2002). Incomplete acquisition and attrition of Spanish tense/aspect distinctions in adult bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5, 3968.
Montrul, S. (2005). Second language acquisition and first language loss in adult early bilinguals: Exploring some differences and similarities. Second Language Research, 21, 199249.
Montrul, S. (2006). On the bilingual competence of Spanish heritage speakers: Syntax, lexical-semantics and processing. International Journal of Bilingualism, 10, 3769.
Montrul, S. (2008). Incomplete acquisition in bilingualism: Re-examining the age factor. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Montrul, S. (2010). Dominant language transfer in Spanish L2 learners and heritage speakers. Special issue of Second Language Research, 26, 293327.
Montrul, S. (2011). Multiple interfaces and incomplete acquisition. Lingua, 121, 591604.
Montrul, S. (2013). El bilingüismo en el mundo hispanohablante. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Montrul, S., Davidson, J., de la Fuente, I., & Foote, R. (2013). The role of experience in the acquisition and production of diminutives and gender in Spanish: Evidence from L2 learners and heritage speakers. Second Language Research, 29, 1, 87118.
Montrul, S., Davidson, J., de la Fuente, I., & Foote, R. (2014). Early language experience facilitates gender agreement processing in Spanish heritage speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17, 1, 118138.
Montrul, S., & Foote, R. (2014). Age of acquisition interactions in bilingual lexical access: A study of the weaker language in L2 learners and heritage speakers. The International Journal of Bilingualism, 18, 274303.
Montrul, S., Foote, R., & Perpiñán, S. (2008). Gender agreement in adult second language learners and Spanish heritage speakers: The effects of age and context of acquisition. Language Learning, 58, 503553.
Montrul, S., & Ionin, T. (2010). Transfer effects in the interpretation of definite articles by Spanish heritage speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 449473.
Montrul, S., & Ionin, T. (2012). Dominant language transfer in Spanish heritage speakers and L2 learners in the interpretation of definite articles. The Modern Language Journal, 96, 7094.
Montrul, S., & Perpiñán, S. (2011). Assessing differences and similarities between instructed heritage language learners and L2 learners in their knowledge of Spanish Tense-Aspect and Mood (TAM) morphology. Heritage Language Journal, 8, 90133.
Morrett, L. M., & MacWhinney, B. (2013). Syntactic transfer in English-speaking Spanish learners. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 132151.
Müller, J. (2009). Spracheneinfluss im Bereich der OV/VO- Stellung: Ein Vergleich von Deutsch mit Französisch. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Bergische Universität Wuppertal.
Müller, N. (1998). Transfer in bilingual first language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 151171.
Müller, N. (2008). Bilingual first language acquisition at the interface between syntax and pragmatics. EuroSLA Yearbook, 8 (pp. 5278). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Müller, N., Arnaus Gil, L., Eichler, N., Hager, M., Jansen, V., Patuto, M., Repetto, V., & Schmeißer, A. (in prep.). Code-switching: Spanisch, Französisch, Italienisch – Eine Einführung. Tübingen: Narr.
Müller, N., & Hulk, A. (2001). Crosslinguistic influence in bilingual language acquisition: Italian and French as recipient languages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4, 121.
Müller, N., Kupisch, T., Schmitz, K., & Cantone, K. F. (2011). Einführung in die Mehrsprachigkeitsforschung. Tübingen: Narr.
Müller, N., & Patuto, M. (2009). Really competence-driven cross-linguistic influence in bilingual first language acquisition? The role of the language combination. In Bernardini, P., Egerland, V., & Granfeld, J. (Eds.), Mélanges plurilingues offerts à Suzanne Schlyter à l’occasion de son 65ème anniversaire (pp. 299319). Études Romanes de Lund 85. Språk- och litteraturcentrum Romanska, Lunds Universitet.
Müller, N., & Pillunat, A. (2008). Balanced bilingual children with two weak languages: A French/German case study. In Guijarro-Fuentes, P., Larrañaga, M., & Clibbens, J. (Eds.), First language acquisition of morphology and syntax: Perspectives across languages and learners (pp. 269294). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Muysken, P. (2000). Bilingual speech: A typology of code-mixing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Myers Scotton, C. (1983). The negotiation of identities in conversation: A theory of markedness and code choice. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 1983(44), 115136.
Myers-Scotton, C. (2006). Multiple voices: An introduction to bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell.
Naggara, O., Raymond, J., Guilbert, F., Roy, D., Weill, A., & Altman, D. G. (2011). Analysis by categorizing or dichotomizing continuous variables is inadvisable: An example from the natural history of unruptured aneurysms. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 32, 437440.
Nartey, J. N. (1982). Code-switching, interference or faddism? Language use among educated Ghanians. Anthropological linguistics, 24, 183192.
Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nation, I. S. P. (2012). The vocabulary size test. Wellington, New Zealand: University of Wellington.
Nation, I. S. P., & Beglar, D. (2007). A vocabulary size test. The Language Teacher, 31(7), 912.
Nation, I. S. P., & Waring, R. (1997). Vocabulary size, text coverage and word lists. In Schmitt, N. & McCarthy, M. (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy (pp. 619).
Nelson, L. R., & Zaichkowsky, L. D. (1979). A case for using multiple regression instead of ANOVA in educational research. Journal of Experimental Education, 47, 324330.
Nicoladis, E. (1999). “Where is my brush-teeth?” Acquisition of compound nouns in a French–English bilingual child. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 2, 245256.
Nicoladis, E. (2002). What’s the difference between “toilet paper” and “paper toilet”? French–English bilingual children’s crosslinguistic transfer in compound nouns. Journal of Child Language, 29, 843863.
Nicoladis, E. (2003). Cross-linguistic transfer in deverbal compounds of preschool bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 6, 1731.
Nicoladis, E. (2006). Cross-linguistic transfer in adjective-noun strings by preschool bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 1532.
Nicoladis, E. (2012). Cross-linguistic influence in French–English bilingual children’s possessive constructions. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 320328.
Nicoladis, E., & Genesee, F. (1996a). Bilingual communication strategies and language dominance. In Stringfellow, A., Cahana-Amitay, D., Hughes, E., & Zukowski, A.(Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th annual Boston university conference on language development (pp. 518527). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Paradis, J.  (1996b). A longitudinal study of pragmatic differentiation in young bilingual children. Language Learning, 46, 439464.
Nicoladis, E., Palmer, A., & Marentette, P. (2007). The role of type and token frequency in using past tense morphemes correctly. Developmental Science, 10, 237254.
Nicoladis, E., & Paradis, J. (2011). Learning to liaise and elide comme il faut: Evidence from bilingual children. Journal of Child Language, 38, 701730.
Nicoladis, E., Rose, A., & Foursha-Stevenson, C. (2009). Talking for speaking and cross-linguistic transfer in preschool bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13, 345370.
Nicoladis, E., & Secco, G. (2000). The role of a child’s productive vocabulary in the language choice of a bilingual family. First Language, 58, 328.
O’Grady, W., Schafer, A., Perla, J., Lee, O.-S., & Wieting, J. (2009). A psycholinguistic tool for the assessment of language loss: The HALA Project. Language Documentation and Conservation, 3, 100112.
Oldfield, R. C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh Inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9, 97113.
Olsson, Å., & Sullivan, K. (2005). ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism (pp. 17501764). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Ortega, L. (2014). Understanding second language acquisition. London: Routledge.
Otheguy, R., García, O., & Fernández, M. (1989). Transferring, switching, and modeling in West New York Spanish: An intergenerational study. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 1989 (79), 4152.
Pancsofar, N., & Vernon-Feagans, L. (2006). Mother and father language input to young children: Contributions to later language development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 571587.
Paradis, J. (2001). Do bilingual two-year olds have separate phonological systems? International Journal of Bilingualism, 5, 1938.
Paradis, J. (2007). Early bilingual and multilingual acquisition. In Auer, P. & Wei, L. (Eds.), Multilingualism and multilingual communication: Handbook of Applied Linguistics (Vol. 5, pp. 1544). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Paradis, J. (2010a). The interface between bilingual development and specific language impairment. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31, 328.
Paradis, J. (2010b). Bilingual children’s acquisition of English verb morphology: Effects of language exposure, structure complexity, and task type. Language Learning, 60, 651680.
Paradis, J. (2011). Individual differences in child English second language acquisition: Comparing child-internal and child-external factors. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1, 213237.
Paradis, J., Crago, M., Genesee, F., & Rice, M. (2003). Bilingual children with specific language impairment: How do they compare with their monolingual peers? Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 46, 115.
Paradis, J., Genesee, F., & Crago, M. B. (2011). Dual language development and disorders: A handbook on bilingualism and second language learning. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Paradis, J., & Navarro, S. (2003). Subject realization and crosslinguistic interference in the bilingual acquisition of Spanish and English: What is the role of the input? Journal of Child Language, 30, 371393.
Paradis, J., & Nicoladis, E. (2007). The influence of dominance and sociolinguistic context in bilingual preschoolers’ language choice. The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10, 277297.
Paradis, J., Nicoladis, E., Crago, M., & Genesee, F. (2011). Bilingual children’s acquisition of the past tense: A usage-based approach. Journal of Child Language, 38, 544578.
Pardo, J. S. (2013). Measuring phonetic convergence in speech production. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 15.
Pascual y Cabo, D., & Rothman, J. (2012). The (Il)logical problem of heritage speaker bilingualism and incomplete acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 33, 17.
Patuto, M., Hager, M., Arnaus Gil, L., Eichler, N., Jansen, V. Schmeißer, A., & Müller, N. (2014). Child-external and -internal factors in bilingual code-switching: Spanish, Italian, French and German. In Koll-Stobbe, A. & Knospe, S. (Eds.), Langugage contact around the globe: Proceedings of Language Contact in Times of Globalization (LCTG 3) (pp. 191209). Frankfurt am Main: Lang.
Patuto, M., Repetto, V., & Müller, N. (2011). Delay and acceleration in bilingual first language acquisition: the same or different? In Rinke, E. & Kupisch, T. (Eds.), The development of grammar: Language acquisition and diachronic change – Volume in honor of Jürgen M. Meisel (pp. 231261). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Paugh, A. L. (2005). Multilingual play: Children’s code-switching, role play, and agency in Dominica, West Indies. Language in Society, 34, 6386.
Paulston, C. B. (1983). Swedish research and debate about bilingualism. Stockholm: National Swedish Board of Education.
Pavlenko, A. (2014). The bilingual mind: And what it tells us about language and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peal, E., & Lambert, W. E. (1962). The relation of bilingualism to intelligence. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 76, 123.
Pearson, B. Z. (2009). Children with two languages. In Bavin, E. (Ed.), Handbook of child language (pp. 379398). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pearson, B. Z., & Fernández, S. (1994). Patterns of interaction in the lexical growth in two languages of bilingual infants and toddlers. Language Learning, 44, 617653.
Pearson, B. Z., Fernández, S. C., Lewedeg, V., & Oller, D. K. (1997). The relation of input factors to lexical learning by bilingual infants. Applied Psycholinguistics, 18, 4158.
Pearson, B. Z., Fernández, S., & Oller, D. K. (1995). Cross-language synonyms in the lexicons of bilingual infants: One language or two? Journal of Child Language, 22, 345368.
Penton-Voak, I., Jones, B., Little, A., Baker, S., Tiddeman, B., Burt, D., & Perrett, D. (2001). Symmetry, sexual dimorphism in facial proportions and male facial attractiveness. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 268(1476), 16171623.
Pérez, A. M., Peña, E. D., & Bedore, L. M. (2010). Cognates facilitate word recognition in young Spanish–English bilinguals’ test performance. Early Childhood Services, 4, 5567.
Perrett, D. I., Burt, D. M., Penton-Voak, I. S., Lee, K. J., Rowland, D. A., & Edwards, R. (1999). Symmetry and human facial attractiveness. Evolution and Human Behavior, 20, 295307.
Petersen, J. (1988). Word-internal code-switching constraints in a bilingual child’s grammar. Linguistics, 26, 479493.
Pires, A., & Rothman, J. (2009). Disentangling sources of incomplete acquisition: An explanation for competence divergence across heritage grammars. International Journal of Bilingualism, 3, 128.
Pirvulescu, M., Pérez-Leroux, A. T., Roberge, Y., Strik, N., & Thomas, D. (2014). Bilingual effects: Exploring object omission in pronominal languages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17, 495510.
Place, S., & Hoff, E. (2011). Properties of dual language exposure that influence two-year-olds’ bilingual proficiency. Child Development, 82, 18341849.
Polinsky, M. (1997). American Russian: Language loss meets language acquisition. In Wayles, E., Browne, N., Dornisch, N., Kondrashowva, N., & Ze, D. (Eds.), Annual workshop on formal approaches to Slavic linguistics: The Cornell meeting (1995) (pp. 370406). Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan Slavic Publishers.
Polinsky, M. (2006). Incomplete acquisition: American Russian. Journal of Slavic Linguistics, 14, 191262.
Polinsky, M. (2008a). Heritage language narratives. In Brinton, D., Kagan, O., & Bauckus, S. (Eds.), Heritage language education: A new field emerging (pp. 149164). New York: Routledge.
Polinsky, M. (2008b). Russian gender under incomplete acquisition. The Heritage Language Journal, 6, 134.
Polio, C. (2001). Research methodology in second language writing research: The case of text based studies. In Silva, T. & Matsuda, P. K. (Eds.), On second language writing (pp. 91116). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Poulin-Dubois, D., Bialystok, E., Blaye, A., Polonia, A., & Yott, J. (2013). Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17, 5770.
Prewitt Díaz, J. O. (1988). Assessment of Puerto Rican children in bilingual education programs in the United States: A critique of Lloyd M. Dunn’s monograph. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 10, 237252.
Pupier, P. (1982). L’acquisition des déterminants français chez les petits enfants bilingues français-anglais. In Pupier, P. (Ed.), L’acquisition Simultanée du Français et de l’Anglais chez des Petits Enfants de Montréal (pp. 173214). Québec: Ed. Officiel du Québec.
Ramos, F. (2007). What do parents think of two-way bilingual education? An analysis of responses. Journal of Latinos and Education, 6, 139150.
Read, J. (2007). Second language vocabulary assessment: Current practices and new directions. IJES, International Journal of English Studies, 7, 105126.
Repetto, V. (2010). L’acquisizione bilingue: l’ordine dei costituenti della frase e loro realizzazione morfologica in italiano e in tedesco. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bergische Universität Wuppertal/Università di Napoli.
Repetto, V., & Müller, N. (2010). The acquisition of German V2 in bilingual Italian–German children residing in Germany and Italy: A case of acceleration? In Torrens, V., Escobar, L., Gavarrό, A., & Gutiérrez, J. (Eds.), Movement and clitics: Adult and child grammar (pp. 155184). Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Reyes, I., & Azuara, P. (2008). Emergent biliteracy in young Mexican immigrant children. Reading Research Quarterly, 43, 374398.
Rice, M. (2010). Mean length of utterance levels in 6-month intervals for children 3 to 9 years with and without language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 53, 333349.
Rigal, R. A. (1992). Which handedness: Preference or performance? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75, 851866.
Romaine, S. (1989). Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell.
Romaine, S. (2010). Language contact in the USA. In Potowski, K. (Ed.), Language diversity in the USA (pp. 2546). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ronjat, J. (1913). Le développement du langage observé chez un enfant bilingue. Paris: Champion.
Ross, J. A. (2006). The reliability, validity, and utility of self-assessment. Practical Assessment, 11(10). Retrieved from http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=11&n=10.
Rothman, J. (2009). Understanding the nature of early bilingualism: Romance languages as heritage languages. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13, 155163.
Rothweiler, M. (2006). The acquisition of V2 and subordinate clause structure in early successive acquisition of German. In Lleó, C. (Ed.), Interfaces in multilingualism (pp. 91113). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Rothweiler, M. (2007). Bilingualer Spracherwerb und Zweitspracherwerb. In Steinbach, M. et al. (Eds.), Schnittstellen der germanistischen Linguistik (pp. 103135). Stuttgart/Weimar: Metzler.
Scheele, A. F., Leseman, P. P. M., & Mayo, A. Y. (2010). The home language environment of monolingual and bilingual children and their language proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31, 117140.
Scheutz, H. (1997). Satzinitiale Voranstellungen im gesprochenen Deutsch als Mittel der Themensteuerung und Referenzkonstitution. In Schlobinski, P. (Ed.), Syntax des gesprochenen Deutsch (pp. 2754). Westdeutscher Verlag: Opladen.
Schlyter, S. (1990). The DUFDE project. In Meisel, J. (Ed.), Two first languages: Early grammatical development in bilingual children (pp. 7384). Foris: Dordrecht.
Schlyter, S. (1993). The weaker language in bilingual Swedish–French children. In Hyltenstam, K. & Viberg, A. (Eds.), Progression and regression in language: Sociocultural, neuropsychological and linguistic perspectives (pp. 289308). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schlyter, S. (1994). Early morphology in French as the weaker language in French–Swedish bilingual children. Scandinavian Working Papers in Bilingualism, 9, 6787.
Schlyter, S. (1995). Formes verbales du passé dans des interactions en langue forte et en langue faible. Acquisition et interaction en langue étrangère, 6, 129152.
Schlyter, S. (2001). Pragmatic rules, C-domain, and language dominance. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4, 4042.
Schlyter, S., & Håkansson, G. (1994). Word order in Swedish as the first language, second language and weaker language. Scandinavian Working Papers on Bilingualism, 9, 4967.
Schmeißer, A., & Jansen, V. (to appear). Finite verb placement in French language change and in bilingual German–French language acquisition. In Schmitz, K., Guijarro-Fuentes, P., & Müller, N. (Eds.), The acquisition of French in multilingual contexts. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Schmitz, K., Patuto, M., & Müller, N. (2012). The null-subject parameter at the interface between syntax and pragmatics: Evidence from bilingual German–Italian, German–French and Italian–French children. First Language, 32, 205238.
Segalowitz, N. (2010). Cognitive bases of second language fluency. London: Routledge.
Segalowitz, N., & Lambert, W. E. (1969). Semantic generalization in bilinguals. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 559566.
Serratrice, L. (1999). The Emergence of Functional Categories in Bilingual First Language Acquisition. Doctoral dissertation, University of Edinburgh.
Serratrice, L. (2005). The role of discourse pragmatics in the acquisition of subjects in Italian. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26, 437462.
Serratrice, L. (2007). Cross-linguistic influence in the interpretation of anaphoric and cataphoric pronouns in English–Italian bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 225238.
Serratrice, L. (2013). Cross-linguistic influence in bilingual development. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 3, 325.
Serratrice, L., Sorace, A., & Paoli, S. (2004). Crosslinguistic influence at the syntax–pragmatics interface: Subjects and objects in English–Italian bilingual and monolingual acquisition. Bilingualism Language and Cognition, 7, 183206.
Shapiro, M. O., O’Malley, M. P., & Litten, L. H. (1991). Progression to graduate school from the “elite” colleges and universities. Economics of Education Review, 10, 227244.
Sheng, L., Lu, Y., & Gollan, T. H. (2014). Assessing language dominance in Mandarin–English bilinguals: Convergence and divergence between subjective and objective measures. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17, 364383.
Sherkina-Lieber, M., Pérez-Leroux, A. T., & Johns, A. (2011). Grammar without speech production: The case of Labrador Inuttitut heritage receptive bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14, 301317.
Silva-Corvalán, C. (1994). Language contact and change: Spanish in Los Angeles. Oxford: Clarendon.
Silva-Corvalán, C. (2014). Bilingual language acquisition: Spanish and English in the first six years. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Silva-Corvalán, C., & Montanari, S. (2008). The acquisition of ser, estar (and be) by a Spanish–English bilingual child: The early stages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11, 341360.
Simon-Cereijido, G., & Gutierrez-Clellen, V. F. (2009). A cross-linguistic and bilingual evaluation of the interdependence between lexical and grammatical domains. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30, 315338.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1978). Semilingualism and the education of migrant children as a means of reproducing the caste of assembly line workers. In Dittmar, N., Haberland, H., Skutnabb-Kangas, T., & Teleman, V. (Eds.), Papers from the First Scandinavian–German Symposium on the Language of Immigrant Workers and Their Children (pp. 221252). Roshilde: Universitetscenter.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1981). Bilingualism or not: The education of minorities. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Sorace, A. (2004). Native language attrition and developmental instability at the syntax-discourse interface: Data, interpretation and methods. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7, 143145.
Sorace, A. (2005). Selective optionality in language development. In Cornips, L. & Corrigan, K. (Eds.), Syntax and variation: Reconciling the biological and the social (pp. 5580). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Sorace, A. (2011). Pinning down the concept of “interface” in bilingualism. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1, 133.
Sorace, A., & Filiaci, F. (2006). Anaphora resolution in near-native speakers of Italian. Second Language Research, 22, 339368.
Sorace, A., & Serratrice, L. (2009). Internal and external interfaces in bilingual language development: Beyond structural overlap. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13, 195210.
Sorace, A., Serratrice, L., Filiaci, F., & Baldo, M. (2009). Discourse conditions on subject pronoun realization: Testing the linguistic intuitions of older bilingual children. Lingua, 119, 460477.
Springer, J. A., Binder, J. R., Hammeke, T. A., Swanson, S. J., Frost, J. A., Bellgowan, P. S., et al. (1999). Language dominance in neurologically normal and epilepsy subjects: A functional MRI study. Brain, 122(11), 20332046.
Stöhr, A., Akpinar, D., Bianchi, G., & Kupisch, T. (2012). Gender marking in Italian–German heritage speakers and L2-learners of German. In Braunmüller, K. & Gabriel, C. (Eds.), Multilingual Individuals Multilingual Societies (MIMS) (pp. 153169). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Streiner, D. L. (2002). Breaking up is hard to do: The heartbreak of dichotomizing continuous data. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47, 262266.
Sundara, M., Polka, L., & Genesee, F. (2006). Language-experience facilitates discrimination of /d-d/ in monolingual and bilingual acquisition of English. Cognition, 100, 369388.
Swigart, L. (1992). Two codes or one? The insiders’ view and the description of codeswitching in Dakar. Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development, 13, 83102.
Talamas, A., Kroll, J., & Dufour, R. (1999). From form to meaning: Stages in the acquisition of second language vocabulary. Bilingualism, Language and Cognition, 2, 4558.
Templin, M. ( 1957). Certain language skills in children: Their development and interrelationships. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Thoma, D., & Tracy, R. (2006). Deutsch als frühe Zweitsprache: zweite Erstsprache? In Ahrenholz, B. (Ed.), Kinder mit Migrationshintergrund: Spracherwerb und Fördermöglichkeiten (pp. 5879). Freiburg: Fillibach.
Thomas, E. M., & Gathercole, V. C. M. (2007). Children’s productive command of grammatical gender and mutation in Welsh: An alternative to rule-based learning. First Language, 27, 251278.
Thordardottir, E. (2011). The relationship between bilingual exposure and vocabulary development. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 426445.
Thordardottir, E., Rothenberg, A., Rivard, M. E., & Naves, R. (2006). Bilingual assessment: Can overall proficiency be estimated from separate measurement of two languages? Journal of Multilingual Communication Disorders, 4, 121.
Todor, J. I., & Doane, T. (1977). Handedness classification: Preference versus proficiency. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 45, 10411042.
Townsend, P., Phillimore, P., & Beattie, A. (1988). Health and deprivation: Inequality and the north. London: Routledge.
Tracy, R., & Thoma, D. (2009). Convergence on finite clauses in L1, bilingual L1 and early L2 acquisition. In Jordens, P. & Dimroth, Ch. (Eds.), Functional elements: Variation in learner systems (pp. 143). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Treffers-Daller, J. (1992). French–Dutch codeswitching in Brussels: Social factors explaining its disappearance. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 13(1&2), 143156.
Treffers-Daller, J. (2011). Operationalizing and measuring language dominance. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 147163.
Treffers-Daller, J. (2013). Measuring lexical diversity among L2 learners of French: An exploration of the validity of D, MTLD and HD-D as measures of language ability. In Jarvis, S. & Daller, M. (Eds), Vocabulary knowledge: Human ratings and automated measures (pp. 79103). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Treffers-Daller, J., & Sakel, J. (2012). Why transfer is a key aspect of language use and processing in bilinguals and L2-users. International Journal of Bilingualism, 16(1), 310.
Tremblay, A. (2011). Proficiency assessment standards in second language acquisition research. Closing the “gap.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 339372.
Tucker, G. R., Lambert, W. E., & Rigault, A. A. (1977). The French speaker’s skill with grammatical gender: An example of rule-governed behavior. The Hague: Mouton.
Tweedie, F. J., & Baayen, R. H. (1998). How variable may a constant be? Measures in lexical richness in perspective. Computers and the Humanities, 32, 323352.
Uccelli, P., & Páez, M. M. (2007). Narrative and vocabulary development of bilingual children from Kindergarten to first grade: Developmental changes and associations among English and Spanish skills. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 38, 225236.
Unsworth, S. (2003). Testing Hulk & Müller (2000) on crosslinguistic influence: Root infinitives in a bilingual German/English child. Bilingualism Language and Cognition, 6, 143158.
Unsworth, S. (2005). Child L2, adult L2, child L1: Differences and similarities – A study on the acquisition of direct object scrambling in Dutch. Doctoral dissertation, Utrecht University.
Unsworth, S. (2013a). Current issues in multilingual first language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 33, 2150.
Unsworth, S. (2013b). Assessing the role of current and cumulative exposure in simultaneous bilingual acquisition: The case of Dutch gender. Bilingualism Language and Cognition, 16, 86110.
Unsworth, S. (2014). Comparing the role of input in bilingual acquisition across domains. In Grüter, T. & Paradis, J. (Eds.), Input and experience in bilingual development (pp. 181202). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Unsworth, S., Argyri, F., Cornips, L., Hulk, A., Sorace, A., & Tsimpli, I. (2014). On the role of age of onset and input in early child bilingualism in Greek and Dutch. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35, 765805.
Uriagereka, J. (2007). Clarifying the notion “parameter.” Biolinguistics, 1, 99113.
Van der Linden, E., & Blok-Boas, A. (2005). Exploring possession in simultaneous bilingualism: Dutch/French and Dutch/Italian. Eurosla Yearbook, 5, 103135.
Van Walraven, C., & Hart, R. G. (2008). Leave ’em alone: Why continuous variables should be analyzed as such. Neuroepidemiology, 30, 138139.
Volterra, V., & Taeschner, T. (1978). The acquisition and development of language by bilingual children. Journal of Child Language, 5, 311326.
Wald, B. (1974). Bilingualism. Annual Review of Anthropology, 3, 301321.
Wang, X. (2013). Language dominance in translation priming: Evidence from balanced and unbalanced Chinese–English bilinguals. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 727743
Weinreich, U. (1953). Languages in contact: Findings and problems. New York: Linguistic Circle of New York.
White, L., Valenzuela, E., Kozlowska-Macgregor, M., & Leung, Y.-K. I. (2004). Gender agreement in nonnative Spanish: Evidence against failed features. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25, 105133.
Wölck, W. (1987/1988). Types of natural bilingual behavior: A review and revision. The Bilingual Review/La Revista Bilingüe, 14, 316.
Wolfe-Quintero, K., Inagaki, S., & Kim, H.-Y. (1998). Second language development in writing: Measures of fluency, accuracy, and complexity. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.
Yan, S., & Nicoladis, E. (2009). Finding le mot juste: Differences between bilingual and monolingual children’s lexical access in comprehension and production. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 323335.
Yip, V., & Matthews, S. (2000). Syntactic transfer in a Cantonese–English bilingual child. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3, 193208.
Paradis, J. (2006). Assessing language dominance in bilingual acquisition: A case for mean length utterance differentials. Language Assessment Quarterly, 3, 97116.
Paradis, J. (2007). The bilingual child: Early development and language contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zell, E., & Krizan, Z. (2014). Do people have insight into their abilities? A metasynthesis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9, 111125.
Zink, I., & Lejaegere, M. (2002). N-CDIs: Lijsten voor communicatieve ontwikkeling – Aanpassing en hernormering van de MacArthur CDIs van Fenson et al. Leuven, Belgium: Acco.
Zirkel, P. A. (1974). A method for determining and depicting language dominance. TESOL Quarterly, 8, 716.
Zuckerman, S. (2001). The acquisition of optional movement. Doctoral dissertation, University of Groningen.
Zwanziger, E. E., Allen, S. A., & Genesee, F. (2005). Crosslinguistic influence in bilingual acquisition: Subject omission in learners of Inuktitut and English. Journal of Child Language, 32, 893909.