Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: February 2013

13 - Managing Carbon: Ecological Limits and Constraints

Summary

Introduction

Humans have been managing terrestrial carbon (C) since time immemorial as a way to obtain energy stored in vegetation, food, and fiber from domesticated crops and animals, as well as wood products from forests. This manipulation of terrestrial C, inadvertent at first, has been more deliberate since 1800 and led to a net release of C to the atmosphere of about 200 Pg C since then. The net annual carbon dioxide (CO2) flux to the atmosphere from vegetation and soils, currently estimated at 1.2 Pg C·y−1 mainly due to land-use changes in tropical environments, is a major factor contributing to rising atmospheric CO2.

In 1977, Freeman Dyson hypothesized that the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere could be controlled via tree planting and estimated that approximately 4.5 Pg C · y−1 could be sequestered this way (Dyson 1977). The possibility of storing C in soils as a way to mitigate atmospheric CO2 increase and to restore lost soil organic matter and fertility emerged about two decades ago. Cole et al. (1997) estimated that about two-thirds of the historical losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) (approximately 40 Pg C) could be sequestered over 50 to 100 years through the implementation of nutrient management, cropping intensity, diversified crop rotation, and reduced tillage practices. In the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) second assessment report, Brown et al. (1996) estimated that about 38 Pg C could be sequestered on 345 × 106 hectares during 50 years via afforestation, reforestation, and agroforestry practices. Indeed, the Kyoto Protocol recognized afforestation and reforestation as mitigation practices implementable through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Although the importance of soils as a C repository was recognized in the Kyoto Protocol, this technology was not included as a mitigation practice during the first commitment period (2008 to 2012) due to measurement uncertainties.

References
Achard, F., Eva, H.D., Stibig, H.J., Mayaux, P., Gallego, J., Richards, T., and Malingreau, J.-P. 2002. Determination of deforestation rates of the world's humid tropical forests. Science, 297:999–1002.
Anderson, I.C., Levine, J.S., Poth, M.A., and Riggan, P.J. 1988. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface biomass burning. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 93:3893–3898, .
Antinori, C., and Sathaye, J. 2007. Assessing transaction costs of project-based greenhouse gas emissions trading. Tech. rep. LBNL-57315. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Batjes, N.H. 1996. Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world. European Journal of Soil Science, 47:151–163.
Bayer, C., Martin-Neto, L., Mielniczuk, J., Pavinato, A., and Dieckow, J. 2006. Carbon sequestration in two Brazilian Cerrado soils under no-till. Soil and Tillage Research, 86:237–245.
Bellamy, P.H., Loveland, P.J., Bradley, R.I., Murray Lark, R., and Kirk, G.J.D. 2005. Carbon losses from all soils across England and Wales 1978–2003. Nature, 437:245–248.
Birdsey, R.A., Jenkins, J.C., Johnston, M., Huber-Sannwald, E., Amero, B., de Jong, B.,…Pregitzer, K.S. 2007. Principles of forest management for enhancing carbon sequestration. In The first State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR): The North American carbon budget and implications for the global carbon cycle, ed. King, A.W., Dilling, L., Zimmerman, G.P., Fiarman, D.M., Houghton, R.A., Marland, G.H.,…Wilbanks, T.J.. Asheville, NC: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center, pp. 175–176.
Birdsey, R., Pregitzer, K., and Lucier, A. 2006. Forest carbon management in the United States: 1600–2100. Journal of Environmental Quality, 35:1461–1469.
Bouwman, A.F. 1996. Direct emission of nitrous oxide from agricultural soils. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 46:53–70.
Brown, D.J., Hunt, E.R., Izaurralde, R.C., Paustian, K.H., Rice, C.W., Schumaker, B.L., and West, T.O. 2010. Soil organic carbon change monitored over large areas. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 91:441–442.
Brown, S., Hall, M., Andrasko, K., Ruiz, F., Marzoli, W., Guerrero, G.,…Cornell, J. 2007. Baselines for land-use change in the tropics: Application to avoided deforestation projects. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 12:1001–1026.
Brown, S., Sathaye, J., Cannel, M., and Kauppi, P. 1996. Management of forests for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. In Climate change 1995: Impacts, adaptations, and mitigation of climate change: Scientific-technical analyses, ed. Watson, R.T., Zinyowera, M.C., and Moss, R.H.. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 773–797.
Buyanovsky, G.A., and Wagner, G.H. 1998. Carbon cycling in cultivated land and its global significance. Global Change Biology, 4:131–141.
Campbell, J.E., Lobell, D.B., Genova, R.C., and Field, C.B. 2008. The global potential of bioenergy on abandoned agriculture lands. Environmental Science and Technology, 42:5791–5794.
Canadell, J.G., Le Quéré, C., Raupach, M.R., Field, C.B., Buitehuis, E.T., Ciais, P.,…Marland, G. 2007. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104:18866–18870.
Cassel, D.K., Raczkowski, C.W., and Denton, H.P. 1995. Tillage effects on corn production and soil physical conditions. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 59:1436–1443.
Cole, C.V., Duxbury, J., Freney, J., Heinemeyer, O., Minami, K., Mosier, A.,…Zhao, Q. 1997. Global estimates of potential mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 49:221–228.
Conrad, R. 1996. Soil microorganisms as controllers of atmospheric trace gases (H2, CO, CH4, OCS, N2O, and NO). Microbiological Reviews, 60:609–640.
Davidson, E.A., and Ackerman, I.L. 1993. Changes in soil carbon inventories following cultivation of previously untilled soils. Biogeochemistry, 20:161–193.
Denman, K.L., Brasseur, G., Chidthaisong, A., Ciais, P., Cox, P., Dickinson, R.E.,…Zhang, X. 2007. Couplings between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry. In Climate change 2007: The physical science basis, ed. Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.,…Miller, H.L.. Working Group I Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 499–588.
Dyson, F.J. 1977. Can we control the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?Energy, 2:287–291, .
Ellis, E.C., Goldewijk, K.K., Siebert, S., Lightman, D., and Ramankutty, N. 2010. Anthropogenic transformation of the biomes, 1700 to 2000. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 19:589–606.
Fang, J.Q., and Xie, Z.R. 1994. Deforestation in preindustrial China – the Loess Plateau Region as an example. Chemosphere, 29:983–999.
Fargione, J., Hill, J., Tilman, D., Polasky, S., and Hawthorne, P. 2008. Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt. Science, 319:1235–1238.
Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Elmqvist, T., Gunderson, L., and Holling, C.S. 2004. Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 35:557–581.
Francis, G.S., and Knight, T.L. 1993. Long-term effects of conventional and no-tillage on selected soil properties and crop yields in Canterbury, New Zealand. Soil and Tillage Research, 26:193–210.
Franzluebbers, A.J. 2005. Soil organic carbon sequestration and agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in the southeastern USA. Soil and Tillage Research, 83:120–147.
Friedlingstein, P., Houghton, R.A., Marland, G., Hackler, J., Boden, T.A., Conway, T.J.,…Le Quéré, C. 2010. Update on CO2 emissions. Nature Geoscience, 3:811–812, .
Galloway, J.N., Aber, J.D., Erisman, J.W., Seitzinger, S.P., Howarth, R.W., Cowling, E.B., and Cosby, B.J. 2003. The nitrogen cascade. BioScience, 53:341–356.
Galloway, J.N., and Cowling, E.B. 2002. Reactive nitrogen and the world: 200 years of change. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 31:64–71.
Glaser, B., Haumaier, L., Guggenberger, G., and Zech, W. 2001. The “Terra Preta” phenomenon: A model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics. Naturwissenschaften, 88:37–41.
Godfray, H.C.J., Beddington, J.R., Crute, I.R., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J.F.,…Toulmin, C. 2010. Food security: The challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science, 327:812–818.
Graham, R.L., Wright, L.L., and Turhollow, A.F. 1992. The potential for short-rotation woody crops to reduce U.S. CO2 emissions. Climatic Change, 22:223–38.
Grandy, A.S., and Robertson, G.P. 2007. Land-use intensity effects on soil organic carbon accumulation rates and mechanisms. Ecosystems, 10(1):58–73.
Gregg, J.S., and Smith, S.J. 2010. Global and regional potential for bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residue biomass. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 15:241–262, .
Grigal, D.F., and Berguson, W.E. 1998. Soil carbon changes associated with short-rotation systems. Biomass and Bioenergy, 14(4):371–377.
Grime, J.P. 1979. Plant strategies and vegetation processes. New York: Wiley.
Guo, L.B., and Gifford, R.M. 2002. Soil carbon stocks and land use change: A meta analysis. Global Change Biology, 8:345–360.
Harmon, M.E., Franklin, J.F., Swanson, F.J., Sollins, P., Gregory, S.V., Lattin, J.D.,…Cummins, K.W. 1986. Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. Advances in Ecological Research, 15:133–302.
Hellwinckel, C.M., West, T.O., De La Torre Ugarte, D.G., and Perlack, R.D. 2010. Evaluating possible cap and trade legislation on cellulosic feedstock availability. Global Change Biology: Bioenergy, 2:278–287, .
Hill, J., Nelson, E., Tilman, D., Polask, S., and Tiffany, D. 2006. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103:11206–11210.
Holland, J.M. 2004. The environmental consequences of adopting conservation tillage in Europe: Reviewing the evidence. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 103:1–25
Houghton, R.A. 1999. The annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use 1850–1990. Tellus B, 51:298–313.
Houghton, R.A. 2003. Revised estimates of the annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use and land management 1850–2000. Tellus B, 55:378–390.
Houghton, R.A., Hobbie, J.E., Melillo, J.M., Moore, B., Peterson, B.J., Shaver, G.R., and Woodwell, G.M. 1983. Changes in the carbon content of terrestrial biota and soils between 1860 and 1980: A net release of CO2 to the atmosphere. Ecological Monographs, 53:236–262.
Huston, M.A., and Marland, G. 2003. Carbon management and biodiversity. Journal of Environmental Management, 67:77–86.
IPCC. 2000. Land use, land-use change, and forestry, ed. Watson, R.T., Noble, I.R., Bolin, B., Ravindranath, N.H., Verardo, D.J., and Dokken, D.J.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Izaurralde, R.C., McGill, W.B., Robertson, J.A., Juma, N.G., and Thurston, J.J. 2001. Carbon balance of the Breton Classical Plots over half a century. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65:431–441.
Izaurralde, R.C., and Rice, C.W. 2006. Methods and tools for designing pilot soil carbon sequestration projects. In Carbon sequestration in Latin America, ed. Lal, R.. New York: Haworth Press, pp. 457–476.
Izaurralde, R.C., Williams, J.R., McGill, W.B., Rosenberg, N.J., and Quiroga Jakas, M.C. 2006. Simulating soil C dynamics with EPIC: Model description and testing against long-term data. Ecological Modelling, 192:362–384.
Izaurralde, R.C., Williams, J.R., Post, W.M., Thomson, A.M., McGill, W.B., Owens, L.B., and Lal, R. 2007. Long-term modeling of soil C erosion and sequestration at the small watershed scale. Climatic Change, 80:73–90.
Jandl, R., Lindner, M., Vesterdal, L., Bauwens, B., Bartiz, R., Hagedorn, F.,…Byrne, K.A. 2007. How strongly can forest management influence soil carbon sequestration?Geoderma, 137:253–268.
Janzen, H.H., Campbell, C.A., Izaurralde, R.C., Ellert, B.H., Juma, N., McGill, W.B., and Zentner, R.P. 1998. Management effects on soil C storage on the Canadian prairies. Soil and Tillage Research, 47:181–195.
Jastrow, J.D., Amonette, J.E., and Bailey, V.L. 2007. Mechanisms controlling soil carbon turnover and their potential application for enhancing carbon sequestration. Climatic Change, 80:5–23.
Jenkinson, D.S. 1990. The turnover of organic-carbon and nitrogen in soil. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 329:361–368.
Jenkinson, D.S. 1991. The Rothamsted long-term experiments – are they still of use?Agronomy Journal, 83:2–10.
Jenkinson, D.S., and Ayanaba, A. 1977. Decomposition of C-14 labeled plant material under tropical conditions. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 41:912–915.
Jenkinson, D.S., and Rayner, J.H. 1977. Turnover of soil organic-matter in some of Rothamsted classical experiments. Soil Science, 123:298–305.
Jobbágy, E.G., and Jackson, R.B. 2000. The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and its relation to climate and vegetation. Ecological Applications, 10:423–436.
Johnson, D.W., and Curtis, P.S. 2001. Effects of forest management on soil C and N storage: Meta-analysis. Forest Ecology and Management, 140:227–238.
Khalil, M.I., Gutser, R., and Schmidhalter, U. 2009. Effects of urease and nitrification inhibitors added to urea on nitrous oxide emissions from a loess soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 172:651–660, .
Lal, R. 1995. Global soil erosion by water and carbon dynamics. In Soils and global change, ed. Lal, R., Kimble, J.M., Levine, E., and Stewart, B.A.. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 131–142.
Lal, R. 2002. Soil carbon sequestration in China through agricultural intensification, and restoration of degraded and desertified ecosystems. Land Degradation and Development, 13:469–478.
Lal, R. 2003. Global potential of soil carbon sequestration to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 22:151–184.
Lal, R. 2004. Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science, 304:1623–1627.
Lehmann, J. 2007. Bio-energy in the black. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5:381–387.
Lemus, R., and Lal, R. 2005. Bioenergy crops and carbon sequestration. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 24:1–21.
Lugo, A.E. 1992. Comparison of tropical tree plantations with secondary forests of similar age. Ecological Monographs, 62:1–41.
Mann, L.K. 1986. Changes in soil carbon storage after cultivation. Soil Science, 142:279–288.
Marland, E., and Marland, G. 2003. The treatment of long-lived, carbon containing products in inventories of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Environmental Science and Policy, 6:139–152.
Marland, G., Obersteiner, M., and Schlamadinger, B. 2007. The carbon benefits of fuels and forests. Science, 318:1066–1068.
McCarl, B.A., and Schneider, U.A. 2001. Greenhouse gas mitigation in U.S. agriculture and forestry. Science, 294:2481–2482.
McConkey, B.G., Liang, B.C., Padbury, G., and Heck, R. 2000. Prairie Soil Carbon Balance Project: Carbon sequestration from adoption of conservation cropping practices. Final rep. to GEMCo. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Swift Current, Saskatchewan.
McGill, W.B., Dormaar, J.F., and Reinl-Dwyer, E. 1988. New perspectives on soil organic matter quality, quantity and dynamics on the Canadian Prairies. In Land degradation and conservation tillage. Proceedings of the 34th Annual CSSS/AIC Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, pp. 30–48.
Montgomery, D.R. 2007. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104:13268–13272.
Mooney, S., Antle, J., Capalbo, S., and Paustian, K. 2004. Influence of project scale and carbon variability on the costs of measuring soil carbon credits. Environmental Management, 33:S252–S263.
Mosier, A.R. 1998. Soil processes and global change. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 27:221–229.
Nabuurs, G.J., Masera, O., Andrasko, K., Benitez-Ponce, P., Boer, R., Dutschke, M.,…Zhang, X. 2007. Forestry. In Climate change 2007: Mitigation, ed. Metz, B., Davidson, O.R., Bosch, P.R., Dave, R., and Meyer, L.A.. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 541–584.
Nabuurs, G.J., and Mohren, G.M.J. 1993. Carbon fixation through forestation activities: A study of the carbon sequestering potential of selected forest types. IBN res. rep. 93/4. FACE/Institute for Forestry and Nature Research. Arnhem: The Netherlands: FACE.
Nair, P.K.R., and Nair, V.D. 2003. Carbon storage in North American agroforestry systems. In The potential of U.S. forest soils to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect, ed. Kimble, J., Heath, L.S., Birdsey, R., and Lal, R.. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 343–346.
Odell, R.T., Melsted, S.W., and Walker, V.M. 1984. Changes in organic carbon and nitrogen of Morrow Plots under conventional treatments, 1904–1973. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 137:160–171.
Olson, J.S., Watts, J.A., and Allison, L.J. 1983. Carbon in live vegetation of major world ecosystems. Tech. rep. DOE/NBB-0037. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Parton, W.J., Stewart, J.W.B., and Cole, C.V. 1988. Dynamics of C, N, P and S in grassland soils – a model. Biogeochemistry, 5:109–131.
Paul, K.I., Polglase, P.J., Nyakuengama, J.G., Khanna, P.K. 2002. Change in soil carbon following afforestation. Forest Ecology and Management, 168:241–257.
Paustian, K., Levine, E., Post, W.M., and Ryzhova, I.M. 1997. The use of models to integrate information and understanding of soil C at the regional scale. Geoderma, 79:227–260.
Paustian, K., Parton, W.J., and Persson, J. 1992. Modeling soil organic-matter in organic-amended and nitrogen-fertilized long-term plots. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 56:476–488.
Perlack, R.D., Wright, L.L., Turhollow, A.F., Graham, R.L., Stokes, B.J., and Erbach, D.C. 2005. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Post, W.M., Amonette, J.E., Birdsey, R., Garten, C.T., Izaurralde, R.C., Jardine, P.M.,…Metting, F.B. 2009. Terrestrial biological carbon sequestration: Science for enhancement and implementation. Geophysical Monograph, 183:73–88.
Post, W.M., Emanuel, W.R., Zinke, P.J., and Stangenberger, A.G. 1982. Soil carbon pools and world life zones. Nature, 298:156–159.
Post, W.M., and Kwon, K.C. 2000. Soil carbon sequestration and land-use change: Processes and potential. Global Change Biology, 6:317–327.
Powlson, D.S., Whitmore, A.P., and Goulding, K.W.T. 2011. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change: A critical re-examination to identify the true and the false. European Journal of Soil Science, 62:42–55.
Quinton, J.N., Govers, G., Van Oost, K., and Bardgett, R.D. 2010. The impact of agricultural soil erosion on biogeochemical cycling. Nature Geoscience, 3:311–314.
Ragauskas, A.J., Williams, C.K., Davison, B.H., Britovsek, G., Cairney, J., Eckert, C.A.,…Tschaplinski, T. 2006. The path forward for biofuels and biomaterials. Science, 311:484–489.
Richter, D.D., Markewitz, D., Trumbore, S.E., and Wells, C.G. 1999. Rapid accumulation and turnover of soil carbon in a re-establishing forest. Science, 400:56–58.
Robertson, G.P., Dale, V.H., Doering, O.C., Hamburg, S.P., Melillo, J.M., Wander, M.M.,…Wilhelm, W.W. 2008. Sustainable biofuels redux. Science, 322:49–50.
Robertson, G.P., Paul, E.A., and Harwood, R.R. 2000. Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture: Contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Science, 289:1922–1925.
Schlamadinger, B., and Marland, G. 1999. Net effect of forest harvest on CO2 emissions to the atmosphere: A sensitivity analysis on the influence of time. Tellus B, 51:314–325.
Schlesinger, W.H. 1997. Biogeochemistry: An analysis of global change, 2d ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Schlesinger, W.H. 1999. Carbon and agriculture: Carbon sequestration in soils. Science, 284:2095.
Searchinger, T., Heimlich, R., Houghton, R.A., Dong, F., Elobeid, A., Fabiosa, J.,…Yu, T.-H. 2008. Use of U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change. Science, 319:1238–1240.
Six, J., Frey, S.D., Thiet, R.K., and Batten, K.M. 2006. Bacterial and fungal contributions to carbon sequestration in agroecosystems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70:555–569.
Smith, J.E., and Heath, L.S. 2001. Carbon stocks and projections on public forestlands in the United States, 1952–2040. Environmental Management, 33:433–442.
Smith, P., Martino, D., Cai, Z., Gwary, D., Janzen, H., Kumar, P.,…Smith, J. 2008. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 363:789–813.
Snyder, C.S., Bruulsema, T.W., Jensen, T.L., and Fixen, P.E. 2009. Review of greenhouse gas emissions from crop production systems and fertilizer management effects. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41:1270–1280.
Stallard, R.F. 1998. Terrestrial sedimentation and the carbon cycle: Coupling weathering and erosion to carbon burial. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12:231–257.
Stewart, C.E., Paustian, K., Conant, R.T., Plante, A.F., and Six, J. 2007. Soil carbon saturation: Concept, evidence and evaluation. Biogeochemistry, 86: 19–31, .
Sun, B., and Sohngen, B. 2009. Set-asides for carbon sequestration: Implications for permanence and leakage. Climatic Change, 96: 409–419, .
Thomson, A.M., Izaurralde, R.C., Smith, S.J., and Clarke, L.E. 2008. Integrated estimates of global terrestrial carbon sequestration. Global Environmental Change, 18:192–203.
Tilman, D., Socolow, R., Foley, J.A., Hill, J., Larson, E., Lynd, L.,…Williams, R. 2009. Beneficial biofuels – the food, energy, and environment trilemma. Science, 325:270–271.
Tuskan, G.A., and Walsh, M.E. 2001. Short-rotation crop systems, atmospheric carbon dioxide and carbon management: A US case study. Forestry Chronicle, 77:259–264.
Van Hemelryck, H., Fiener, P., Van Oost, K., and Govers, G. 2009. The effect of soil redistribution on soil organic carbon: An experimental study. Biogeosciences, 6:5031–5071.
Van Wesemael, B., Paustian, K., Meersmans, J., Goidts, E., Barancikova, G., and Easter, M. 2010. Agricultural management explains historic changes in regional soil carbon stocks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107:14926–14930.
Watson, R.T., Noble, I.R., Bolin, B., Ravindranath, N.H., Verardo, D.J., and Dokken, D.J., eds. 2000. Land use, land-use change, and forestry: A special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
West, T.O., Bandaru, V., Brandt, C.C., Schuh, A.E., and Ogle, S.M. 2011. Regional uptake and release of crop carbon in the United States. Biogeosciences, 8:631–654, .
West, T.O., Brandt, C.C., Baskaran, L.M., Hellwinckel, C.M., Mueller, R., Bernacchi, C.J.,…Post, W.M. 2010. Cropland carbon fluxes in the United States: Increasing geospatial resolution of inventory-based carbon accounting. Ecological Applications, 20:1074–1086.
West, T.O., and Marland, G. 2002. A synthesis of carbon sequestration, carbon emissions, and net carbon flux in agriculture: Comparing tillage practices in the United States. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, 91:217–232.
West, T.O., and Marland, G. 2003. Net carbon flux from agriculture: Carbon emissions, carbon sequestration, crop yield, and land-use change. Biogeochemistry, 6:73–83.
West, T.O., and Post, W.M. 2002. Soil organic carbon sequestration rates by tillage and crop rotation: A global data analysis. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66:1930–1946.
West, T.O., and Six, J. 2007. Considering the influence of sequestration duration and carbon saturation on estimates of soil carbon capacity. Climatic Change, 80:25–41, .
Westerling, A.L., Hidalgo, H.G., Cayan, D.R., and Swetnam, T.W. 2006. Warming and earlier spring increase western US forest wildfire activity. Science, 313:940–943.
Williams, M. 2003. Deforesting the Earth: From prehistory to global crisis: An abridgement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wise, M., Calvin, K., Thomson, A., Clarke, L., Bond-Lamberty, B., Sands, R.,…Edmonds, J. 2009. Implications of limiting CO2 concentrations for land use and energy. Science, 324:1183–1186.
Woodbury, P.B., Heath, L.S., and Smith, J.E. 2006. Land use change effects on forest carbon cycling throughout the southern United States. Journal of Environmental Quality, 35:1348–1363.
Wright, L.L., and Hughes, E.E. 1993. U.S. carbon offset potential using biomass energy systems. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 70(1):483–497.
Zaman, M., Saggar, S., Blennerhassett, J.D., and Singh, J. 2009. Effect of urease and nitrification inhibitors on N transformation, gaseous emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide, pasture yield and N uptake in grazed pasture system. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41:1270–1280.
Zan, C.S., Fyles, J.W., Girouard, P., and Samson, R.A. 2001. Carbon sequestration in perennial bioenergy, annual corn and uncultivated systems in southern Quebec. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, 86:135–44.
Zhao, M., and Running, S.W. 2010. Drought-induced reduction in global terrestrial net primary production from 2000 through 2009. Science, 329:940–943.
Zvomuya, F., Janzen, H.H., Larney, F.J., and Olson, B.M. 2008. A long-term field bioassay of soil quality indicators in a semiarid environment. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 72:683–692.