Skip to main content Accessibility help
Kierkegaard's 'Concluding Unscientific Postscript'
  • Cited by 6
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Søren Kierkegaard's Concluding Unscientific Postscript has provoked a lively variety of divergent interpretations for a century and a half. It has been both celebrated and condemned as the chief inspiration for twentieth-century existential thought, as a subversive parody of philosophical argument, as a critique of mass society, as a forerunner of phenomenology and of postmodern relativism, and as an appeal for a renewal of religious commitment. These 2010 essays written by international Kierkegaard scholars offer a plurality of critical approaches to this fundamental text of existential philosophy. They cover hotly debated topics such as the tension between the Socratic-philosophical and the Christian-religious; the identity and personality of Kierkegaard's pseudonym 'Johannes Climacus'; his conceptions of paradoxical faith and of passionate understanding; his relation to his contemporaries and to some of his more distant predecessors; and, last but not least, his pertinence to our present-day concerns.


'One of the most noteworthy features of Kierkegaard’s 'Concluding Unscientific Postscript': A Critical Guide is that it lives up to its subtitle. This collection truly is a guide to the work as a whole … [It] contains significant steps forward in our understanding of this complex text, the difficulty of which continues to reward the sharpest critical study.'

Jeffrey Hanson - Australian Catholic University

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Save to Kindle
  • Save to Dropbox
  • Save to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


  • 1 - The “Socratic secret”: the postscript to the Philosophical Crumbs
    pp 6-24
  • View abstract


    This chapter suggests that the book, Concluding Unscientific Postscript, contains both a quasi-sequel to Philosophical Crumbs and a postscript to Crumbs that provided a new and crucial supplement to Crumbs. Although some aspects of Crumbs become more finely grained in the part of the Postscript that is a "sequel", the point of the "postscript" part of the Postscript was to provide something new. The chapter also suggests that whereas in Crumbs Socratic subjectivity was presented as an alternative to the non-Socratic (Christian) position, the Concluding Unscientific Postscript reveals them in a positive relation. The "postscript" raises the question of how to think of a "deepening" of human subjectivity that is not an "evolution". The difficulty is to think such a sharpening (intensification, deepening) of pathos, one in which pathos is preserved and transfigured, without eliminating the qualitativeness of the transition.
  • 2 - Kierkegaard's Socratic pseudonym: A profile of Johannes Climacus
    pp 25-44
  • View abstract


    This chapter presents an overview of Johannes Climacus' two works and the two therapeutic, experimental stances he adopts in relation to his readers. Climacus' first book, Philosophical Crumbs, is a rather slender volume that hypothetically investigates the difference between a Socratic conception of the individual's relation to the truth and a Christian conception. His second book, Concluding Unscientific Postscript, is a kind of sequel to Philosophical Crumbs in the form of a postscript. The chapter also presents a brief examination of Søren Kierkegaard's unfinished manuscript Johannes Climacus, or De Omnibus Dubitandum Est; and a more detailed account of Climacus' diagnosis of what he thinks has gone wrong in Christendom and how this relates to his decision to become an author. So while Kierkegaard's use of pseudonyms may be one means of engaging in indirect communication, there are presumably other means of indirection that are available to the pseudonymous authors themselves.
  • 3 - Johannes Climacus' revocation
    pp 45-63
  • View abstract


    The revocation can easily be confused with a phenomenon that Johannes Climacus and Søren Kierkegaard both share with many another writer with something to impart. Several commentators have, quite to the contrary, understood humor to be the key to the revocation. An alternative explanation of the revocation is that what Climacus says about absurdity and the paradox is itself absurd, that is to say nonsensical. If that were literally the case, there would be no need to appeal to some later disregard on Kierkegaard's part of Climacus' "exaggerated" claims; Postscript could be considered nonsensical on the basis of its own notions of what makes sense. This brings Climacus within analogical range of Ludwig Wittgenstein's ladder metaphor. Wittgenstein's Tractatus famously describes its own core sentences as "nonsensical". Climacus calls humor a confinium and he portrays it as a special kind of vantage-point.
  • 4 - From the garden of the dead: Climacus on interpersonal inwardness
    pp 64-86
  • View abstract


    Johannes Climacus lingers in "the garden of the dead", a cemetery, for the dead to speak, awaiting whatever death speaks to him. He overhears a graveside address on how death disrupts the living, puts the dead under judgment, and warns the living to heed their lives. Stepping beyond the garden of death and a grief-filled outpouring, one might consider what is meant by the expression "truth is subjectivity", or by "indirect communication". Concluding Unscientific Postscript can depict faith or "subjective truth" abstractly as "the objective uncertainty" held in "the most passionate inwardness. The graveyard intimates this restless inwardness. Climacus notes that inwardness is both a self's relation to itself and also its outward relation to others. To lose inwardness is to exemplify "an unnatural form of interpersonal association". The teacher's inwardness, Climacus reports, "is a respect for the learner precisely as one having inwardness in himself".
  • 5 - The Kierkegaardian ideal of “essential knowing” and the scandal of modern philosophy
    pp 87-110
  • View abstract


    According to the Concluding Unscientific Postscript, the scandal of modern philosophy is not that it has attempted unsuccessfully to prove the reality of the objective world, but that it has failed to offer the kind of knowledge that "essentially relates to existence". Søren Kierkegaard's affinity for ancient philosophy is widely recognized. Among Kierkegaard's pseudonymous authors, "Johannes Climacus" is one who seems to be especially preoccupied with this contrast between ancient Greek and modern European philosophy. For instance, Climacus alludes to the Greeks as proof that "inwardness" and "subjectivity" can exist outside of Christianity. He is not trying to change the subject, but he is trying to change the nature of the conversation. The plea for "essential knowing" is nothing other than an attempt to return philosophy, the love of wisdom, to a focus on wisdom as a "form of understanding that unites a reflective attitude and a practical concern".
  • 6 - Lessing and Socrates in Kierkegaard's Postscript
    pp 111-131
  • View abstract


    This chapter talks about important roles of two historical figures, Socrates and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, in Johannes Climacus' Concluding Unscientific Postscript to the Philosophical Crumbs. The clues about the roles of Lessing and Socrates in Postscript are furnished by the nature and structure of the book as a whole. Climacus' discussion of Lessing helps one to see that it is neither possible nor desirable for another to know the religious life of a subjective existing thinker. Climacus' characterization of Socrates' passionate faithfulness in existence that sets the stage for his transition to what it means to exist in Christian faith. Climacus arguably evinces the full extent of his kinship with Lessing and Socrates in employing a mode of communication that arouses and intensifies the passion of thought. The great question with which Postscript leaves us is whether this intellectual passion is transferable to the tasks of existence.
  • 7 - Climacus on subjectivity and the system
    pp 132-148
  • View abstract


    Johannes Climacus, the pseudonymous author of Søren Kierkegaard's Concluding Unscientific Postscript, is concerned about subjectivity, and it comes as no surprise that his critique of Hegel is primarily in that domain. He makes about the idea that Hegelian philosophy is the system that satisfies its own holistic requirements. Much of what Climacus has to say about subjectivity comes to its culmination in the (in) famous claim that "truth is subjectivity". Two central claims of the Hegelian system are that it succeeds in grasping God objectively, and that in so doing it gives us an improved, superior version of Christianity. Climacus argues that, as the disinterested spectator of being and world history, the Hegelian is not even within the horizon within which Christianity can happen. Existential pathos, insofar as it appears at all in Hegelian thought, is what is to be overcome or surpassed.
  • 8 - Humor and irony in the Postscript
    pp 149-169
  • View abstract


    The pseudonymous author of the Philosophical Crumbs and its Concluding Unscientific Postscript, Johannes Climacus, describes himself as a "humorist". This chapter discusses his account of the roles for irony and humor as confinia, or boundaries, between the aesthetic, ethical, and religious existence-spheres. Irony and humor serve as "incognitos" for ethical and religious existence and play significant roles in ethical and religious development. The Postscript contains the most famous Søren Kierkegaardian satire, ostensibly at the expense of Hegelianism. The chapter considers how Climacus' ostensibly anti-Hegelian satire might rebound on his readers, and aspects of the "way out" central to the "legitimacy" of the comic. For Christianity, the "way out" would ultimately have to be eschatological. That belief, for the Christian, is indeed eschatological: faith in a God who "will prevail in the end", such that the essential suffering of life need not be experienced as utterly overwhelming.
  • 9 - Climacus on the task of becoming a Christian
    pp 170-189
  • View abstract


    Johannes Climacus' discussion of the task of becoming a Christian focuses on "how" rather than "what": on the existential form rather than the intellectual content of Christian belief. He touches hardly at all on the doctrine of the incarnation, and even less on the existence and nature of God. In the Concluding Unscientific Postscript, the meaning of "Christianity" is inseparable from the meaning of "task" and "becoming", and indeed these latter terms receive more attention than the former. If the task of becoming a Christian involves decision, then the nature of this decision needs to be clarified philosophically. In several of the pseudonymous texts, Søren Kierkegaard more or less explicitly takes up Aristotle's conceptualization of kinêsis in terms of the transition from possibility to actuality, and relocates it in the spiritual, existential sphere, where he opposes it to Hegel's principle of mediation.
  • 10 - The epistemology of the Postscript
    pp 190-203
  • View abstract


    The chapter provides a great deal of insight into Søren Kierkegaard's epistemology of the Concluding Unscientific Postscript. It focuses on the concept of truth in the Postscript. The chapter shows that one of the most important distinctions Kierkegaard makes between subjective and objective truth is obscured in English translations, which use the single word "approximation" to render two very different Danish terms: Approximation and Tilnærmelse. Truth, according to Kierkegaard, is an agreement between thought and being. Such agreement can be established in two ways: by making thought conform to being and by making being conform to thought. The truth is a property of actuality rather than of mental representations which is argued with ethics and religion by Kierkegaard. Thus, ethical and religious truth is an agreement between the ideality of ethical and religious prescriptions and the actuality of the individual's existence.
  • 11 - Faith and reason in Kierkegaard's Concluding Unscientific Postscript
    pp 204-218
  • View abstract


    This chapter addresses issues concerning the stance of faith toward reason in Søren Kierkegaard's philosophical work Concluding Unscientific Postscript. It discusses that these common textbook characterizations of Kierkegaard are misleading. Although Kierkegaard holds that the relationship between faith and reason is often one of tension, the conflict is not a necessary or essential conflict. The chapter deals with two preliminary questions: first concerns the pseudonymity of Postscript and the second is whether "reason" must be distinguished from "the understanding" in Kierkegaard's thought. The major interpretive problem that faces the reader of the relevant section of Postscript is that Johannes Climacus, author of Postscript, appears to waffle on the question as to whether faith and reason are essentially opposed. For Climacus the relationship between human reason and Christian faith centers on the incarnation, which lies at the heart of Christianity and which Climacus consistently describes as "the absolute paradox".
  • 12 - Making Christianity difficult: The “existentialist theology” of Kierkegaard's Postscript
    pp 219-246
  • View abstract


    Any attempt to identify the "theology" of Concluding Unscientific Postscript is confronted from the outset by several difficulties. The notion of Christianity as an existence-task leads Johannes Climacus to state that Christianity is not a doctrine, but an existence-communication. This notion of Christianity as an existence-communication forms the basis of Climacus' critique of contemporary theology. In order to assist the subjective thinker in thinking about his existence and existing in his thinking, a new type of dialectic is needed, namely what Climacus calls "the Greek or the existence-dialectic", "concrete dialectics", or, more frequently, "qualitative dialectics". Qualitative dialectics is concerned with the problem of identifying the absolute telos and ensures that the human being sustains a relationship to the absolute telos in existence. Climacus describes the absolute orientation of the individual to the absolute telos by renunciation, suffering, and guilt-consciousness as "the religion of immediacy" or "religiousness A".
Adorno, Theodor W. Kierkegaard: Construction of the Aesthetic. Trans. Hullot-Kentor, Robert. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989.
Ahbel-Rappe, Sara, and Rachana, Kamtekar, eds. A Companion to Socrates. Oxford: Blackwell, 2005.
Allison, Henry E. “Christianity and Nonsense.” In Kierkegaard: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. Thompson, Josiah, 289–323. New York: Doubleday, 1972.
Alter, Robert. The Book of Psalms: A Translation with Commentary. New York: W. W. Norton, 2007.
,Aristotle. Physics. Trans. Waterfield, Robin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
,Aristotle. Prior Analytics. In The Complete Works of Aristotle, ed. Barnes, Jonathan, 2 vols., vol. i. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.
Barrett, Lee. “The Uses and Misuses of the Comic: Reflections on the Corsair Affair.” In International Kierkegaard Commentary: The Corsair Affair, ed. Perkins, Robert L., 123–139. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1990.
Beck, Frederik. Review ofPhilosophical Crumbs, originally published in 1845. Reprinted in Kierkegaardiana 8 (1971): 212–216.
Beiser, Frederick C. “The Enlightenment and Idealism.” In The Cambridge Companion to German Idealism, ed. Ameriks, Karl, 18–36. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Beiser, Frederick C. The Fate of Reason: German Philosophy from Kant to Fichte. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987.
Bernstein, Richard J. Beyond Objectivism and Relativism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.
Boswell, James. The Life of Samuel Johnson. New York: Oxford University Press, 1965.
Bowie, Andrew. Aesthetics and Subjectivity: From Kant to Nietzsche. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.
Brown, Robert F. Schelling's Treatise on The Deities of Samothrace: A Translation and an Interpretation. Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1977.
Buber, Martin. I and Thou. Trans. Kaufmann, Walter. New York: Touchstone, 1996.
Burgess, Andrew. “The Bilateral Symmetry of Kierkegaard's Postscript.” In International Kierkegaard Commentary: Concluding Unscientific Postscript, ed. Perkins, Robert L, 329–345. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1997.
Burgess, Andrew. “Kierkegaard's Climacus as Author.” Journal of Religious Studies 7 (1979): 1–14.
Burgess, Andrew. “Kierkegaard's Climacus on Christianity and Laughter.” In Kierkegaard and Christianity, ed. Kralik, Romanet al., 24–34. Sala: Kierkegaard Society in Slovakia, 2008.
Calhoun, Cheshire. “Subjectivity and Emotion.” In Thinking about Feeling, ed. Solomon, Robert C., 107–121. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Carlisle, Clare. Kierkegaard's Philosophy of Becoming: Movements and Positions. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2005.
Carlisle, Clare. “Kierkegaard's Repetition: The Possibility of Motion.” British Journal for the History of Philosophy 13 (2005): 521–541.
Cavell, Stanley. Conditions Handsome and Unhandsome. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.
Come, Arnold B. Trendelenburg's Influence on Kierkegaard's Modal Categories. Montreal: Inter Editions, 1991.
Conant, James. “Kierkegaard, Wittgenstein, and Nonsense.” In Pursuits of Reason: Essays in Honor of Stanley Cavell, ed. Cohen, Tedet al., 195–224. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University Press, 1993.
Conant, James. “Must We Show What We Cannot Say?” In The Senses of Stanley Cavell, ed. Fleming, R. and Payne, M., 242–283. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1989.
Conant, James. “Putting Two and Two Together: Kierkegaard, Wittgenstein and the Point of View for Their Work as Authors.” In Philosophy and the Grammar of Religious Belief, ed. Tessin, Timothy and Ruhr, Mario von, 248–331. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1995.
Cox, Harvey. The Feast of Fools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969.
Daise, Benjamin. “The Will to Truth in Kierkegaard'sPhilosophical Fragments.” Philosophy of Religion 31 (1992): 1–12.
Davenport, John J. Will as Commitment and Resolve: An Existential Account of Creativity, Love, Virtue, and Happiness. New York: Fordham University Press, 2007.
Descartes, René. Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy. Trans. Cress, Donald A.. 4th edition. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998.
Descartes, René. Meditations on First Philosophy in Focus, ed. Tweyman, Stanley. London and New York: Routledge, 1993.
Dickinson, Emily. Collected Poems. Philadelphia: Courage Books, 1991.
Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Notes from Underground. Trans. Pevear, Richard and Volokhonsky, Larissa. New York: Vintage Classics, 1994.
Evans, C. Stephen. Faith Beyond Reason: A Kierkegaardian Account. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1998.
Evans, C. Stephen. “Is Kierkegaard an Irrationalist? Reason, Paradox, and Faith.” Religious Studies 25 (1989): 347–362.
Evans, C. Stephen. Kierkegaard on Faith and the Self: Collected Essays. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2006.
Evans, C. Stephen. Kierkegaard's Fragments and Postscript: The Religious Philosophy of Johannes Climacus. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1983.
Evans, C. Stephen. “Kierkegaard's View of Humor: Must Christians Always Be Solemn?” Faith and Philosophy 4 (1987): 176–186.
Evans, C. Stephen. Passionate Reason: Making Sense of Kierkegaard's Philosophical Fragments. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.
Fabro, Cornelio. “Faith and Reason in Kierkegaard's Dialectic.” In A Kierkegaard Critique, ed. Johnson, Howard and Thulstrup, Niels, 156–206. New York: Harper and Row, 1962.
Ferreira, M. Jamie. Transforming Vision: Imagination and Will in Kierkegaardian Faith. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
Flay, Joseph C. Hegel's Quest for Certainty. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1984.
Frazier, Brad. Rorty and Kierkegaard on Irony and Moral Commitment. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
Furtak, Rick Anthony. “Kierkegaard and the Passions of Hellenistic Philosophy.” Kierkegaardiana 24 (2007): 68–85.
Furtak, Rick Anthony. Wisdom in Love: Kierkegaard and the Ancient Quest for Emotional Integrity. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2005.
Gadamer, Hans-Georg. Truth and Method. Trans. Weinsheimer, Joel and Marshall, Donald. 2nd edition. London and New York: Continuum, 2004.
Galilei, Galileo. Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. Trans. Drake, Stillman. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962.
Gilhus, Ingvild Saelid. Laughing Gods, Weeping Virgins: Laughter in the History of Religion. London: Routledge, 1997.
González, Dario. “Trendelenburg: An Ally against Speculation.” In Kierkegaard and His German Contemporaries, vol. i: Philosophy, ed. Stewart, Jon, 309–334. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.
Gouwens, David J. Kierkegaard as Religious Thinker. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Green, Ronald M. Kierkegaard and Kant: The Hidden Debt. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1982.
Grimsley, Ronald. “Kierkegaard and Descartes.” Journal of the History of Philosophy 4 (1966): 31–41.
Hadot, Pierre. What Is Ancient Philosophy? Trans. Chase, Michael. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.
Hannay, Alastair. Kierkegaard. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1991.
Hannay, Alastair. Kierkegaard: A Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Hannay, Alastair. Kierkegaard and Philosophy: Selected Essays. London: Routledge, 2003.
Hannay, Alastair. “Kierkegaard on Melancholy and Despair.” In Ethics, Love, and Faith in Kierkegaard: Philosophical Engagements, ed. Mooney, Edward F, 147–152. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.
Härle, Wilfried. Dogmatik. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1995.
Hegel, G. W. F.Hegel's Science of Logic. Trans. Miller, A. V.. New York: Humanities Press, 1969.
Hegel, G. W. F.Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion. Ed. Hodgson, Peter C.. 3 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
Hegel, G. W. F.Phenomenology of Spirit. Trans. Miller, A. V.. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.
Heiberg, J. L.Om Philosophiens Betydning for den Nuvaerende Tid. Copenhagen: C. A. Reitzel, 1833.
Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time. Trans. Stambaugh, Joan. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1996.
Heidegger, Martin. Introduction to Phenomenological Research. Trans. Dahlstrom, Daniel O.. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005.
Howland, Jacob. Kierkegaard and Socrates: A Study in Philosophy and Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Hügli, Anton. Die Erkenntnis der Subjektivität und die Objektivität des Erkennens bei Søren Kierkegaard [Knowledge of Subjectivity and the Objectivity of Knowing]. Basel: Editio Academica, 1973.
Husserl, Edmund. The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology. Trans. Carr, David. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1970.
Hylton, Peter. Russell, Idealism, and the Emergence of Analytic Philosophy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.
Jacobi, Friedrich H. The Main Philosophical Writings and the Novel Allwill. Trans. di Giovanni, George. Montreal: McGill–Queens University Press, 1994.
Johnson, Ralph Henry. The Concept of Existence in the Concluding Unscientific Postscript. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1972.
Johnson, Samuel. Rasselas and Other Tales. Ed. Kolb, Gwin J.. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.
Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Judgment. Trans. Pluhar, Werner S.. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. Trans. Pluhar, Werner S.. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1996.
Kekes, John. “Wisdom.” In The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed. Honderich, Ted, 912. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Kirmmse, Bruce. Kierkegaard in Golden Age Denmark. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.
Larmore, Charles. The Romantic Legacy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.
Lear, Jonathan. Therapeutic Action: An Earnest Plea for Irony. New York: The Other Press, 2003.
Leibniz, G. W.Philosophical Writings. Ed. Parkinson, G. H. R.. London: J. M. Dent, 1973.
Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim. Lessing's Theological Writings. Trans. Chadwick, Henry. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1957.
Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim. Werke. 8 vols. Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag, 1970–1979.
Lewis, C. S.The Last Battle. New York: Macmillan, 1956.
Lippitt, John. Humour and Irony in Kierkegaard's Thought. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000.
Lippitt, John. “Is a Sense of Humour a Virtue?” The Monist 88 (2005): 72–92.
Louth, Andrew. The Origins of the Christian Mystical Tradition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2007.
Luther, Martin. Luther's Works, vol. xxv: Lectures on Romans. Ed. Oswald, Hilton C.. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1972.
MacIntyre, Alasdair. A Short History of Ethics. 2nd edition. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1998.
Mackey, Louis. Kierkegaard: A Kind of Poet. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971.
MacKinnon, Alastair. “Kierkegaard: ‘Paradox’ and Irrationalism.” In Essays on Kierkegaard, ed. Gill, Jerry, 102–112. Minneapolis: Burgess, 1969.
MacKinnon, Alastair. “Kierkegaard's Irrationalism RevisitedInternational Philosophical Quarterly 9 (1969): 165–176.
Malabou, Cathérine. The Future of Hegel. Trans. During, Lisabeth. London: Routledge, 2005.
Marino, Gordon. Kierkegaard in the Present Age. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 2001.
Marion, Jean-Luc. The Erotic Phenomenon. Trans. Lewis, Stephen E.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Marx, Karl. Capital: An Abridged Edition. Ed. McLellan, David. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. Phenomenology of Perception. Trans. Smith, Colin. 2nd edition. London and New York: Routledge, 2002.
Monro, D. H.Argument of Laughter. Carlton: Melbourne University Press, 1951.
Mooney, Edward F. Lost Intimacy in American Thought: Recovering Personal Philosophy from Thoreau to Cavell. London and New York: Continuum, 2009.
Mooney, Edward F. On Søren Kierkegaard: Dialogue, Polemics, Lost Intimacy, and Time. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.
Muench, Paul. “Kierkegaard's Socratic Point of View.” Kierkegaardiana 24 (2007): 132–162.
Muench, Paul. “The Socratic Method of Kierkegaard's Pseudonym Johannes Climacus: Indirect Communication and the Art of ‘Taking Away’.” In Kierkegaard and the Word(s), ed. Houe, Poul and Marino, Gordon, 139–150. Copenhagen: Reitzel, 2003.
Muench, Paul. “Understanding Kierkegaard's Johannes Climacus in the Postscript: Mirror of the Reader's Faults or Socratic Exemplar?” Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 12 (2007): 424–440.
Mulhall, Stephen. Faith and Reason. London: Duckworth, 1994.
Mulhall, Stephen. “God's Plagiarist: The Philosophical Fragments of Johannes Climacus.” Philosophical Investigations 22 (1999): 1–34.
Mynster, J. P.Blandede Skrifter [Miscellaneous Writings]. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1852.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. Human, All Too Human. Trans. Hollingdale, R. J.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Ed. Caro, Adrian Del and Pippin, Robert. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Nussbaum, Martha C. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Oden, Thomas C., ed. The Humor of Kierkegaard: An Anthology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.
Olesen, Michael Hjersing. “The Climacean Alphabet: Reflections on Religiousness A and B from the Perspective of the Edifying.” Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 10 (2005): 282–293.
Olesen, Tonny Aagaard. “Schelling: A Historical Introduction to Kierkegaard's Schelling.” In Kierkegaard and his German Contemporaries, vol. i: Philosophy, ed. Stewart, Jon, 229–275. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.
Pattison, George. “Kierkegaard and the Sublime.” Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 3 (1998): 245–275.
Pattison, George. The Philosophy of Kierkegaard. Chesham: Acumen, 2005.
Pattison, George. ‘Poor Paris!’: Kierkegaard's Critique of the Spectacular City. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1999.
Pattison, George. Review of Lippitt, Humour and Irony in Kierkegaard's Thought. Søren Kierkegaard Newsletter 43 (2002): 20–22.
Perkins, Robert L. “Kierkegaard, a Kind of Epistemologist.” History of European Ideas 12 (1990): 7–18.
Perkins, Robert L. Review of Stewart, Kierkegaard's Relations to Hegel Reconsidered. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 56 (2004): 55–57.
Perkins, Robert L., ed. International Kierkegaard Commentary: The Corsair Affair. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1990.
Piety, M. G.Repetition and Philosophical Crumbs. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Piety, M. G.Ways of Knowing: Kierkegaard's Pluralist Epistemology. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2010.
,Plato. Symposium. Ed. Howatson, M. C. and Sheffield, Frisbee. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Polanyi, Michael. Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
Poole, Roger. Kierkegaard: The Indirect Communication. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1993.
Rasmussen, Anders Moe. “René Descartes: Kierkegaard's Understanding of Doubt and Certainty,” in Kierkegaard and the Renaissance and Modern Traditions, vol. i: Philosophy, ed. Stewart, Jon, 11–22. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2009.
Richardson, John. Existential Epistemology: A Heideggerian Critique of the Cartesian Project. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Ricoeur, Paul. Husserl: An Analysis of His Phenomenology. Trans. Ballard, Edward and Embree, Lester. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1967.
Roberts, Robert C. “Existence, Emotion, and Virtue: Classical Themes in Kierkegaard.” In The Cambridge Companion to Kierkegaard, ed. Hannay, Alastair and Marino, Gordon D, 177–206. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Roberts, Robert C. “Humor and the Virtues.” Inquiry 31 (1988): 127–149.
Roberts, Robert C. “Smiling with God: Reflections on Christianity and the Psychology of Humor.” Faith and Philosophy 4 (1987): 168–175.
Rosenzweig, Franz. The Star of Redemption. Trans. Hallo, William W.. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995.
Rudd, Anthony. “‘Believing All Things’: Kierkegaard on Knowledge, Doubt, and Love.” In International Kierkegaard Commentary: Works of Love, ed. Perkins, Robert L., 121–136. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 2000.
Schönbaumsfeld, Genia. A Confusion of the Spheres: Kierkegaard and Wittgenstein on Philosophy and Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Slotty, Martin. “Die Erkenntnislehre S. A. Kierkegaards.” PhD thesis, Friedrich-Alexanders-Universität, 1915.
Söderquist, K. Brian. “Irony and Humor in Kierkegaard's Early Journals: Two Responses to an Emptied World.” Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 8 (2003): 143–167.
Söderquist, K. Brian. The Isolated Self: Truth and Untruth in Søren Kierkegaard's On the Concept of Irony. Copenhagen: Reitzel, 2007.
Søe, N. H. “Kierkegaard's Doctrine of the Paradox.” In A Kierkegaard Critique, ed. Johnson, Howard and Thulstrup, Niels, 207–227. New York: Harper and Row, 1962.
Spinoza, Baruch. Works, vol. ii. Trans. Elwes, R. H. M.. New York: Dover, 1955.
Stack, George. “Aristotle and Kierkegaard's Existential Ethics.” Journal of the History of Philosophy 12 (1974): 1–19.
Stewart, Jon. Kierkegaard's Relations to Hegel Reconsidered. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Stewart, Jon, ed. Texts from Golden Age Denmark, vol. iii: Heiberg's Introductory Lecture to the Logic Course and Other Texts. Copenhagen: Reitzel, 2007.
Stokes, Patrick. Kierkegaard's Mirrors: Interest, Self, and Moral Vision. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Stott, Michelle. Behind the Mask: Kierkegaard's Pseudonymic Treatment of Lessing in the Concluding Unscientific Postscript. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1993.
Swenson, David. Something About Kierkegaard. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1945.
Tennyson, Alfred. “Flower in the Crannied Wall.” In Selected Poems, ed. Ricks, Christopher, 283. London: Penguin Classics, 2007.
Thulstrup, Niels. Kierkegaard's Relation to Hegel. Trans. Stengren, George L.. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.
Tiles, Mary. Bachelard: Science and Objectivity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
Tolstoy, Ivan. “The Death of Ivan Ilyich.” In The Death of Ivan Ilyich and Other Stories, ed. Cook, Tim. Ware: Wordsworth Editions, 2004.
Walker, Jeremy. “Ethical Beliefs: A Theory of Truth without Truth Values.” Thought 55 (1980): 295–305.
Walsh, David. The Modern Philosophical Revolution: The Luminosity of Existence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Walsh, Sylvia. “Subjectivity versus Objectivity: Kierkegaard's Postscript and Feminist Epistemology.” In Feminist Interpretations of Søren Kierkegaard, ed. León, Céline and Walsh, Sylvia, 267–285. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 1997.
Westphal, Merold. Becoming a Self: A Reading of Kierkegaard's Concluding Unscientific Postscript. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 1996.
Westphal, Merold. “Johannes and Johannes: Kierkegaard and Difference.” In International Kierkegaard Commentary: Philosophical Fragments and Johannes Climacus, ed. Perkins, Robert L., 13–32. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1994.
Westphal, Merold. “Kierkegaard's Climacus – a Kind of Postmodernist.” In International Kierkegaard Commentary: Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments, ed. Perkins, Robert L., 53–71. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1997.
Westphal, Merold. Kierkegaard's Critique of Reason and Society. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1987.
Westphal, Merold. “L'Autre critique kierkegaardienne de Hegel,” in L'Idéalisme allemand et la religion, ed. Soual, Philippe and Vetö, Miklos, 189–211. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2008.
Westphal, Merold. Review of Stewart, Kierkegaard's Relations to Hegel Reconsidered. Soren Kierkegaard Newsletter 48 (2004): 10–15.
Widenmann, Robert J. “Kierkegaard's Concept of a Confine.” In Irony and Humor in Søren Kierkegaard, ed. Thulstrup, N. and Thulstrup, M. M., 27–41. Copenhagen: Reitzel, 1988.
Williams, Bernard. Descartes: The Project of Pure Enquiry. New York: Penguin Books, 1978.
Williams, Bernard. Moral Luck. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Philosophical Investigations. Trans. Anscombe, G. E. M.. Oxford: Blackwell, 1967.
Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Prototractatus: An Early Version of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Ed. McGuinness, B. al. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1971.
Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Trans. Ogden, C. K.. New York: Barnes and Noble, 2003.
Wrathall, Mark A. “Philosophy, Thinkers, and Heidegger's Place in the History of Being.” In Appropriating Heidegger, ed. Faulconer, James E. and Wrathall, Mark A, 9–29. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Zwart, Hub. Ethical Consensus and the Truth of Laughter. Kampen: Kok Pharos, 1996.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.