Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: May 2010

Chapter 16 - Mathematical models of intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage outcomes prediction: their comparison, advantages, and limitations

from Section 6 - Prognosis and outcome

Summary

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), a rare variety of cerebrovascular disease, is a well-established cause of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Cerebral venous thrombosis in neonates is a condition that widely differs from CVT in children and adults because of the frequent association with an acute illness at time of diagnosis and the clinical presentation with seizures and lethargy. The diagnosis of CVT is based on neuroimaging but, even though some locations of hemorrhages can be suggestive of CVT, brain imaging by itself is of little positive value. Computerized tomography scan remains often the first investigation performed on an emergency basis. Antiepileptic drugs are usually prescribed only in patients who present with seizures. Patients with ICH frequently have severe headaches that may require strong analgesics such as morphine, but these usually rapidly decrease after initiation of heparin treatment. The follow-up of patients with H-CVT is similar to that of patients with non-H-CVT.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

References

1. Portenoy RK, Lipton RB, Berger AR, Lesser ML, Lantos G. Intracerebral haemorrhage: a model for the prediction of outcome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1987; 50: 976–979.
2. Tuhrim S, Dambrosia JM, Price TR, et al. Prediction of intracerebral hemorrhage survival. Ann Neurol 1998; 24: 258–263.
3. Dixon AA, Holness RO, Howes WJ, Garner J. Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage: an analysis of factors affecting prognosis. Can J Neurol Sci 1985; 12: 267–271.
4. Senant J, Samson M, Proust B, Szeibert J, Onnient Y. [A multi-factorial approach in the vital prognosis of spontaneous intracerebral hematoma]. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1988; 144: 279–283.
5. Daverat P, Castel JP, Dartigues JF, Orgogozo JM. Death and functional outcome after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. A prospective study of 166 cases using multivariate analysis. Stroke 1991; 22: 1–6.
6. Broderick JP, Brott TG, Duldner JE, Tomsick T, Huster G. Volume of intracerebral hemorrhage. A powerful and easy-to-use predictor of 30-day mortality. Stroke 1993; 24: 987–993.
7. Lisk DR, Pasteur W, Rhoades H, Putnam RD, Grotta JC. Early presentation of hemispheric intracerebral hemorrhage: prediction of outcome and guidelines for treatment allocation. Neurology, 1994; 44: 133–139.
8. Shapiro SA, Campbell RL, Scully T. Hemorrhagic dilation of the fourth ventricle: an ominous predictor. J Neurosurg 1994; 80: 805–809.
9. Masè G, Zorzon M, Biasutti E, Tasca G, Vitrani B. Immediate prognosis of primary intracerebral hemorrhage using an easy model for the prediction of survival. Acta Neurol Scand 1995; 91: 306–309.
10. Qureshi AI, Safdar K, Weil J, et al. Predictors of early deterioration and mortality in black Americans with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 1995; 26: 1764–1767.
11. Fogelholm R, Avikainen S, Murros K. Prognostic value and determinants of first-day mean arterial pressure in spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 1997; 28: 1396–1400.
12. Diringer MN, Edwards DF, Zazulia AR. Hydrocephalus: a previously unrecognized predictor of poor outcome from supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 1998; 29: 1352–1357.
13. Fujii Y, Takeuchi S, Sasaki O, Minakawa T, Tanaka R. Multivariate analysis of predictors of hematoma enlargement in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 1998; 29: 1160–1166.
14. Razzaq AA, Hussain R. Determinants of 30-day mortality of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in Pakistan. Surg Neurol 1998; 50: 336–342; discussion 342–343.
15. Tuhrim S, Horowitz DR, Sacher M, Godbold JH. Volume of ventricular blood is an important determinant of outcome in supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Crit Care Med 1999; 27: 617–621.
16. Phan TG, Koh M, Vierkant RA, Wijdicks EF. Hydrocephalus is a determinant of early mortality in putaminal hemorrhage. Stroke 2000; 31: 2157–2162.
17. Hemphill JC 3rd, Bonovich DC, Besmertis L, Manley GT, Johnston SC. The ICH score: a simple, reliable grading scale for intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 2001; 32: 891–897
18. Hallevy C, Ifergane G, Kordysh E, Herishanu Y. Spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Criteria for short-term functional outcome prediction. J Neurol 2002; 249(12): 1704–1709.
19. Cheung RT, Zou LY. Use of the original, modified, or new intracerebral hemorrhage score to predict mortality and morbidity after intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 2003; 34: 1717–1722.
20. Fang HY, Lin CY, Ko WJ. Hematology and coagulation parameters predict outcome in Taiwanese patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Eur J Neurol 2005; 12: 226–232.
21. Leira R, Davalos A, Silva Y, et al. Early neurologic deterioration in intracerebral hemorrhage: predictors and associated factors. Neurology 2004; 63: 461–467.
22. Roquer J, Campello A. Rodriguez M, et al. Previous antiplatelet therapy is an independent predictor of 30-day mortality after spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurol 2005; 252: 412–416.
23. Toyoda K, Okada Y, Minematsu K, et al. Antiplatelet therapy contributes to acute deterioration of intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology 2005; 65: 1000–1004.
24. Franke CL, van Swieten JC, Algra A, van Gijn J. Prognostic factors in patients with intracerebral haematoma. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1992; 55: 653–657.
25. Schwarz S, Hafner K, Aschoff A, Schwab S. Incidence and prognostic significance of fever following intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology 2000; 54: 354–361.
26. Berwaerts J, Dijkhuizen RS, Robb OJ, Webster J. Prediction of functional outcome and in-hospital mortality after admission with oral anticoagulant-related intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 2000; 31: 2558–2562.
27. Nilsson OG, Lindgren A, Brandt L, Saveland H. Prediction of death in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage: a prospective study of a defined population. J Neurosurg 2002; 97: 531–536.
28. Becker KJ, Baxter AB, Cohen WA, et al. Withdrawal of support in intracerebral hemorrhage may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies. Neurology 2001; 56: 766–772.
29. de Weerd AW. The prognosis of intraventricular hemorrhage. J Neurol 1979; 222: 46–51.
30. Coplin WM, Vinas FC, Agris JM, et al. A cohort study of the safety and feasibility of intraventricular urokinase for nonaneurysmal spontaneous intraventricular hemorrhage. Stroke 1998; 29: 1573–1579.
31. Mendelow AD, Gregson BA, Fernandes HM, et al. STICH Investigators. Early surgery versus initial conservative treatment in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haematomas in the International Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH): a randomised trial. Lancet 2005; 365: 387–397.
32. Berge E, Barer D. Could stroke trials be missing important treatment effects? Cerebrovasc Dis 2002; 13: 73–75.
33. Broderick JP, Brott TG, Tomsick T, Barsan W, Spilker J. Ultra-early evaluation of intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 1990; 72 195–199.
34. Silva Y, Leira R, Tejada J, et al. Molecular signatures of vascular injury are associated with early growth of intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 2005; 36: 86–91.
35. Chen ST, Chen SD, Hsu CY, Hogan EL. Progression of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology 1989; 39: 1509–1514.
36. Qureshi AI, Mohammad YM, Yahia AM, et al. A prospective multicenter study to evaluate the feasibility and safety of aggressive antihypertensive treatment in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. J Intensive Care Med 2005; 20: 34–42.
37. Saloheimo P, Ahonen M, Juvela S, et al. Regular aspirin use preceding the onset of primary intracerebral hemorrhage is an independent predictor for death. Stroke 2006; 37: 4–5.
38. Rosand J, Eckman MH, Knudsen KA, Singer DE, Greenberg SM. The effect of warfarin and intensity of anticoagulation on outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164: 880–884.