Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 5
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: August 2012

21 - Male Reproduction: Physiology, Behavior, and Ecology

Summary

INTRODUCTION

Women and men exhibit vast differences in reproductive physiologies, behaviors, and ecologies. The present chapter aims to illustrate these fundamental differences by utilizing recent theoretical and empirical developments in addition to clinical and anthropological data that help clarify the evolutionary bases for human male reproductive functions. We begin with a discussion of the various aspects of male reproductive effort, including the physiology and behaviors associated with seeking, attracting, and choosing mates, competing for and controlling mates, paternal behaviors, and the proximate determinants of spermatogenesis, libido, and erection. For the specific purpose of better understanding male reproductive ecology, we next provide readers with a description of male reproductive physiology, including major aspects of development, endocrinology, and senescence. Testosterone may be synonymous with maleness; however, it may impose a number of costs, including negative energy balance, immunosuppression, and prostate cancer.

A discussion on male reproductive ecology ends our chapter because it draws from our discussions on reproductive effort and physiology. Readers are encouraged to utilize the information presented here to further discussion and research on human male reproduction, both the proximate mechanisms involved in addition to the evolutionary explanations for the ways we function and behave.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
References
Aakvaag, A., Sand, T., Opstad, P. K., et al. (1978). Hormonal changes in serum in young men during prolonged physical strain. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 39, 283–291.
Abbasi, A. A., Prasad, A. S., Rabbani, P., et al. (1980). Experimental zinc deficiency in man. Effect on testicular function. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 96(3), 544–550.
Alberts, S. C. (1999). Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 266, 1501–1506.
Albone, E. S. and Shirley, S. G. (1984). Mammalian Semiochemistry: the Investigation of Chemical Signals between Mammals. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
Alexander, R. D. and Noonan, K. M. (1979). Concealment of ovulation, parental care, and human social evolution. In Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior, Chagnon, N. A. and Irons, W. (eds). North Scituate, MA: Duxbury Press, pp. 402–435.
Allen, N. E., Forrest, M. S. and Key, T. J. (2001). The association between polymorphisms in the CYP17 and 5α-reductase (SRD5A2) genes and serum androgen concentrations in men. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 10, 185–189.
Altmann, J. (1990). Primate males go where the females are. Animal Behavior, 39, 193–195.
Amundadottir, L. T., Sulem, P., Gudmundsson, J., et al. (2006). A common variant associated with prostate cancer in European and African populations. Nature Genetics, 38, 652–658.
Anderson, J. (2003) The role of antiandrogen monotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. British Journal of Urology International, 91(5), 455–461.
Anderson, K. E., Rosner, W., Khan, M. S., et al. (1987). Diet-hormone interactions: protein/carbohydrate ratio alters reciprocally the plasma levels of testosterone and cortisol and their respective binding globulins in man. Life Science, 40, 1761–1768.
Anderson, K. G. (2006). How well does paternity confidence match actual paternity?Current Anthropology, 47, 513–520.
Andersson, K. E. and Wagner, G. (1995). Physiology of penile erection. Physiological Review, 75, 191–236.
Andolz, P., Bielsa, M. A. and Vila, J. (1999). Evolution of semen quality in north-eastern Spain: a study in 22 759 infertile men over a 36 year period. Human Reproduction, 14, 731–735.
,Anonymous (1970). Effects of sexual activity on beard growth in man. Nature, 226, 869–870.
Antonios, S. N., Ismail, H. I. and Essa, T. (2000). Hypothalamic origin of reproductive failure in chronic experimental toxoplasmosis. Journal of Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 30(2), 593–599.
Anway, M. D., Cupp, A. S., Uzumcu, M., et al. (2005). Epigenetic transgenerational actions of endocrine disruptors and male fertility. Science, 3(308), 1466–1469.
Apicella, C. and Marlowe, F. (2004). Perceived mate fidelity and paternal resemblance predict men's investment in children. Evolution and Human Behavior, 25, 371–378.
Arce, J. C., Souza, M. J., Pescatello, L. S., et al. (1993). Subclinical alterations in hormone and semen profile in athletes. Fertility and Sterility, 59, 398–404.
Ardawi, M. S. M. and Newsholme, E. A. (1985). Metabolism in lymphocytes and its importance in the immune response. Essays in Biochemistry, 21, 1–44.
Argiolas, A. and Melis, M. R. (2003). The neurophysiology of the sexual cycle. Journal of Endocrinological Investment, 26(3), 20–22.
Attardi, B., Klatt, B., Hoffman, G. E., et al. (1997). Facilitation or inhibition of the estradiol-induced gonadotropin surge in the immature rat by progesterone: regulation of GnRH and LH messenger RNAs and activation of GnRH neurons. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 9, 589–599.
Aversa, A., Mazzilli, F., Rossi, T., et al. (2000). Effects of sildenafil (Viagra™) administration on seminal parameters and post-ejaculatory refractory time in normal males. Human Reproduction, 15, 131–134.
Bagatell, C. J. and Bremner, W. J. (1990). Sperm counts and reproductive hormones in male marathoners and lean controls. Fertility and Sterility, 53, 688–692.
Baker, R. R. and Bellis, M. A. (1989). Number of sperm in human ejaculates varies in accordance with sperm competition theory. Animal Behaviour, 37, 867–869.
Baker, R. R. and Bellis, M. A. (1995). Human Sperm Competition. London: Chapman and Hall.
Bambino, T. H. and Hsueh, A. J. (1981). Direct inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids upon testicular luteinizing hormone receptor and steroidogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Endocrinology, 108, 2142–2148.
Beach, F. A. (1976). Sexual attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity in female mammals. Hormones and Behavior, 7, 105–138.
Beall, C. M., Worthman, C. M., Stallings, J., et al. (1992). Salivary testosterone concentration of Aymara men native to 3600 m. Annals of Human Biology, 19, 67–78.
Beamer, W., Bermant, G. and Clegg, M. (1969). Copulatory behavior in the ram, Ovis aries, II: factors affecting copulatory satiety. Animal Behavior, 17, 706–711.
Becker, S. and Berhane, K. (1997). A meta-analysis of 61 sperm count studies revisited. Fertility and Sterility, 67, 1103–1108.
Bentley, G. R., Harrigan, A. M., Campbell, B., et al. (1993). Seasonal effects on salivary testosterone levels among Lese males of the Ituri Forest, Zaire. American Journal of Human Biology, 5, 711–717.
Beranova, M., Oliveira, L. M. B., Bédécarrats, G. Y., et al. (2001). Prevalence, phenotypic spectrum, and modes of inheritance of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor mutations in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hyprogonadism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 1580–1588.
Bercovitch, F. B. (2001). Reproductive ecology of Old World monkeys. In Reproductive Ecology and Human Evolution, Ellison, P. T. (ed.). New York: Aldine de Gruyter, pp. 369–396.
Bergendahl, M., Perheentupa, A. and Huhtaniemi, I. (1991). Starvation-induced suppression of pituitary-testicular function in rats is reversed by pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone substitution. Biology of Reproduction, 44, 413–419.
Bergendahl, M., Aloi, J. A., Iranmanesh, A., et al. (1998). Fasting suppresses pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and enhances orderliness of LH release in young but not older men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 83, 1967–1975.
Berger, K., Souza, H., Brito, V. N., et al. (2005). Clinical and hormonal features of selective follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) deficiency due to FSH beta-subunit gene mutations in both sexes. Fertility and Sterility, 83, 466–470.
Bermond, B., Mos, J., Meelis, W., et al. (1982). Aggression induced by stimulation of the hypothalamus: effects of androgens. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 16, 41–45.
Bernstein, I. S., Rose, R. M. and Gordon, T. P. (1977). Behavioural and hormonal responses of male rhesus monkeys introduced to females in the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Animal Behavior, 25, 609–614.
Bhasin, S., Storer, T. W., Berman, N., et al. (1996). The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. New England Journal of Medicine, 335, 1–7.
Bhasin, S., Storer, T. W., Javanbakht, M., et al. (2000). Testosterone replacement and resistance exercise in HIV-infected men with weight loss and low testosterone levels. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283, 763–770.
Bivalacqua, T. J., Champion, H. C., Mehta, Y. S., et al. (2000). Adenoviral gene transfer of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to the penis improves age-related erectile dysfunction in the rat. International Journal of Impotence Research, 12, S8–S17.
Bobek, B., Perzanowski, K. and Weiner, J. (1990). Energy expenditure for reproduction in male red deer. Journal of Mammalogy, 71, 230–232.
Bogin, B. (1999). Evolutionary perspective on human growth. Annual Review of Anthropology, 28, 109–153.
Bonavera, J. J., Kalra, S. P. and Kalra, P. S. (1993). Mode of action of interleukin-1 in suppression of pituitary LH release in castrated male rats. Brain Research, 612, 1–8.
Bonneaud, C., Mazuc, J., Gonzalez, G., et al. (2003). Assessing the cost of mounting an immune response. American Naturalist, 161(3), 367–379.
Booth, A., and Dabbs, J. M. (1993). Testosterone and men's marriages. Social Forces, 72, 463–477.
Booth, A. G., Shelley, A., Mazur, G., et al. (1989). Testosterone and winning and losing in human competition. Hormones and Behavior, 23, 556–571.
Brédart, S. and French, R. M. (1999). Do babies resemble their fathers more than their mothers? A failure to replicate Christenfeld and Hill (1995). Evolution and Human Behavior, 20, 129–135.
Breen, K. M. and Karsch, F. J. (2006). Does season alter responsiveness of the reproductive neuroendocrine axis to the suppressive actions of cortisol in ovariectomized ewes?Biology of Reproduction, 74, 41–45.
Bermond, B., Mos, J., Meelis, W., et al. (1982). Aggression induced by stimulation of the hypothalamus: effects of androgens. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 16, 41–45.
Bribiescas, R. G. (1996). Testosterone levels among Aché hunter/gatherer men: a functional interpretation of population variation among adult males. Human Nature, 7, 163–188.
Bribiescas, R. G. (2001). Reproductive ecology and life history of the human male. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 44, 148–176.
Bribiescas, R. G. (2005). Age-related differences in serum gonadotropin (FSH and LH), salivary testosterone, and 17-β estradiol levels among Aché Amerindian males of Paraguay. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 127, 114–121.
Bribiescas, R. G. (2006). On the evolution, life history, and proximate mechanisms of human male reproductive senescence. Evolutionary Anthropology, 15, 132–141.
Bromwich, P., Cohen, J., Stewart, I., et al. (1994). Decline in sperm counts: an artifact of changed reference range of “normal”?British Medical Journal, Clinical Research, 309, 19–20.
Bruce, H. M. (1959). An exteroceptive block to pregnancy in the mouse. Nature, 184, 105.
Bruning, J. C., Gautam, D., Burks, D. J., et al. (2000). Role of brain insulin receptor in control of body weight and reproduction. Science, 289, 2122–2125.
Buchan, J. C., Alberts, S. C., Silk, J. B., et al. (2003). True paternal care in a multi-male primate society. Nature, 425, 179–181.
Buena, F., Swerdloff, R. S., Steiner, B. S., et al. (1993). Sexual function does not change when serum testosterone levels are pharmacologically varied within the normal male range. Fertility and Sterility, 59, 1118–1123.
Buettner, T. (1995). Sex differentials in old-age mortality. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, 39, 18–44.
Burger, D. and Dayer, J. M. (2002). Cytokines, acute-phase proteins, and hormones: IL-1 and TNF-α production in contact-mediated activation of monocytes by T lymphocytes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 966, 464–473.
Buss, D. M. and Schmidt, D. P. (1993). Sexual strategies theory: an evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological Review, 100, 204–232.
Byrne, J. and Warburton, D. (1987). Male excess among anatomically normal fetuses in spontaneous abortions. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 26, 605–611.
Calfee, R. and Fadale, P. (2006). Popular ergogenic drugs and supplements in young athletes. Pediatrics, 117, e577–e589.
Campbell, B. C. (2006). Adrenarche and the evolution of human life history. American Journal of Human Biology, 18, 569–589.
Campbell, B. C. and Leslie, P. W. (1995). Reproductive ecology of human males. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 38, 1–26.
Campbell, B. C., O'Rourke, M. and Lipson, S. F. (2003). Salivary testosterone and body composition among Ariaal males. American Journal of Human Biology, 15, 697–708.
Campbell, B. C., Gillett-Netting, R. and Meloy, M. (2004). Timing of reproductive maturation in rural versus urban Tonga boys, Zambia. Annals of Human Biology, 31, 213–227.
Campbell, B. C., Leslie, P. W., Little, M. A., et al. (2005a). Pubertal timing, hormones, and body composition among adolescent Turkana males. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 128, 896–905.
Campbell, B. C., Prossinger, H. and Mbzivo, M. (2005b). Timing of pubertal maturation and the onset of sexual behavior among Zimbabwe school boys. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34, 505–516.
Campbell, B. C., Gray, P. B. and Ellison, P. T. (2006). Age-related patterns of body composition and salivary testosterone among Ariaal men of Northern Kenya. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 18, 470–476.
Campbell, K. L. (1994). Blood, urine, saliva, and dip-sticks: experiences in Africa, New Guinea, and Boston. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 709, 312–330.
Carani, C., Bancroft, J., Del Rio, G., et al. (1990). The endocrine effects of visual erotic stimuli in normal men. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 15, 207–216.
Carani, C., Scuteri, A., Marrama, P., et al. (1990). The effects of testosterone administration and visual erotic stimuli on nocturnal penile tumescence in normal men. Hormones and Behavior, 24, 435–441.
Caretta, N., Palego, P., Roverato, A., et al. (2006). Age-matched cavernous peak systolic velocity: a highly sensitive parameter in the diagnosis of arteriogenic erectile dysfunction. International Journal of Impotence Research, 18, 306–310.
Carter, H. B., Pearson, J. D., Metter, E. J., et al. (1995). Longitudinal evaluation of serum androgen levels in men with and without prostate cancer. Prostate, 27, 25–31.
,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2009). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2007 Supplement, Syphilis Surveillance Report. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Cernak, I., Savic, J. and Lazarov, A. (1997). Relations among plasma prolactin, testosterone, and injury severity in war casualties. World Journal of Surgery, 21, 240–245.
Chatterton, R. T., Vogelsong, K. M., Lu, Y., et al. (1997). Hormonal responses to psychological stress in men preparing for skydiving. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 82, 2503–2509.
Christenfeld, N. J. S. and Hill, E. A. (1995). Whose baby are you? Scientific correspondence. Nature, 378, 669.
Christiansen, K. (1991a). Sex hormone levels, diet and alcohol consumption in Namibian Kavango men. Homo, 42, 43–62.
Christiansen, K. H. (1991b). Serum and saliva sex hormone levels in!Kung San men. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 86, 37–44.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1991). The Evolution of Parental Care. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Conley, A. J., Pattison, J. C. and Bird, I. M. (2004). Variations in adrenal androgen production among (nonhuman) primates. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 22, 311–326.
Cook, L. S., Goldoft, M., Schwartz, S. M., et al. (1999). Incidence of adenocarcinoma of the prostate in Asian immigrants to the United States and their descendants. Journal of Urology, 161, 152–155.
Cooper, T. G., Keck, C., Oberdieck, U., et al. (1993). Effects of multiple ejaculations after extended periods of sexual abstinence on total, motile and normal sperm numbers, as well as accessory gland secretions, from healthy normal and oligozoospermic men. Human Reproduction, 8, 1251–1258.
Corbier, P., Edwards, D. A. and Roffi, J. (1992). The neonatal testosterone surge: a comparative study. Archives Internationales de Physiologie, 100, 127–131.
Crawford, E. D. (2003). Epidemiology of prostate cancer. Urology, 62, 3–12.
Cumming, D. C., Brunsting, L. A., Strich, G., et al. (1986). Reproductive hormone increases in response to acute exercise in men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 18, 369–373.
Dabbs, J. M. and Dabbs, M. G. (2000). Heroes, Rogues, and Lovers: Testosterone and Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Dabbs, J. M. and Mohammed, S. (1992). Male and female salivary testosterone concentrations before and after sexual activity. Physiological Behavior, 52, 195–197.
Dabbs, J. M., Frady, R. L., Carr, T. S., et al. (1987). Saliva testosterone and criminal violence in young adult prison inmates. Psychosomatic Medicine, 49, 174–182.
Dabbs, J. M., Carr, T. S., Frady, R. L., et al. (1995). Testosterone, crime, and misbehavior among 692 male prison inmates. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(5), 627–633.
Daly, M. and Wilson, M. (1983). Sex, Evolution, and Behavior. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Daly, M. and Wilson, M. (1988). Homicide. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Davidson, J. M., Camargo, C. A. and Smith, E. R. (1978). Effects of androgen on sexual behavior in hypogonadal men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 48, 955–958.
Davies, M. J. and Norman, R. J. (2002). Programming and reproductive functioning. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 13, 386–392.
Daynes, R. A. and Araneo, B. A. (1991). Regulation of T-cell function by steroid hormones. In Cellular and Cytokine Networks in Tissue Immunity, Meltzer, M. A. and Mantovani, A. (eds). New York: Wiley-Liss, pp. 77–82.
Deerenberg, C., Arpanius, V., Daan, S., et al. (1997). Reproductive effort decreases antibody responsiveness. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 264, 1021–1029.
Rochebrochard, E., Mouzon, J., Thepot, F., et al. (2006). Fathers over 40 and increased failure to conceive: the lessons of in vitro fertilization in France. Fertility and Sterility, 85, 1420–1424.
Moor, P., Verhoeven, G. and Heyns, W. (1973). Permanent effects of fetal and neonatal testosterone secretion on steroid metabolism and binding. Differentiation, 1, 241–253.
Demas, G. E., Chefer, V., Talan, M. I., et al. (1997). Metabolic costs of mounting an antigen-stimulated immune response in adult and aged C57BL/6J mice. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 42, R1331–R1367.
Demas, G. E., Drazen, D. L. and Nelson, R. J. (2003). Reductions in total body fat decrease humoral immunity. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 270, 905–911.
Deslypere, J. P. and Vermeulen, A. (1984). Leydig cell function in normal men: effect of age, life style, residence, diet and activity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 59, 955–962.
Dewsbury, D. A. (1982). Ejaculate cost and male choice. American Naturalist, 1, 601–610.
Dixson, A. F. (1999). Primate Sexuality: Comparative Studies of the Prosimians, Monkeys, Apes, and Human Beings. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dobs, A. and Brown, T. (2002). Metabolic abnormalities in HIV disease and injection drug use. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 31, S70–S77.
Doerr, P. and Pirke, K. M. (1976). Cortisol-induced suppression of plasma testosterone in normal adult males. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 43, 622–629.
Domb, L. G. and Pagel, M. (2001). Sexual swellings advertise female quality in wild baboons. Nature, 410, 204–206.
Duggan, M. B., Alwar, J. and Milner, R. D. (1986). The nutritional cost of measles in Africa. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 61, 61–66.
Eaton, N. E., Reeves, G. K., Appleby, P. N., et al. (1999). Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer: a quantitative review of prospective studies. British Journal of Cancer, 80, 930–934.
Elia, M. (1992). Organ and tissue contribution to metabolic rate. In Energy Metabolism: Tissue Determinants and Cellular Corollaries, Kinney, J. and Tucker, H. N. (eds). New York: Raven Press, pp. 61–79.
Ellis, B. J. and Garber, J. (2000). Psychosocial antecedents of variation in girls' pubertal timing: maternal depression, stepfather presence, and marital and family stress. Child Development, 71, 485–501.
Ellison, P. T. (1990). Human ovarian function and reproductive ecology: new hypotheses. American Anthropology, 92, 933–952.
Ellison, P. T. (1994). Advances in human reproductive ecology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 23, 255–275.
Ellison, P. T. (2001). On Fertile Ground: A Natural History of Human Reproduction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Ellison, P. T. (2003). Energetics and reproductive effort. American Journal of Human Biology, 15, 342–351.
Ellison, P. T. and Panter-Brick, C. (1996). Salivary testosterone levels among Tamang and Kami males of central Nepal. Human Biology, 68, 955–965.
Ellison, P. T., Lipson, S. F. and Meredith, M. D. (1989). Salivary testosterone levels in males from the Ituri forest of Zaire. American Journal of Human Biology, 1, 21–24.
Ellison, P. T., Panter-Brick, C., Lipson, S. F., et al. (1993). The ecological context of human ovarian function. Human Reproduction, 8, 2248–2258.
Ellison, P. T., Bribiescas, R. G., Bentley, G. R., et al. (2002). Population variation in age-related decline in male salivary testosterone. Human Reproduction, 17, 3251–3253.
Emanuel, E. R., Goluboff, E. T. and Fisch, H. (1998). MacLeod revisited: sperm count distributions in 374 fertile men from 1971 to 1994. Urology, 51, 86–88.
Fabbri, A., Aversa, A. and Isidori, A. (1997). Erectile dysfunction: an overview. Human Reproduction Update, 3, 455–466.
Fedigan, L. M. and Zohar, S. (1997). Sex differences in mortality of Japanese macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 102, 161–165.
Filsinger, E. E, Braun, J. J. and Monte, W. C. (1985). An examination of the effects of putative pheromones on human judgments. Ethology and Sociobiology, 6, 227–236.
Fisch, H., Ikeguchi, E. F. and Goluboff, E. T. (1996). Worldwide variations in sperm counts. Urology, 48, 909–911.
Fisher, R. A. (1932). The genetical theory of natural selection. Nature, 66, 118–138.
Fleming, P. J., Howell, T., Clements, M., et al. (1994). Thermal balance and metabolic rate during upper respiratory tract infection in infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 70, 187–191.
Forest, M. G., Sizonenko, P. C., Cathiard, A. M., et al. (1974). Hypophyso-gonadal function in humans during the first year of life. I: Evidence for testicular activity in early infancy. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 53, 819–828.
Fukagawa, N. K., Bandini, L. G. and Young, J. B. (1990). Effect of age on body composition and resting metabolic rate. American Journal of Physiology, 259, E233–E238.
Gangestad, S. W. and Thornhill, R. (1998). Menstrual cycle variation in women's preference for the scent of symmetrical men. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 265, 927–933.
Gangestad, S. W., Thornhill, R. and Garver-Apgar, C. E. (2005). Women's sexual interests across the ovulatory cycle depend on primary partner developmental instability. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 272, 2023–2027.
Gao, H. B., Tong, M. H., Hu, Y. Q., et al. (2002). Glucocorticoid induces apoptosis in rat Leydig cells. Endocrinology, 143, 130–138.
Gems, D. and Riddle, D. L. (1996). Longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans reduced by mating but not gamete production. Nature, 379, 723–725.
Gilbeau, P. M. and Smith, C. G. (1985). Naloxone reversal of stress-induced reproductive effects in the male rhesus monkey. Neuropeptides, 5, 335–338.
Giltay, E. J., Fonk, J. C., Blomberg, B. M., et al. (2000). In vivo effects of sex steroids on lymphocyte responsiveness and immunoglobulin levels in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85, 1648–1657.
Giwercman, A., Carlsen, E., Keiding, N., et al. (1993). Evidence for increasing incidence of abnormalities of the human testis: a review. Environmental Health Perspectives, 101, 65–71.
Glass, R. H. (1991). Infertility. In Reproductive Endocrinology: Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management, Samuel, S., Yen, C. and Jaffe, R. B. (eds). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, pp. 689–709.
Glick, B. B. (1984). Male endocrine responses to females: effects of social cues in cynomolgus macaques. American Journal of Primatology, 6, 229–239.
Gomez-Merino, D., Chennaouia, M, Burnat, P., et al. (2003). Immune and hormonal changes following intense military training. Military Medicine, 168, 1034–1038.
Gomez-Merino, D., Drogoua, C., Chennaouia, M., et al. (2005). Effects of combined stress during intense training on cellular immunity, hormones and respiratory infections. Neuroimmunomodulation, 12, 164–172.
Granger, D. A., Booth, A. and Johnson, D. R. (2000). Human aggression and enumerative measures of immunity. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 583–590.
Gray, A., Feldman, H. A., McKinlay, J. B., et al. (1991). Age, disease, and changing sex hormone levels in middle-aged men: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 73, 1016–1025.
Gray, P. B. and Campbell, B. C. (2005). Erectile dysfunction and its correlates among the Ariaal of northern Kenya. Internal Journal of Impotence Research, 17, 445–449.
Gray, P. B., Chapman, J. F., Burnham, T. C., et al. (2004). Human male pair bonding and testosterone. Human Nature, 15, 119–131.
Griffin, J. E. (2004). Male reproductive function. In Textbook of Endocrine Physiology, Griffin, J. E. and Ojeda, S. R. (eds), 5th edn. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 243–264.
Grossman, C. J. (1995). The role of sex steroids in immune system regulation. In Bilateral Communication between the Endocrine and Immune Systems, Grossman, C. J. (ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 1–11.
Grossman, C. J., Roselle, G. A. and Mendenhall, C. L. (1991). Sex steroid regulation of autoimmunity. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 40, 649–659.
Gruenbaum, E. (2001). The Female Circumcision Controversy: an Anthropological Perspective. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Grumbach, M. M. and Conte, F. A. (1998). Disorders of sex differentiation. In Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, Larsen, P. R., Kronenberg, H. M., Melmed, S. et al. (eds), 9th edn. Philadelphia: Saunders, pp. 1303–1425.
Guo, S. S., Zeller, C., Chumlea, W. C., et al. (1999). Aging, body composition, and lifestyle: the Fels Longitudinal Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 405–411.
Guzick, D. S., Overstreet, J. W., Factor-Litvak, P., et al. (2001). Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men. New England Journal of Medicine, 345, 1388–1393.
Hall, R. C. and Hall, R. C. (2005). Abuse of supraphysiologic doses of anabolic steroids. Southern Medical Journal, 98(5), 550–555.
Hamilton, W. D. and Zuk, M. (1982). Heritable true fitness and bright birds: a role for parasites?Science, 218, 384–387.
Harcourt, A. H., Harvey, P. H., Larson, S. G., et al. (1981). Testis weight, body weight and breeding system in primates. Nature, 293, 55–57.
Hardy, M. P., Gao, H. B., Dong, Q., et al. (2005). Stress hormone and male reproductive function. Cell and Tissue Research, 322, 147–153.
Harman, S. M., Metter, E. J., Tobin, J. D., et al. (2001). Longitudinal effects of aging on serum total and free testosterone levels in healthy men. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 724–731.
Harvey, P. H. and Harcourt, A. H. (1984). Sperm competition, testes size, and breeding system in primates. In Sperm Competition and the Evolution of Animal Mating Systems, Smith, R. L. (ed.). New York: Academic Press, pp. 573–587.
Hausfater, G. and Hrdy, S. B. (1984). Infanticide in Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Hayes, F. J., Seminara, S. B., Decruz, S., et al. (2000). Aromatase inhibition in the human male reveals a hypothalamic site of estrogen feedback. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85, 3027–3035.
Hendrix, C. T. (2004). The history of violence against women in three acts. Violence Against Women, 10, 1383–1394.
Hill, K. (1993). Life history theory and evolutionary anthropology. Evolutionary Anthropology, 2, 78–88.
Hill, K. and Hurtado, A. M. (1996). Ache Life History: the Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Hill, K., Boesch, C., Goodall, J., et al. (2001). Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution, 40, 437–450.
Hrdy, S. B. (1979). Infanticide among animals: a review, classification, and examination of the implications for the reproductive strategies of females. Ethology and Sociobiology, 1, 13–40.
Hsing, A. W. (2001). Hormones and prostate cancer: what's next?Epidemiological Review, 23, 42–58.
Hublart, M., Tetaert, D., Croix, D., et al. (1990). Gonadotropic dysfunction produced by Trypanosoma brucei brucei in the rat. Acta Tropica, 47, 177–184.
Ikede, B. O., Elhassan, E. and Akpavie, S. O. (1988). Reproductive disorders in African trypanosomiasis: a review. Acta Tropica, 45, 5–10.
Ing, R., Su, Z., Scott, M. E., et al. (2000). Suppressed T helper 2 immunity and prolonged survival of a nematode parasite in protein-malnourished mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 7078–7083.
Ingemarsson, I. (2003). Gender aspects of preterm birth. BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 110, 34–38.
Isseroff, H., Sylvester, P. W., Bessette, C. L., et al. (1989). Schistosomiasis: role of endogenous opioids in suppression of gonadal steroid secretion. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 94, 41–45.
Iturregui-Pagán, J. R., Fortuno, R. F. and Noy, M. A. (1976). Genital manifestation of filariasis. Urology, 8, 207–209.
Jakobsson, J., Ekstrom, L., Inotsume, N., et al. (2006). Large differences in testosterone excretion in Korean and Swedish men are strongly associated with a UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 2B17 polymorphism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 91, 687–693.
Jameson, J. L. (1996). Inherited disorders of the gonadotropin hormones. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 125, 143–149.
Jasienska, G. and Ellison, P. T. (1998). Physical work causes suppression of ovarian function in women. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 265, 1847–1851.
Jasienska, G. and Ellison, P. T. (2004). Energetic factors and seasonal changes in ovarian function in women from rural Poland. American Journal of Human Biology, 16, 563–580.
Jasienska, G., Ziomkiewicz, A., Ellison, P. T., et al. (2004). Large breast and narrow waist indicate high reproductive potential in women. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 271, 1213–1217.
Joffe, M. (2003). Invited commentary: the potential for monitoring of fecundity and the remaining challenges. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157, 89–93.
Kalantaridou, S. N., Makrigiannakis, A., Zoumakis, E., et al. (2004). Reproductive functions of corticotropin-releasing hormone. Research and potential clinical utility of antalarmins (CRH receptor type 1 antagonists). American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 51, 269–274.
Kaplan, H., Hill, K., Lancaster, J., et al. (2000). A theory of human life history evolution: diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology, 9, 156–185.
Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, P. and Pelliniemi, L. J. (1984). Sex ratio of human conceptuses. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 64, 220–222.
Kendrick, K. M. and Drewett, R. F. (1979). Testosterone reduces refractory period of stria terminalis neurons in the rat brain. Science, 2004, 877–879.
Ketterson, E. D. and Nolan, V. (1992). Hormones and life histories: an integrative approach. American Naturalist, 140, 33–62.
Ketterson, E. D., Nolan, V., Wolf, L., et al. (1992). Testosterone and avian life histories: effects of experimentally elevated testosterone on behavior and correlates of fitness in the dark eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). American Naturalist, 140, 980–999.
Key, T. J., Roe, L., Thorogood, M., et al. (1990). Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, calculated free testosterone, and oestradiol in male vegans and omnivores. British Journal of Nutrition, 64, 111–119.
Kidd, S. A., Eskenazi, B. and Wyrobek, A. J. (2001). Effects of male age on semen quality and fertility: a review of the literature. Fertility and Sterility, 75, 237–248.
Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. R. and Martin, C. E. (1948). Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. R., Martin, C. E., et al. (1953). Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Klasing, K. C. (1998). Nutritional modulation of resistance to infectious diseases. Poultry Science, 77, 1119–1125.
Klein, S. L. (2000). The effects of hormones on sex differences in infection: from genes to behavior. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 627–638.
Kley, H. K., Deselaers, T. and Peerenboom, H. (1981). Evidence for hypogonadism in massively obese males due to decreased free testosterone. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 11, 639–641.
Klibanski, A., Beitins, I. Z., Badger, T., et al. (1981). Reproductive function during fasting in men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 53, 258–263.
Knickmeyer, R. C. and Baron-Cohen, S. (2006). Fetal testosterone and sex differences. Early Human Development, 82, 755–760.
Knott, C. D. (1999). Reproductive, Physiological and Behavioral Responses of Orangutans in Borneo to Fluctuations in Food Availability (Dissertation). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kohl, J. V., Atzmueller, M., Fink, B., et al. (2001). Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 22, 309–321.
Koski, K. G. and Scott, M. E. (2001). Gastrointestinal nematodes, nutrition and immunity: breaking the negative spiral. Annual Review of Nutrition, 21, 297–321.
Krakowski, M. (2003). Violence and serotonin: influence of impulse control, affect regulation, and social functioning. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 15, 294–305.
Kramer, T. R., Moore, R. J., Shippee, R. L., et al. (1997). Effects of food restriction in military training on T-lymphocyte responses. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 18, S84–S90.
Kratzik, C., Schatzl, G., Lunglmayr, G., et al. (2005). The impact of age, body mass index and testosterone on erectile dysfunction. Journal of Urology, 174, 240–243.
Kronenberg, H. M., Melmed, S., Polonsky, K. S., et al. (eds) (2007). Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 9th edn. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Kuhnert, B. and Nieschlag, E. (2004). Reproductive functions of the ageing male. Human Reproduction Update, 10, 327–339.
Kulin, H. E., Bwibo, N., Mutie, D., et al. (1984). Gonadotropin excretion during puberty in malnourished children. Journal of Pediatrics, 105, 325–328.
Kumar, T. R., Wang, Y., Lu, N., et al. (1997). Follicle stimulating hormone is required for ovarian follicle maturation but not male fertility. Nature Genetics, 15, 201–204.
Kurihara, M., Aoki, K., and Hisamichi, S. (eds) (1989). Cancer Mortality Statistics in the World 1950–1985. Nagoya, Japan: University of Nagoya Press.
Levine, R. J., Brown, M. H., Bell, M., et al. (1992). Air-conditioned environments do not prevent deterioration of human semen quality during the summer. Fertility and Sterility, 57, 1075–1083.
Lin, E., Kotani, J. G. and Lowry, S. F. (1998). Nutritional modulation of immunity and the inflammatory response. Nutrition, 14, 545–550.
Lo, J. C. and Schambelan, M. (2001). Reproductive function in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 2338–2343.
Lochmiller, R. L. and Deerenberg, C. (2000). Trade-offs in evolutionary immunology: just what is the cost of immunity?Oikos, 88, 87–98.
Lofrano-Porto, A., Barra, G. B., Giacomini, L. A., et al. (2007). Luteinizing hormone beta mutation and hypogonadism in men and women. New England Journal of Medicine, 357, 897–904.
Low, B. S. (2000). Why Sex Matters: a Darwinian Look at Human Behavior. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Lukas, W. D., Campbell, B. C. and Ellison, P. T. (2004). Testosterone, aging, and body composition in men from Harare, Zimbabwe. American Journal of Human Biology, 16, 704–712.
Mace, R. (1996). Biased parental investment and reproductive success in Gabbra pastoralists. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 38, 75–81.
Maggioncalda, A. N., Sapolsky, R. M. and Czekala, N. M. (1999). Reproductive hormone profiles in captive male orangutans: implications for understanding developmental arrest. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 109, 19–32.
Maggioncalda, A. N., Czekala, N. M. and Sapolsky, R. M. (2000). Growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations in captive male orangutans: implications for understanding developmental arrest. American Journal of Primatology, 50, 67–76.
Malaspina, D., Harlap, S., Fennig, S., et al. (2001). Advancing paternal age and risk of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 361–367.
Marin, P., Holmang, S., Jonsson, L., et al. (1992a). The effects of testosterone treatment on body composition and metabolism in middle-aged obese men. International Journal of Obesity Related Metabolic Disorders, 16, 991–997.
Marin, P., Krotkiewski, M. and Bjorntorp, P. (1992b). Androgen treatment of middle-aged, obese men: effects on metabolism, muscle and adipose tissues. European Journal of Medicine, 1, 329–336.
Marler, C. A. and Moore, M. C. (1988). Evolutionary costs of aggression revealed by testosterone manipulations in free-living lizards. Behavior Ecology and Sociobiology, 23, 21–26.
Marler, C. A., Walsberg, G., White, M. L., et al. (1995). Increased energy expenditure due to the increased territorial defense in male lizards after phenotypic manipulation. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 37, 225–231.
Martin, C. W., Riley, S. C., Everington, D., et al. (2000). Dose-finding study of oral desogestrel with testosterone pellets for suppression of the pituitary–testicular axis in normal men. Human Reproduction, 15, 1515–1524.
Matson, P. L. (1995). External quality assessment for semen analysis and sperm antibody detection: results of a pilot scheme. Human Reproduction, 10, 620–625.
Mazur, A. (1992). Testosterone and chess competition. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55, 70–77.
Mazur, A. and Booth, A. (1998). Testosterone and dominance in men. Behavior and Brain Science, 21, 353–364.
McClintock, M. K. (1971). Menstrual synchrony and suppression. Nature, 291, 244–245.
McKinlay, J. B. (2000). The worldwide prevalence and epidemiology of erectile dysfunction. International Journal of Impotence Research, 12, S6–S11.
McMillin, J. M., Seal, U. S. and Karns, P. D. (1980). Hormonal correlates of hypophagia in white-tailed deer. Federation Proceedings, 39, 2964–2968.
Meeker, J. D., Godfrey-Bailey, L. and Hauser, R. (2007). Relationships between serum hormone levels and semen quality among men from an infertility clinic. Journal of Andrology, 28, 397–406.
Mieusset, R. and Bujan, L. (1995). Testicular heating and its possible contributions to male infertility: a review. International Journal of Andrology, 18, 169–184.
Mitani, J. (1985). Mating behavior of male orangutans in Kutai Game Reserve, Indonesia. Animal Behavior, 33, 392–402.
Mitchell, J. C., Li, X. F., Breen, L., et al. (2005). The role of the locus coeruleus in corticotrophin-releasing hormone and stress-induced suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in the female rat. Endocrinology, 146, 323–331.
Moore, S. L. and Wilson, K. (2002). Parasites as a viability cost of sexual selection in natural populations of mammals. Science, 297, 2015–2018.
Morell, V. (1993). Evidence found for a possible “aggression gene.”Science, 262, 321.
Muehlenbein, M. P., Jordan, J. L., Bonner, J. Z., et al. (in press). Towards quantifying the usage costs of human immunity: altered metabolic rates and hormone levels during acute immune activation in men. American Journal of Human Biology.
Muehlenbein, M. P. (2008). Adaptive variation in testosterone levels in response to immune activation: empirical and theoretical perspectives. Social Biology, 53, 13–23.
Muehlenbein, M. P. and Bribiescas, R. G. (2005). Testosterone-mediated immune functions and male life histories. American Journal of Human Biology, 17, 527–558.
Muehlenbein, M. P., Algier, J., Cogswell, F., et al. (2005). The reproductive endocrine response to Plasmodium vivax infection in Hondurans. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 73, 178–187.
Muller, G., Keller, A., Reich, A., et al. (2004). Priming with testosterone enhances stimulated growth hormone secretion in boys with delayed puberty. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, 17, 77–83.
Muller, M. N. and Wrangham, R. W. (2005). Testosterone and energetics in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). American Journal of Primatology, 66, 119–130.
Muller, M., Tonkelaar, I., Thijssen, J. H., et al. (2003). Endogenous sex hormones in men aged 40–80 years. European Journal of Endocrinology, 149, 583–589.
Muller, M., Thompson, M. and Wrangham, R. (2006). Male chimpanzees prefer mating with old females. Current Biology, 16, 2234–2238.
Nelson, G. S. (1958). Schistosoma mansoni infection in the West Nile District of Uganda. I. The incidence of S. mansoni infection. East African Medical Journal, 35, 311–319.
Nelson, R. J., Demas, G. E., Klein, S. L., et al. (2002). Seasonal Patterns of Stress, Immune Function, and Disease. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Nelson, W. G., Marzo, A. M. and Isaacs, W. B. (2003). Prostate cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 349, 366–381.
Newsholme, P., and Newsholme, E. A. (1989). Rates of utilization of glucose, glutamine and oleate and formation of end-products by mouse peritoneal macrophages in culture. Biochemistry Journal, 261, 211–218.
Nnatu, S. N., Giwa-Osagie, O. F. and Essien, E. E. (1991). Effect of repeated semen ejaculation on sperm quality. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics, 18, 39–42.
Nordling, D., Andersson, M., Zohari, S., et al. (1998). Reproductive effort reduces specific immune response and parasite resistance. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 265, 1291–1298.
Norris, K., Anwar, M. and Read, A. F. (1994). Reproductive effort influences the prevalence of haematozoan parasites in great tits. Journal of Animal Ecology, 63, 601–610.
Nussey, S. and Whitehead, S. A. (2001). Endocrinology: an Integrated Approach. Oxford: Taylor and Francis.
Odendaal, F. J., Jones, K. N. and Stermitz, F. R. (1989). Mating behavior and male investment in euphydryas-anicia lepidoptera nymphalidae. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, 28, 1–13.
Oktenli, C., Doganci, L., Ozgurtas, T., et al. (2004). Transient hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in males with acute toxoplasmosis: suppressive effect of interleukin-1 on the secretion of GnRH. Human Reproduction, 19, 859–866.
Olsen, G. W., Bodner, K. M., Ramlow, J. M., et al. (1995). Have sperm counts been reduced 50 percent in 50 years? A statistical model revisited. Fertility and Sterility, 63, 887–893.
Olsen, N. J. and Kovacs, W. J. (1996). Gonadal steroids and immunity. Endocrinological Review, 17, 369–384.
Opstad, P. K. (1992). Androgenic hormones during prolonged physical stress, sleep, and energy deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 74, 1176–1183.
Orwoll, E., Lambert, L. C., Marshall, L. M., et al. (2006). Testosterone and estradiol among older men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 91, 1336–1344.
Owens, I. P. (2002). Sex differences in mortality rate. Science, 297, 2008–2009.
Parazzini, F., Vecchia, C., Levi, F., et al. (1998). Trends in male:female ratio among newborn infants in 29 countries from five continents. Human Reproduction, 13, 1394–1396.
Parr, L. A. and Waal, F. B. M. (1999). Visual kin recognition in chimpanzees. Nature, 399, 647–648.
Partridge, L. and Farquhar, M. (1981). Sexual activity reduces lifespan of male fruit flies. Nature, 294, 580–582.
Pflieger-Bruss, S., Schuppe, H. C. and Schill, W. B. (2004). The male reproductive system and its susceptibility to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Andrologia, 36, 337–345.
Plas, E., Berger, P., Hermann, M, et al. (2000). Effects of aging on male fertility?Experimental Gerontology, 35, 543–551.
Polansky, F. F. and Lamb, E. J. (1988). Do the results of semen analysis predict future fertility? A survival analysis study. Fertility and Sterility, 49, 1059–1065.
Pope, H. G., Kouri, E. M. and Hudson, J. I. (2000). Effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on mood and aggression in normal men: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 133–140.
Poretsky, L., Can, S. and Zumoff, B. (1995). Testicular dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected homosexual men. Metabolism, 44, 946–953.
Potts, M. and Short, R. (1999). Ever Since Adam and Eve. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Poulin, R. (1996). Sexual inequalities in helminth infections: a cost of being a male?American Naturalist, 147, 287–295.
Quinn, M. and Babb, P. (2002). Patterns and trends in prostate cancer incidence, survival, prevalence and mortality. Part I: international comparisons. British Journal of Urology International, 90, 162–173.
Raberg, L., Grahn, M., Hasselquist, D., et al. (1998). On the adaptive significance of stress-induced immunosuppression. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 265, 1637–1641.
Raberg, L., Vestberg, M., Hasselquist, D., et al. (2002). Basal metabolic rate and the evolution of the adaptive immune system. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 269, 817–821.
Raven, P. H. and Johnson, G. B. (1988). Understanding Biology. St. Louis: Times Mirror/Mosby College Publishing.
Reddy, S., Shapiro, M., Morton, R., et al. (2003). Prostate cancer in black and white Americans. Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, 22, 83–86.
Reichenberg, A., Gross, R., Weiser, M., et al. (2006). Advancing paternal age and autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 1026–1032.
Reincke, M., Arlt, W., Heppner, C., et al. (1998). Neuroendocrine dysfunction in African Trypanosomiasis: the role of cytokinesa. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 840, 809–821.
Reynolds, V. (1991). The biological basis of human patterns of mating and marriage. In Marriage and Mating, Reynolds, V. and Kellett, J. (eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 46–90.
Richner, H., Christe, P. and Oppliger, A. (1995). Paternal investment affects prevalence of malaria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 92, 1192–1194.
Ring, H. Z., Lessov, C. N., Reed, T., et al. (2005). Heritability of plasma sex hormones and hormone binding globulin in adult male twins. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90, 3653–3658.
Roberts, A. C., McClure, R. D., Weiner, R. I., et al. (1993). Overtraining affects male reproductive status. Fertility and Sterility, 60, 686–692.
Rochira, V., Zirilli, L., Genazzani, A. D., et al. (2006). Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in two men with aromatase deficiency: evidence that circulating estrogens are required at the hypothalamic level for the integrity of gonadotropin negative feedback. European Journal of Endocrinology, 155, 513–522.
Rodriguez, I., Greer, C. A., Mok, M. Y., et al. (2000). Putative pheromone receptor gene expressed in human olfactory mucosa. Nature Genetics, 26, 18–19.
Röjdmark, S. (1987). Influence of short-term fasting on the pituitary-testicular axis in normal men. Hormone Research, 25, 140–146.
Roney, J. R., Mahler, S. V. and Maestripieri, D. (2003). Behavioral and hormonal responses of men to brief interactions with women. Evolution and Human Behavior, 24, 365–375.
Ronnekliev, O. and Resko, J. (1990). Ontogeny of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in early fetal development of rhesus macaques. Endocrinology, 126, 498–511.
Rose, R. M., Kreuz, L. E., Holaday, J. W., et al. (1972). Diurnal variation of plasma testosterone and cortisol. Journal of Endocrinology, 54, 177–178.
Rosen, R. C., Fisher, W. A., Eardley, I., et al. (2004). The multinational Men's Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality (MALES) study: I. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and related health concerns in the general population. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 20, 607–617.
Roughgarden, J. (2009). Evolution's Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People, 2nd edn. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Saad, S. H., Abdelbaky, A., Osman, A. M., et al. (1999). Possible role of Schistosoma mansoni infection in male hypogonadism. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 29, 307–323.
Safe, S. H. (2000). Endocrine disruptors and human health: is there a problem? An update. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(6), 487–493.
Saidi, J. A., Chang, D. T., Goluboff, E. T., et al. (1999). Declining sperm counts in the United States? A critical review. Journal of Urology, 161, 460–462.
Sapolsky, R. M. and Krey, L. C. (1988). Stress-induced suppression of luteinizing hormone concentrations in wild baboons: role of opiates. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 66, 722–726.
Schmid-Hempel, P. (2003). Variation in immune defence as a question of evolutionary ecology. Hormone Research, 270, 357–366.
Schoech, S. J., Ketterson, E. D., Nolan, V., et al. (1998). The effect of exogenous testosterone on parental behavior, plasma prolactin and prolactin binding sites in dark-eyed juncos. Hormones and Behavior, 34, 1–10.
Schwartz, D., Mayaux, M. J., Spira, M. L., et al. (1983). Semen characteristics as a function of age in 833 fertile men. Fertility and Sterility, 39, 530–535.
Seo, J. T., Rha, K. H., Park, Y. S., et al. (2000). Semen quality over a 10-year period in 22 249 men in Korea. International Journal of Andrology, 23, 194–198.
Sharpe, R. M. and Skakkebaek, N. E. (1993). Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract?Lancet, 341, 1392–1395.
Sheldon, B. C. and Verhulst, S. (1996). Ecological immunology: costly parasite defenses and trade-offs in evolutionary ecology. Trends in Ecological Evolution, 11, 317–321.
Shephard, R. J., Castellani, J. W. and Shek, P. N. (1998). Immune deficits induced by strenuous exertion under adverse environmental conditions: manifestations and countermeasures. Critical Reviews in Immunology, 18, 545–568.
Shibata, A. and Whittemore, A. S. (1997). Genetic predisposition to prostate cancer: possible explanations for ethnic differences in risk. The Prostate, 32, 65–72.
Siiteri, P. K. and Wilson, J. D. (1974). Testosterone formation and metabolism during male sexual differentiation in the human embryo. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 38, 113–125.
Simard, J., Dumont, M., Soucy, P., et al. (2002). Perspective: prostate cancer susceptibility genes. Endocrinology, 143(6), 2029–2040.
Singh, A. B., Hsia, S., Alaupovic, P., et al. (2002). The effects of varying doses of testosterone on insulin sensitivity, plasma lipids, apolipoproteins, and C-reactive protein in healthy young men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 87, 136–143.
Small, M. F. (1988). Female primate sexual behavior and conception: are there really sperm to spare?Current Anthropology, 29, 81–100.
Smith, R. J. and Leigh, S. R. (1998). Sexual dimorphism in primate neonatal body mass. Journal of Human Evolution, 34, 173–201.
Smith, S. R., Chhetri, M. K., Johanson, J., et al. (1975). The pituitary-gonadal axis in men with protein-calorie malnutrition. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 41, 60–69.
Smuts, B. B. and Smuts, R. W. (1993). Male aggression and sexual coercion of females in nonhuman primates and other mammals: evidence and theoretical implications. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 22, 1–63.
Soudan, B., Tetaert, D., Racadot, A., et al. (1992). Decrease of testosterone level during an experimental African trypanosomiasis: involvement of a testicular LH receptor desensitization. Acta Endocrinology (Copenhagen), 127, 86–92.
Spratt, D. I. and Crowley, W. (1988). Pituitary and gonadal responsiveness is enhanced during GnRH-induced puberty. American Journal of Physiology, 254, E652–E657.
Spratt, D. I., Cox, P., Orav, J., et al. (1993). Reproductive axis suppression in acute illness is related to disease severity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 76, 1548–1554.
Stahl, W., Kaneda, Y., Tanabe, M., et al. (1995). Uterine atrophy in chronic murine toxoplasmosis due to ovarian dysfunction. Journal of Parasitology Research, 81, 109–113.
Stearns, S. C. (1989). Trade-offs in life-history evolution. Functional Ecology, 3, 259–268.
Stearns, S. C. (1992). The Evolution of Life Histories. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Storey, A. E., Walsh, C. J., Quinton, R. L., et al. (2000). Hormonal correlates of paternal responsiveness in new and expectant fathers. Evolution and Human Behavior, 21, 79–95.
Strassmann, B. I. (1999). Menstrual synchrony pheromones: cause for doubt. Human Reproduction, 14, 579–580.
Straub, R. H. and Cutolo, M. (2001). Involvement of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal/gonadal axis and the peripheral nervous system in rheumatoid arthritis: viewpoint based on a systemic pathogenetic role. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 44, 493–507.
Sugiyama, L. S. (2005). Physical attractiveness in adaptationist perspective. In The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, Buss, D. M. (ed.). New York: Wiley.
Swan, S. H., Elkin, E. P. and Fenster, L. (2000). The question of declining sperm density revisited: an analysis of 101 studies published 1934–1996. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108, 961–966.
Tapanainen, J. S., Aittomaki, K., Min, J., et al. (1997). Men homozygous for an inactivating mutation of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor gene present variable suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility. Nature Genetics, 15, 205–266.
Thornhill, R. and Palmer, C. (2000). A Natural History of Rape: Biological Basis of Sexual Coercion. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Tortolero, I., Arata, G., Lozano, R., et al. (1999). Semen analysis in men from Merida, Venezuela, over a 15-year period. Archives of Andrology, 42, 29–34.
Tovee, M. J., Maisey, D. S., Emery, J. L., et al. (1999). Visual cues to female physical attractiveness. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 266, 211–218.
Travison, T. G., Araujo, A. B., O'Donnell, A. B., et al. (2007). A population-level decline in serum testosterone levels in American men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92, 196–202.
Tricker, R., Casaburi, R., Storer, T. W., et al. (1996). The effects of supraphysiological doses of testosterone on angry behavior in healthy eugonadal men – a clinical research center study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 81, 3754–3758.
Trivers, R. L. (1972). Parental investment and sexual selection. In Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, Campbell, B. (ed.). Chicago: Aldine de Gruyter, pp. 136–179.
Tsai, L. W. and Sapolsky, R. M. (1996). Rapid stimulatory effects of testosterone upon myotubule metabolism and sugar transport, as assessed by silicon microphysiometry. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 357–364.
Uchida, A., Bribiescas, R. G., Ellison, P. T., et al. (2006). Age related variation of salivary testosterone values in healthy Japanese males. Aging Male, 9, 207–213.
Beld, A. W., Jong, F. H., Grobbee, D. E., et al. (2000). Measures of bioavailable serum testosterone and estradiol and their relationships with muscle strength, bone density, and body composition in elderly men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85, 3276–3282.
Valen, L. (1973). A new evolutionary law. Evolutionary Theory, 1, 1–30.
Voorhies, W. A. (1992). Production of sperm reduces nematode lifespan. Nature, 360, 456–458.
Vandenbergh, J. C. (1967). Effect of the presence of a male on the sexual maturation of female mice. Endocrinology, 81, 345–349.
Vandenbergh, J. G. (1973). Acceleration and inhibition of puberty in female mice by pheromones. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 19, 411–419.
Veldhuis, J. D., Wilkowski, M. J., Zwart, A. D., et al. (1993). Evidence for attenuation of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) impulse strength with preservation of GnRH pulse frequency in men with chronic renal failure. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 76, 648–654.
Verhulst, S., Dieleman, S. J. and Parmentier, H. K. (1999). A tradeoff between immunocompetence and sexual ornamentation in domestic fowl. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 4478–4481.
Vermeulen, A., Kaufman, J. M., Goemaere, S., et al. (2002). Estradiol in elderly men. Aging Male, 5, 98–102.
Wagner, G. and Mulhall, J. (2001). Pathophysiology and diagnosis of male erectile dysfunction. British Journal of Urology International, 88, 3–10.
Waldhauser, F., Weissenbacher, G., Frisch, H., et al. (1981). Pulsatile secretion of gonadotropins in early infancy. European Journal of Pediatrics, 137, 71–74.
Walker, R. and Hill, K. (2003). Modeling growth and senescence in physical performance among the Aché of eastern Paraguay. American Journal of Human Biology, 15, 196–208.
Walker, R., Hill, K., Kaplan, H., et al. (2002). Age-dependency in hunting ability among the Aché of eastern Paraguay. Journal of Human Evolution, 42, 639–657.
Wasser, S. K. and Barash, D. P. (1983). Reproductive suppression among female mammals: implications for biomedicine and sexual selection theory. Quarterly Review of Biology, 58, 513–538.
Waynforth, D. (1998). Fluctuating asymmetry and human male life history traits in rural Belize. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 265, 1497–1501.
Wedekind, C. and Folstad, I. (1994). Adaptive or nonadaptive immunosuppression by sex-hormones. American Naturalist, 143, 936–938.
Wedekind, C., Seebeck, T., Bettens, F., et al. (1995). MHC-dependent mate preferences in humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 260, 245–249.
Weinbauer, G. F. and Nieschlag, E. (1990). The role of testosterone in spermatogenesis. In Testosterone: Action, Deficiency, Substitution, Nieschlag, E. and Behre, H. M. (eds). Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 23–50.
Weinstein, Y. and Bercovich, Z. (1981). Testosterone effects on bone marrow, thymus and suppressor T cells in the (NZB × NZW) F1 mice: its relevance to autoimmunity. Journal of Immunology, 126, 998–1002.
Welle, S., Jozefowicz, R., Forbes, G., et al. (1992). Effect of testosterone on metabolic rate and body composition in normal men and men with muscular dystrophy. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 74, 332–335.
Whittemore, A. S., Wu, A. H., Kolonel, L. N., et al. (1995). Family history and prostate cancer risk in black, white, and Asian men in the United States and Canada. American Journal of Epidemiology, 141, 732–740.
Whitten, W. K. (1956). The effect of removal of the olfactory bulbs on the gonads of mice. Journal of Endocrinology, 14, 160–163.
Williams, G. C. (1966). Adaptation and Natural Selection. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Wilson, I. B., Roubenoff, R., Knox, T. A., et al. (2000). Relation of lean body mass to health-related quality of life in persons with HIV. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 24, 137–146.
Wilson, J. D. (1982). Gonadal hormones and sexual behavior. In Clinical Neuroendocrinology, Besser, G. M. and Martini, L. (eds). New York: Academic Press, pp. 1–29.
Wingfield, J. C., Hegner, R. E., Dufty, A. M., et al. (1990). The “challenge hypothesis”: theoretical implications for patterns of testosterone secretion, mating systems, and breeding strategies. American Naturalist, 136, 829–846.
Wong, W. Y., Thomas, C. M. G., Merkus, H. M. W. M., et al. (2000). Cigarette smoking and the risk of male factor subfertility: minor association between cotinine in seminal plasma and semen morphology. Fertility and Sterility, 74, 930–935.
Wong, W. Y., Zielhuis, G. A., Thomas, C. M. G., et al. (2003). New evidence of the influence of exogenous and endogenous factors on sperm count in man. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 110, 49–54.
Wood, J. W. (1994b). Dynamics of Human Reproduction: Biology, Biometry, Demography. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
,World Health Organization (1999). Laboratory Manual for Examination of Human Semen. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Worthman, C. M. and Konner, M. J. (1987). Testosterone levels change with subsistence hunting effort in!Kung San men. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 12, 449–458.
Wunderlich, F., Benten, W. P., Lieberherr, M., et al. (2002). Testosterone signaling in T cells and macrophages. Steroids, 67, 535–538.
Yirmiya, R., Avitsur, R., Donchin, O., et al. (1995). Interleukin-1 inhibits sexual behavior in female but not in male rats. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 9, 220–233.
Zahavi, A. (1975). Mate selection – a selection for a handicap. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 53, 205–214.
Zinner, D. P., Schwibbe, M. H. and Kaumanns, W. (1994). Cycle synchrony and probability of conception in female hamadryas baboons, Papio hamadryas. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 35, 175–184.
Zirkin, B. R. and Chen, H. (2000). Regulation of Leydig cell steroidogenic function during aging. Biology of Reproduction, 63, 977–981.
Zitzmann, M. and Nieschlag, E. (2001). Testosterone levels in healthy men and the relation to behavioural and physical characteristics: facts and constructs. European Journal of Endocrinology, 144, 183–197.
Zuk, M. and McKean, K. A. (1996). Sex differences in parasite infections: patterns and processes. International Journal of Parasitology, 26, 1009–1023.