Skip to main content Accessibility help
How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper
    • Online ISBN: 9781316650431
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This compact and easy-to-read book contains essential advice on how to take a manuscript from planning right through to publication. It will help both first-time writers and more experienced authors to present their results more effectively. While retaining the easy-to-read and well-structured approach of previous editions, the third edition of this essential guide has been expanded to include comprehensive advice on drawing graphs, and information about Open Access publishing. Illustrations are discussed in detail, with examples of poor illustrations taken from real papers in top-ranked journals, redrawn for comparison. Such before-and-after examples are also provided to demonstrate good and bad writing styles. The reader is offered practical advice - from how to present a paper and where to submit the manuscript, through to responding to reviewers' comments and correcting the proofs - all developed through the author's extensive teaching experience and his many years spent working as a journal editor.


Review of previous edition:'This book ranks with the best in the field. It is brief, to the point and easy to follow … useful to the author and editor … recommended.'

Source: Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology

Review of previous edition:'… short and straightforward … complete and user-friendly … for those making their first public steps in science, Gustavii's book is certainly very useful.'

Source: Annals of Human Biology

Review of previous edition:'… enjoyable and well written … an ideal reference book to have at hand when writing and organizing many types of scientific literature.'

Source: The British Society for Cell Biology

Review of previous edition:'… a very welcome learning resource … clear and concise … well structured, easy to read and well-illustrated … a highly useful resource indeed … [I] would highly recommend it.'

Source: The Biologist

Review of previous edition:'Every aspiring writer should read and follow the advice in How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper. Even accomplished scientific authors will add to their proficiency by going through this enjoyable volume.'

Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2

Hornby, A. S.; Ashby, M. 2005. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. 7th edn. New York: Oxford University Press.
The Merriam-Webster Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms. 1998. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Baron, D.N,; Clarke, H.M. 2008. Units, Symbols, and Abbreviation. London: RSM Press.
ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) Recommendations. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (the Vancouver Document,
List of journals in the Index Medicus. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine; published annually as a list in the January issue of Index Medicus. For sale on the Net by, as a separate publication. Also available at:
Albert, T. 2000. The A–Z of Medical Writing. London, UK: BMJ Books.
Alley, M. 1997. The Craft of Scientific Writing. 3rd edn. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Booth, V. 1993. Communicating in Science. Writing a Scientific Paper and Speaking at Scientific Meetings. 2nd edn. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Byrne, D. W. 1998. Publishing Your Medical Research Paper. What They Don’t Teach You in Medical School. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.
Day, R. A.; Gastel, B. 2012. How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper. 7th edn. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Goodman, N. W.; Edwards, M. B.; Black, A. 2014. Medical Writing: A Prescription for Clarity. 4th edn. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hall, G. M., ed. 2012. How to Write a Paper. 5th edn. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Hofmann, A. H. 2014. Scientific Writing and Communication: Papers, Proposals, and Presentations. 2nd edn. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Huth, E. J. 1999. Writing and Publishing in Medicine. 3rd edn. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.
Iles, R. L. 2003. Guidebook to Better Medical Writing. Olathe, KS: Iles Publications.
King, S. 2012. On Writing. A Memoir of the Craft. London, UK: Hodder Paperbacks; pp. 139288.
Malmfors, B.; Garnsworthy, P.; Grossman, M. 2003. Writing and Presenting Scientific Papers. 2nd edn. Nottingham, UK: Nottingham University Press.
Matthews, J. R.; Matthes, R. W. 2014. Successful Scientific Writing. A Step-by-Step Guide for the Biological and Medical Sciences. 4th edn. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Montgomery, S. L. 2003. The Chicago Guide to Communicating Science (Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
O’Connor, M. 1991. Reprint 1999. Writing Successfully in Science. London, UK: E & FN Spon.
Taylor, R. B. 2011. Medical Writing: A Guide for Clinicians, Educators, and Researchers. 2nd edn. New York, NY: Springer.
Zeiger, M. 1999. Essentials of Writing Biomedical Research Papers. 2nd edn. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing.
Carey, G. V. 1976. Mind the Stop. A Brief Guide to Punctuation. London, UK: Penguin.
Truss, L. 2009. Eats, Shoots & Leaves. The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation. London, UK: Fourth Estate.
Day, R. A.; Sakaduski, N. 2011. Scientific English. A Guide for Scientists and Other Professionals. 3rd edn. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Strunk, W. Jr.; White, E.B.; Angell, R. 2000. The Elements of Style. 4th edn. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
American Medical Association Manual of Style. 2007. 10th edn. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 2010. 6th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Science & Technical Writing. A Manual of Style. 2001. 2nd edn. Edited by Rubens, P. New York, NY: Routledge.
Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 2014. 8th edn. Edited by Council of Science Editors. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
The ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Information. 2006. 3rd edn. Edited by Coghill, A. M. and Garson, L. R. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.
Briscoe, M. H. 1996. Preparing Scientific Illustration. A Guide to Better Posters, Presentations, and Publications. 2nd edn. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Cleveland, W. S. 1994. The Elements of Graphing Data. Revised Edition. Summit, NJ: Hobert Press.
Harris, R. L. 1999. Information Graphics. A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York, NY: Management Graphics.
MacGregor, A. J. 1979. Graphics Simplified. How to Plan and Prepare Effective Charts, Illustrations, and other Visual Aids. Toronto, OH: University of Toronto Press.
Peterson, S. N. 1999. Editing Science Graphs. Bethesda, MD: Council of Biological Editors.
Tufte, E. R. 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
Wong, D. M. 2010. The Wall Street Journal. Guide to Information Graphics: the Dos and Don’ts of Presenting Data, Facts, and Figures. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.
Altman, D. G. 2006. Practical Statistics for Medical Research. 2nd edn. London, UK: Chapman & Hall.
Lang, T. A.; Secic, M. 2006. How to Report Statistics in Medicine. Annotated Guidelines for Authors, Editors, and Reviewers. 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians.
Abelson, P. H. 1982. Excessive zeal to publish. Science 218: 953.
Altman, D. G. 1985. Comparability of randomised groups. Statistician 34: 125–36.
Altman, D. G. 1995. Practical Statistics for Medical Research. London, UK: Chapman & Hall.
Andersson Grönlund, M. 2005. Ophthalmologic Characteristics and Neuropediatric Findings – with Special Emphasis on Children Adopted from Eastern Europe. (Dissertation.) Göteborg, Sweden: The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
Andolf, E. 1989. Sonography of the Female Pelvis with Emphasis on Ovarian Tumours. (Dissertation.) Lund, Sweden: University of Lund.
Arey, L. B. 1954. Developmental Anatomy. A Textbook and Laboratory Manual of Embryology, 6th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; p. 130.
Azem, J. 2005. Approaches to Analyses of Cytotoxic Cells, and Studies of their Role in H. pylori Infection. (Dissertation.) Goteborg, Sweden: The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University.
Bailar, J. C. 1986. Science, statistics, and deception. Ann. Intern. Med. 104: 259–60.
Baker, J. R. 1955. English style in scientific papers. Nature 176: 851–2.
Baranto, A. 2005. Traumatic High-load Injuries in the Adolescent Spine. Clinical, Radiological and Experimental Studies. (Dissertation.) Göteborg, Sweden: The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
Baum, J. K.; Worm, B. 2009. Cascading top–down effects of changing oceanic predator abundances. J. Anim. Ecol. 78: 699714.
Baumeister, R. F. 1990. Dear Journal Editor, it’s me again. Dialogue.
Begg, C.; Cho, M.; Eastwood, S.; et al. Improving the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials. The CONSORT statement. JAMA 1996; 276: 637–9.
Begley, S. 1996. To stand and raise a glass. Newsweek July 1; pp. 42–5.
Bengtsson, L. P. 1968. Therapeutic abortion by means of intra-uterine injections. Techniques, effects, risk and mechanisms of effect. Med. Gynecol. Sociol. 3: 614.
Bennet, S. 1992. Churchill. (Documentary.) London, UK: British Broadcasting Corporation.
Bergström, A. 1994. Experimental Retinal Cell Transplants. (Dissertation.) Lund, Sweden: University of Lund.
BMJ. 1985. Reference 13. [editorial]. BMJ 291: 1746.
Brecke, P. 1999. Violent conflicts 1400 A.D. to the present in different regions of the world. Paper presented at the 1999 meeting of the Peace Science Society, Ann Arbor, MI.
Broad, W. J. 1981. The publishing game: Getting more for less. Meet the least publishable unit, one way of squeezing more papers out of a research project. Science 211: 1137–9.
Brownlow, K.; Gill, D. 1983. Unknown Chaplin. (Video.) Thames Video Collection.
Brugger, P.; Marktl, W.; Herold, M. 1995. Impaired nocturnal secretion of melatonin in coronary heart disease. Lancet 345: 1408.
Bull, S. 2004. ‘The land of murder, cannibalism, and all kinds of atrocious crime?’ Maori crime in New Zealand, 1853–1919. Brit. J. Criminol. 44: 496519.
Burrough-Boenisch, J. 2006. EATAW (European Association for the Teaching of Academic Writing) email forum. (Accessed February 8, 2006.)
Carling, P. 2006. EATAW (European Association for the Teaching of Academic Writing) email forum. (Accessed December 9, 2006.)
Chamaillé-Jammes, S.; Fritz, H.; Valeix, M.; Murindagomo, F.; Clobert, J. 2008. Resource variability, aggregation and direct density dependence in an open context: the local regulation of an African elephant population. J. Anim. Ecol. 77: 135–44.
Chaplin, C. 1973. My Autobiography. Harmondsworth: Penguin; p. 208.
Chatellier, G.; Zapletal, E.; Lemaitre, D.; Menard, J.; Degoulet, P. 1996. The number needed to treat: A clinically useful nomogram in its proper context. BMJ 312: 426–9.
Chernin, E. 1988. The “Harvard system”: A mystery dispelled. BMJ 297: 1062–3.
Christensen, K. K. 1980. Group B Streptococci. Aspects on Urogenital Epidemiology and Obstetrical Significance. (Dissertation.) Lund, Sweden: University of Lund.
Clarke, K. W.; Gray, D.; Keating, N. A.; Hampton, J. R. 1994. Do women with acute myocardial infarction receive the same treatmen as men? BMJ 309: 563–6.
Collins, R.; Gray, R.; Godwin, J.; Peto, R. 1987. Avoidance of large biases and large random errors in the assessment of moderate treatment effects: The need for systematic overviews. Stat. Med. 6: 245–50.
CONSORT Website. 2001. (Accessed January 20, 2002.)
Council of Biology Editors’ Style Manual Committee. 2014. Scientific Style and Format. The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 8th edn. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; p. 196.
Crichton, M. 1975. Medical obfuscation: Structure and function. N. Engl. J. Med. 293: 1257–9.
Crossan, L.; Smith, R. 1996. The BMJ/EASE workshop for editors. CBE Views 19: 2930.
Daly, L.; Bonnar, J. 1990. Comparative studies of 30 µg ethinyl estradiol combined with gestodene and desogestrel on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelets. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 163: 430–7.
Danel, C.; Moh, R.; Minga, A.; et al. 2006. CD4-guided structured antiretroviral treatment interruption strategy in HIV-infected adults in West Africa (Trivacan ANRS 1269 trial): A randomised trial. Lancet 367: 1981–9.
Day, R. A. 1995. Scientific English. A Guide for Scientists and Other Professionals. 2nd edn. Phoenix: Oryx Press.
Day, R. A.; Gastel, B. 2006. How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper. 6th edn. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
de Looze, S. 2002. Rules on virgules. Eur. Sci. Editing 28: 108–10.
Dembiec, D. P.; Snider, R. J.; Zanella, A. J. 2004. The effects of transport stress on tiger physiology and behavior. Zoo Biol. 23: 335–46.
Dhungel, S. K.; O’Gara, B.W. 1991. Ecology of the hog deer in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Wildlife Monogr. 119: 140.
Dixon, B. Plain words please. 1993. New Scientist 137: 3940.
Dobbel, C. 1938. Dr O. Uplavici (1887–1938). Parasitology 30: 239–41.
Edmonds, J. A.; Clarke, J.; Dooley, J.: Kim, S. H.; Smith, S. J. 2004. Modeling greenhouse gas energy technology responses to climate change. Energy 29: 1529–36.
Ehrenberg, A. S. C. 1977. Rudiments of numeracy. J. R. Stat. Soc. A. 140: 277–97.
Emson, H. E. 1994. Christmas wishes. BMJ 309: 1738.
European Carotid Surgery Trialists’ Collaborative Group. 1998. Randomised trial of endarterectomy for recently symptomatic carotid stenosis: Final results of the MRC European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST). Lancet 351: 1379–87.
Evans, C. L.; Harrigan, J. 2005. Distance, time, and specialization: Lean retailing in general equilibrium. Am. Econ. Rev. 95: 292313.
Federle, M. P.; Cohen, H. A.; Rosenwein, M. F.; Brant-Zawadzki, M. N.; Cann, C. E. 1982. Pelvimetry by digital radiography: A low-dose examination. Radiology 143: 733–5.
Flint, P. L.; Grand, J. B.; Fondell, T. F.; Morse, J.A. 2006. Population dynamics of greater scaup breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Wildlife Monogr. 162: 122.
(Forty-eight Hours) 48 HRS. 1982. (Film.) Director Walter Hill. Paramount/Lawrence Gordon.
Fremont-Smith, M.; Meigs, J. V.; Graham, R. M.; Gilbert, H. H. 1946. Cancer of endometrium and prolonged estrogen therapy. JAMA 131: 805–8.
Gardiner, P. J.; Copas, J. L.; Schneider, C.; Collier, H. O. J. 1980. 2-decarboxy-2-hydroxymethyl prostaglandin E1 (TR4161), a prostaglandin bronchodilator of low tracheobronchial irritancy. Prostaglandins 19: 349–70.
Garfield, E. 1986. The integrated Sci-Mate Software System. Part 2: The Editor slashes the Gordian knot of conflicting reference styles. Current Contents 17(11): 81–8.
Geller, W. A.; Karales, K. J. 1982. Shootings of and by Chicago police. Uncommon crises part II: Shooting of police, shooting correlates, and control strategies. J. Crim. Law Criminol. 73: 331–55.
Godlee, F. 1996. Definition of “authorship” may be changed. BMJ 312: 1501–2.
Gold, D. R.; Wang, X.; Wypij, D.; et al. 1996. Effects of cigarette smoking on lung function in adolescent boys and girls. N. Engl. J. Med. 335: 931–7.
Goma Epidemiology Group. 1995. Public health impact of Rwandan refugee crisis: what happened in Goma, Zaire, in July 1994? Lancet; 345:339‒44.
Goodman, R. A.; Thacker, S. B.; Siegel, P. Z. 2001. What’s in a title? A descriptive study of article titles in peer-reviewed medical journals. Science Editor 24: 75–8.
Greene, J. 2011. The anticanon. Harvard Law Rev. 125: 379475.
Greenwood, J.; Jovanovic, B. 1999. The information-technology revolution and the stock market. Am. Econ. Rev. 89: 116–22.
Grüters, A.; Liesenkotter, K. P.; Willgerodt, H. 1995. Persistence of differences in iodine status in newborns after the reunification of Berlin. N. Engl. J. Med. 333: 1429.
Gustavii, B. 1975. The distribution within the placenta, myometrium, and decidua of 24Na-labelled hypertonic saline solution following intra-amniotic or extra-amniotic injection. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 82: 734–9.
Gustavii, B. 2012. How to Prepare a Scientific Doctoral Dissertation Based on Researh Articles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Halliwell’s Film, Video & DVD Guide. 2006. 21st edn. Walken, J.; Halliwell, L. (eds.) New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Hamberg, M. 1972. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in man. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 49: 720–6.
Harris, R. L. 1999. Information Graphics. A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York, NY: Management Graphics.
Hartley, J. 1994. Designing Instructional Text. 3rd edn. London: Kogan Page; p. 31.
Hearse, D., and the Editorial Team. 1992. Of humour, music, anger, speed, and excuses: Reflections of an editorial team after one year in office [editorial]. Cardiovasc. Res. 26: 1161–3.
Heim, S.; Kristoffersson, U.; Mandahl, N.; et al. 1985. Chromosome analysis in 100 cases of first trimester trophoblast sampling. Clin. Genet. 27: 451–7.
Hlava, J. 1887. O úplavici [On dysentery]. Journal of Czech Physicians 26: 70–4.
Hodgen, G. D. 1981. Antenatal diagnosis and treatment of fetal skeletal malformations: With emphasis on in utero surgery for neural tube defects and limb bud regeneration. JAMA 246: 1079–83.
Holmes, W. 1997. Minimum ethical standards should not vary among countries. Lancet 314: 1479.
Hoyer, L.W.; Lindsten, J.; Blombäck, M.; et al. 1979. Prenatal evaluation of fetus at risk for severe von Willebrand’s disease. Lancet 2: 191–2.
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. 1985. Guidelines on authorship. BMJ 291: 722.
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. 1995. Protection of patients’ right to privacy. BMJ 311: 1272.
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. 2002. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. (Accessed January 20, 2002.)
Jahn, A. E.; Levey, D. J.; Hostetler, J. A.; Mamani, A. M. 2010. Determinants of partial bird migration in the Amazon Basin. J. Anim. Ecol. 79: 983992.
Jha, R.; Kumar, R.; Vassa, P.; et al. 2006. Low male-to-female sex ratio of children born in India: National survey of 1.1 million households. Lancet 367: 211–18.
Jha, T. K.; Olliaro, P.; Thakur, C. P. N.; et al. 1998. Randomised controlled trial of aminosidine (paromomycin) v sodium stibogluconate for treating visceral leishmaniasis in North Bihar, India. BMJ 316: 1200–5.
Karman, H.; Potts, M. 1972. Very early abortion using syringe as vacuum source. Lancet i: 1051–2.
Kartulis, S. 1887. O úplavici, Über die Dysenterie (review). Centralblatt fur Bacteriologie undParasitenkunde 1: 537–9.
Kerkut, G. A. 1983. Choosing a title for a paper. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 74A: 1.
Kesling, R. V. 1958. Crimes in scientific writing. Turtox News 36: 274–6.
Kitin, P. B.; Fujii, T.; Abe, H.; Funanda, R. 2004. Anatomy of the vessel network within and between the tree rings of Fraxinus lanuginosa (Oleaceae). Am. J. Botany. 91: 779–88.
Lancet, The. 1993. OCs o-t-c? [editorial]. 342: 565–6.
Lancet, The. 1995. English as she is wrote [editorial]. 346: 1045.
Lang, T. A.; Secic, M. 1997. How to Report Statistics in Medicine. Annotated Guidelines for Authors, Editors, and Reviewers. Philadelphia, PA: ACP.
Laupacis, A.; Naylor, C. D.; Sackett, D. L. 1992. How should the results of clinical trials be presented to clinicians? [editorial]. ACP Journal Club, May/June, A12A14.
Lee, A.; Thomas, P.; Cupidore, L.; Serjeant, B.; Serjeant, G. 1995. Improved survival in homozygous sickle cell disease: Lessons from a cohort study. BMJ 311: 1600–2.
Lindsay, D. 1989. A Guide to Scientific Writing. Manual for Students and Research Workers. Melbourne, Australia: Longman Cheshire; p. 36.
Liu, L. 1996. Fate of conference abstracts. Nature 383: 20.
Logan, R. F. A.; Little, J.; Hawtin, P. G.; Hardcastle, J. D. 1993. Effect of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colorectal adenomas: Case-control study of subjects participating in the Nottingham faecal occult blood screening programme. BMJ 307: 285–9.
López-Jaramillo, P.; Delgado, F.; Jácome, P.; et al. 1997. Calcium supplementation and the risk of preeclampsia in Ecuadorian pregnant teenagers. Obstet. Gynecol. 90: 162–7.
Macknin, M. L.; Piedmonte, M.; Calendine, C.; Janosky, J.; Wald, E. 1998. Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold in children. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 279: 1962–7.
Madsen, K.; Ertbjerg, P.; Djurhuus, M. S.; Pedersen, P. K. 1996. Calcium content and respiratory control index or skeletal muscle mitochondria during exercise and recovery. Am. J. Physiol. 171: E1044E1050.
Majewski, J. 1994. Sydsvenska Dagbladet [The South Swedish Daily News], Nov. 6, Sect. A:2 (cols. 2–3).
Marvin, P. H. 1964. Birds on the rise. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 10: 194–6.
Mathews, K. A.; Sukhiani, H. F. 1997. Randomized controlled trial of cyclosporine for treatment of perianal fistulas in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 211: 1249–53.
McBride, W. G. 1961. Thalidomide and congenital abnormalities. The Lancet 2: 1358.
McGarry, G. W.; Gatehouse, S.; Hinnie, J. 1994. Relation between alcohol and nose bleeds. BMJ 309: 640.
McKinnon, R. 2006. China’s exchange rate trap: Japan redux? Am. Econ. Rev. 96: 427–31.
McNab, S. M. 1993. Non-sexist language. TWIOscoop 11: 148–53.
McWhorter, T. J.; Martínez del Rio, C. 2000. Does gut function limit hummingbird food intake? Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 73: 313–24.
Medical Research Council. 1948. Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. BMJ 2: 769–82.
Mehrotra, P. K.; Karkun, J. N.; Kar, A. B. 1973. Estrogenicity of some nonsteroidal compounds. Contraception 7: 115–24.
Millar, J. A. 1982. Anonymity of anthropoid apes featured in medical journals. Lancet ii: 940.
Mills, J. L. 1993. Data torturing. N. Engl. J. Med. 329: 1196–9.
Moher, D.; Schulz, K. F.; Altman, D. 2001. The CONSORT statement: Revised recommendation for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. JAMA 285: 1987–91.
Morell, C. J.; Walters, S. J.; Dixon, S.; et al. 1998. Cost effectiveness of community leg ulcer clinics: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ 316: 1487–91.
Mosteller, F. 1992. Writing about numbers. In Bailar, J. C. and Mosteller, F., eds. Medical Uses of Statistics. 2nd edn. Boston, MA: NEJM Books; p.378.
Murray, G. D. 1991. Statistical aspects of research methodology. Br. J. Surg. 78: 777–81.
Nakao, S.; Takenaka, T.; Maeda, M.; et al. 1995. An atypical variant of Fabry’s disease in men with left ventricular hypertrophy. N. Engl. J. Med. 333: 288–93.
Naylor, A. S. 2005. Differential Effects of Voluntary Running on Hippocampal Plasticity in the Adult Rat Brain. (Dissertation.) Göteborg, Sweden: The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
Ohto, H.;Terazawa, S.; Sasaki, N.; et al. Transmission of hepatitis virus from mothers to infants. N. Engl. J. Med. 330: 744–50.
Pacini, F.; Vorontsova, T.; Molinaro, E.; et al. 1998. Prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in children and adolescents from Belarus exposed to the Chernobyl radioactive fallout. Lancet 352: 763–6.
Parker, G. 2008. Crisis and catastrophe: The global crisis of the seventeenth century reconsidered. Am. Hist. Rev. 113: 1053–79.
Persily, N.; Lammie, K. 2004. Perceptions of corruption and campaign finance: When public opinion determines constitutional law. U. Pen. Law Rev. 153: 119–80.
Pitnick, S.; Spicer, G. S.; Markow, T. A. 1995. How long is a giant sperm? Nature 375: 109.
Publications Committee for the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) Investigators. 1998. Low molecular weight heparinoid ORG 10172 (danaparoid) and outcome after acute ischemic stroke. JAMA 279: 1265–72.
Quesada, M.; Bollman, K.; Stephenson, A. G. 1995. Leaf damage decreases pollen production and hinders pollen performance in Cucurbita texana. Ecology 76: 437–43.
Raio, L.; Ghezzi, F.; Di Naro, E.; Gomez, R.; Luscher, K. P. 1997. Duration of pregnancy after carbon dioxide laser conization of the cervix: Influence of cone height. Obstet. Gynecol. 90: 978–82.
Ridley, M. 2003. What makes you who you are. Newsweek, June 2, 50–7.
Rodhe, N. 2008. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Elderly. (Dissertation.) Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University.
Rothwell, P. M. 1995. Can overall results of clinical trials be applied to all patients? Lancet 345: 1616–19.
Salam, M.A.; Dhar, U.; Khan, W.  A.; Bennish, M. L. 1998. Randomised comparison of ciprofloxacin suspension and pivmecillinam for childhood shigellosis. Lancet 352: 522–7.
Samuelsson, S.; Sjövall, A. 1973. Komplikationer och komplikationsprofylax vid gynekologisk laparoskopi. [Complications and prophylaxis in gynaecological laparoscopy.] (In Swedish with English abstract.) Läkartidningen 70: 2570–4.
Sarna, S.; Kivioja, A. 1995. Blunt rupture of the diaphragm. Ann. Chir. Gynecol. 84: 261–5.
Schaltegger, C. A.; Torgler, B. 2006. Growth effects of public expenditure on the state and local level: Evidence from a sample of rich governments. Appl. Econ. 38: 1181–92.
Seppälä, M.; Kajanoja, P.; Widholm, O.; Vara, P. 1972. Prostaglandin-oxytocin abortion: A clinical trial on intra-amniotic prostaglandin F2α in combination with intravenous oxytocin. Prostaglandins 2: 311–19.
Simera, I.; Moher, D.; Hirst, A.; et al. 2010. Transparent and accurate reporting increases reliability, utility, and impact of your research: Reporting guidelines and the EQUATOR Network. BMC Medicine 8: 24. doi:10.1186/1741–7015-8–24.
Simkin, P. A. 1982. Simian stance: a sign of spinal stenosis. Lancet. ii: 652‒3.
Sliwa, K.; Skudicky, D.; Candy, G.; Wisenbaugh, T., Sareli, P. 1988. Randomised investigation of effects of pentoxifylline on left-ventricular performance in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Lancet 351: 1091–3.
Spiers, A. S. D. 1984. Transatlantic medical English. Lancet ii: 1451–3.
Stockdale, T. 2000. Contaminated material caused Creutzfeldt–Jacob disease (CJD) in some undersized children who were treated with growth hormone (GH). Nutr. Health 14: 141–2.
Strunk, W. Jr.; White, E. B. 2000. The Elements of Style. 4th edn. Boston. MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Sumner, D. 1992. Lies, damned lies – or statistics? J. Hypertens. 10: 38.
SUN, Xiao-Ling; ZHOU, Jing. 2002. English versions of Chinese authors’ names in biomedical journals. Observations and recommendations. Science Editor 25: 34.
Sundby, J.; Schei, B. 1996. Infertility and subfertility in Norwegian women aged 40–42. Prevalence and risk factors. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 75: 832–7.
Synnergren, O. 2005. Time-resolved X-ray Diffraction Studies of Phonons and Phase Transitions. (Dissertation.) Malmo, Sweden: Universities of Lund.
Thalidomide UK. 2006. (Accessed July 27, 2006.)
The ACS Style Manual. A Manual for Authors and Editors. 2002. 2nd edn. Edited by Dodd, J. S. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.
Theander, E. 2005. Living and Dying with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome. Studies on Aetiology, Treatment, Lymphoma, Survival and Predictors. (Dissertation.) Malmö, Sweden: University of Lund.
Tjio, J. H.; Levan, A. 1956. The chromosome number of man. Hereditas 46: 16.
Tønnes-Pedersen, A.; Lidegaard, Ø.; Kreiner, S.; Ottesen, B. 1997. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of non-fatal stroke. Lancet 350: 1277–83.
Toogood, J. H. 1980. What do we mean by “usually”? Lancet i: 1094.
Truss, L. 2003. Eats, Shoots & Leaves. The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation. London, UK: Profile Books.
Tufte, E. R. 1983. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
van Loon, A. J. 1997. Making it easier to trace articles in scientific and technical periodicals: The importance of the first page. Eur. Sci. Editing 23: 912.
Vane, J. R. 1971. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action of aspirin-like drugs. Nature 231: 232–5.
Wager, L. 2006. Statistical errors in science journals. Eur. Sci. Editing 32:100.
Wallengren, J. 1998. Brachioradial pruritus. A recurrent solar dermopathy. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 39: 803–6.
Watson, J. D.; Crick, F. H. C. 1953. Molecular structure of nucleic acids. A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature 171: 737–8.
White, J. V. 1988. Graphic Design for the Electronic Age. The Manual for Traditional and Desktop Publishing, p. 201. New York: Watson–Guptill.
Wilhelmsen, L.; Svärdsudd, K.; Korsan-Bengtsen, K.; Larsson, B.; Welin, L.; Tibblin, G. 1984. Fibrinogen as a risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction. N. Engl. J. Med. 311: 501505.
Woods, J. 1967. Oral contraceptives and hypertension. The Lancet 2: 653–4.
Xu, ZhaoRan; Nicolson, D. H. 1992. Don’t abbreviate Chinese names. Taxon 41: 499504.
Yorukoglu, M. 2002. The decline of cities and inequality. Am. Econ. Rev. 92: 191197.
Yu, HC.; Chiou, I.; Jordan-Wagner, J. 2008. Does the weekday effect of the yen/dollar spot rates exist in Tokyo, London, and New York? An analysis of panel probability distribution. Appl. Econ. 40: 26312643.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed