Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: June 2019

Chapter 2 - Crystals and Crystal Growth

Summary

Crystallization can be regarded as a self-assembly process in which randomly organized molecules in a fluid come together to form an ordered three-dimensional molecular array with a periodic repeating pattern. It is vital to many processes occurring in nature and manufacturing. Geologic crystallization is responsible from huge deposits of carbonates, sulfates, and phosphates that often grow in mountains and quarries. This process occurs over long periods of time, often at high temperatures and pressures, and results in large and usually highly ordered crystals such as diamond.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Aakerőy, C. B., Beatty, A. M., and Helfrich, B. A. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2001; 40:3240.
Abu Bakar, M. R., Nagy, Z. K., and Rielly, C. D. Org. Process Res. Des. 2009; 13:1343.
Addadi, L., Weinstein, S., Gati, E., Weissbuch, I., and Lahav, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1982; 104:4610.
Addadi, L., Berkovitch-Yellin, Z., Weissbuch, I., Lahav, M., and Leiserowitz, L. Mol Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 1983; 96:1.
Addadi, L., Berkovitch-Yellin, Z., Weissbuch, I., et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1985; 24:466.
Angell, C.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1995; 92:6675.
Asay, B. W., Henson, B. F., Smilowitz, L. B., and Dickson, P. M. J. Energ. Mater. 2003; 21:223.
Bauer, J., Spanton, S., Henry, R., et al. Pharm. Res. 2001; 18:859.
Bausch, A., and Leuenberger, H. Int. J. Pharm. 1994; 101:63.
Beck, R., Hakkinen, A., Malthe-Sorenssen, D., and Andreassen, J. P. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2009; 66:549.
Beckmann, W. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2000; 4: 372.
Beckmann, W. Crystallization: Basic Concepts and Industrial Applications. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2013.
Bennema, P. J. Cryst. Growth, 1969; 5:29.
Bennema, P., Boon, J., Van Leeuwen, L., and Gilmer, G.H. Krist. U. Technic. 1973; 8:659.
Berglund, K. A., and Larson, M. A. AIChE Symp. Series. 1982; 78:9.
Berglund, K. A., Kaufman, E. L., and Larson, M. A. AIChE J. 1983; 25:876.
Berkovitch-Yellin, Z. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1985; 107:8239.
Berkovitch-Yellin, Z., Addadi, L., Idelson, M., Lahav, M., and Leiserowitz, L. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1982; 21:1336.
Berkovitch-Yellin, Z., van Mil, J., Addadi, L., et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1985; 107:3111.
Bernstein, J. Polymorphism in Molecular Crystals, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002.
Bernstein, J., Davey, R. J., and Henck, J.-O. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1999; 38:3440.
Bertin, E. P. Principles and Practice of X-Ray Spectrometric Analysis. Plenum Press, New York, 1975.
Beyer, T., Day, G. M., and Price, S. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001; 123:5086.
Billot, P., Hosek, P., and Perrin, M.-A. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2013; 17:505.
Bingham, A. L., Hughes, D. S., Hursthouse, M. B., et al. Chem. Commun. 2001; 603.
Bisker-Leib, V., and Doherty, M. F. Cryst. Growth Des. 2001; 1:455.
Bisker-Leib, V., and Doherty, M. F. Cryst. Growth Des. 2003; 3:221.
Boerrigter, S. X. M., Cuppen, H. M., Ristic, R. I., et al. Cryst. Growth Des. 2002; 2:357.
Boerrigter, S. X. M., Josten, G. P. H., van de Streek, J., et al. J. Phys. Chem A. 2004; 108:5894.
Boistelle, R. In Advances in Nephrology (Grunfeld, J. P., Bach, J. F., Crosnier, J., and Funck-Brentano, J. L. eds.), pp. 173217. Medical Publishers, Chicago, 1986.
Bolla, G., and Nangia, A. Chem. Commun. 2016; 52:8342.
Bolton, O., Simke, L. R., Pagoria, P. F, and Matzger, A. J. Cryst. Growth Des. 2012; 12:4311.
Botsaris, G. D., and Denk, E. G. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 1970; 9:276.
Braga, D., Cojazzi, G., Paolucci, D., and Grepioni, F. Chem. Commun. 2001; 803.
Braga, D., and Grepioni, F. Chem. Commun. 2005; 3635.
Braun, D. E., Bhardwaj, R. M., Florence, A. J., Tocher, D. A., and Price, S. L. Cryst. Growth Des. 2013; 13:19.
Bravais, A. Etudes Crystallographiques. Paris, 1866.
Brick, M. C., Palmer, H. J., and Whitesides, T. H. Langmuir 2003; 19:6367.
Brittain, H. G. Polymorphism in Pharmaceutical Solids (2nd edn). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2009.
Brunsteiner, M., and Price, S. L. Cryst. Growth Des. 2001; 1:447.
Buckley, H. E. Crystal Growth. Wiley, New York, NY, 1951.
Bunn, C. W. Chemical Crystallography (2nd edn). Oxford University Press, London, 1961.
Burton, W. K., Cabrera, N., and Frank, F. C. Philos. Trans. 1951; A243:299.
Byrn, S. R., Xu, W., and Newman, A. W. Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 2001; 48:115.
Cardew, P. T., Davey, R. J., and Ruddick, A. J. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1984; 2(80):659.
Carpenter, K. J., and Wood, W. M. L. Adv. Powder Technol. 2004; 15:657.
Carstensen, J. T., and Morris, T. J. Pharm. Sci. 1993; 82:657.
Chanda, M. In Science of Engineering Materials (Chanda, M., ed.). pp. 174236. Palgrave, London, 1979.
Chen, B.-D., Cilliers, J. J., Davey, R. J., Garside, J., and Woodburn, E. T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998; 120:1625.
Chen, B. D., Garside, J., Davey, R. J., Maginn, S. J., and Matsuoka, M. J. Phys. Chem. 1994; 98:3215.
Chen, X., Morris, K. R., Griesser, U. J., Byrn, S. R., and Stowell, J. G. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002; 124:15012.
Chernov, A. A. Soviet Phys. Usp. 1961; 4:116.
Cherukuvada, S., Kaur, R., and Guru Row, T.N. Cryst. Eng. Commun, 2016; 18:8528
Chianese, A, and Kramer, H. J. M. Industrial Crystallization Process Monitoring and Control. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2012.
Chiarella, R. A., Davey, R. J., and Peterson, M. L. Cryst. Growth Des. 2007; 7:1223.
Chikhalia, V., Forbes, R., Storey, R., and Ticehurst, M. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 2006; 27:19.
Chiou, W. L., Chen, S.-J., and Athanikar, N. J. Pharm. Sci. 1976; 65:1702.
Chow, A. H. L., and Leung, M. W. M. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 1996; 22:357.
Clontz, N. A., Johnson, A. T., McCabe, W. L., and Rousseau, R. W. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund. 1972; 11:368.
Clydesdale, G., Roberts, K. J., and Docherty, R. J. Cryst. Growth. 1994a; 135;331.
Clydesdale, G., Roberts, K. J., Lewtas, K., and Docherty, R. J. Cryst. Growth. 1994b; 141:443.
Clydesdale, G., Roberts, K. J., and Lewtas, K. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 1994c ; 248:243.
Clydesdale, G., Hammond, R. B., and Roberts, K. J. J. Phys. Chem. B. 2003; 107:4826.
Cobley, C. J., Lennon, I. C., Praquin, C., et al. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2003; 7:407.
Cody, A. M., and Cody, R. D. J. Cryst. Growth. 1991; 113:508.
Cőlfen, H. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2001; 22:219.
Cőlfen, H., and Qi, L. Chem. Eur. J. 2001; 7:106.
Cőlfen, H., and Antonietti, M. Mesocrystals and Nonclassical Crystallization. Wiley, West Sussex, 2008.
Coombes, D. S., Catlow, C. R. A., Gale, J. D., Hardy, M. J., and Saunders, M. R. J. Pharm. Sci. 2002; 91;1652.
Corrigan, O. I., Sabra, K., and Holohan, E. M. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 1983; 9:1.
Craig, S., and Jones, D. A. (1999). World Patent WO 00/32597.
Cruz-Cabeza, A. J., and Bernstein, J. Chem. Rev. 2014; 114:2170.
Cui, Y., and Yao, E. J. Pharm. Sci. 2008; 97:2730.
Cullity, B. D., and Stock, S. R. Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (3rd edn). Prentice-Hall, New York, NY, 2001.
Dandekar, P., Kuvadia, Z. B., and Doherty, M. F. Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 2013; 43, 359.
Davey, R.J. J. Cryst. Growth. 1986; 76:637.
Davey, R. J., and Garside, J. From Molecules to Crystallizers. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001.
David, W. I. F., and Shankland, K. Acta Cryst. 2008; A64:52.
Dawson, K. J., Kearns, K. L., Ediger, M., Sacchetti, M. J., and Zografi, G. J. Phys. Chem. B. 2009; 113:2422.
Debenedetti, P. G., Tom, J. W., Kwauk, X., and Yeo, S. D. Fluid Phase Equilib. 1993; 82:11.
Dennehy, R. D. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2003; 7:1002.
Descamps, M. Disordered Pharmaceutical Materials. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2016a.
Descamps, M. Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 2016b; 100.
Donnay, J. D. H., and Harker, D. Am. Mineral. 1937; 22:463.
Donth, E.-J. The Glass Transition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001.
Duggirala, N. K., Perry, M. L., Almarsson, O., and Zaworotko, M. J. Chem. Commun. 2016; 52:640.
Duroudier, J.-P. Crystallization and Crystallizers. ISTE Press – Elsevier, London, 2016.
Eccles, K. S., Deasy, R. E., Fabian, L., Maguire, A. R., and Lawrence, S. E. J. Org. Chem. 2011; 76:1159.
Edgar, R., Schultz, T. M., Rasmussen, F. B., Feidenhans, R., and Leiserowitz, L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999; 121:632.
Ediger, M. D. J. Chem. Phys. 2017; 147:210901.
Elamin, A. A., Sebhatu, T., and Ahlneck, C. Int. J. Pharm. 1995; 119:25.
Erk, P. Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 2001; 5:155.
Etter, M. C., and Adsmond, D. A. Chem. Commun. 1990; 589.
Fairbrother, J. E., and Grant, D. J. W. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1978a; 30:19P.
Fairbrother, J. E., and Grant, D. J. W. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1978b; 30:27P.
Farnand, J. R., Smith, H. M., and Puddington, I. E. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 1961; 39:94.
Ferrari, E. S., and Davey, R. J. Cryst. Growth Des. 2004; 4:1061.
Foxman, B. M., Guarrera, D. J., Taylor, L. D., VanEngen, D., and Warner, J. C. Cryst. Eng. 1998; 1:109.
Frank, F. C. Symposium on Crystal Growth: Discussions of the Faraday Society No. 5. Faraday Society, London, 1949.
Garcia-Ruiz, J. M. J. Struct. Biol. 2003; 142:22.
Frey, M., Genovesio-Taverne, J. C., and Fontecilla-Camps, J. C. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 1991; 24:101.
Friedel, G. Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. 1907; 30:326.
Friscic, T., and Jones, W. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2010; 62:1547.
Frizzell, D. WO2013/162725 2013; A1.
Garside, J. Chem. Eng. Sci. 1985; 40:3.
Garside, J., and Ristic, R. I. J. Cryst. Growth. 1983; 61:215.
Garside, J., and Jancic, S. AIChE J. 1976; 11:887.
Garside, J., Gibilaro, L. G., and Tavare, N. S. Chem. Eng. Sci. 1982; 37:1625.
Garside, J., Mullin, J. W., and Das, S. N. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund. 1974;13, 299.
Garside, J., Phillips, V. R., and Shah, M. B. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund. 1976; 15:230.
Garside, J., Van Rosmalen, R., and Bennema, R. J. Cryst. Growth. 1975; 29:353.
Garti, N., and Zour, H. J. Cryst. Growth. 1997; 17:486.
Gatumel, C., Espitalier, F., Schwartzentruber, J., Biscans, B., and Wilhelm, A. M. KONA 1998; 16:160.
Getsoian, A., Lodaya, R. M., and Blackburn, A. C. Int. J. Pharm. 2008; 348:3.
Gilmer, G. A., Ghez, R., and Cabrera, N. J. Cryst. Growth. 1971; 8:79.
Givand, J. C., Rousseau, R. W., and Ludovice, P. J. J. Cryst. Growth. 1998; 194:228.
Glusker, J. P., and Trueblood, K. N. Crystal Structure Analysis (3rd edn). Oxford University Press, London, 2010.
Gong, Y., Colliman, B. M., Mehrens, S. M., et al. J. Pharm. Sci. 2007; 97:2130.
Gu, C.-H., Young, V. Jr., and Grant, D. J. W. J. Pharm. Sci. 2001;90:1878.
Gu, C.-H., Chatterjee, K., Young, V. Jr., and Grant, D. J. W. J. Cryst. Growth. 2002; 235:471.
Gu, C.-H., Li, H., Gandhi, R. B., and Raghavan, K. Int. J. Pharm. 2004; 283:117.
Guillory, J. In Polymorphism in Pharmaceutical Solids (Brittain, H. G, ed.), pp. 183226, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, 1999.
Gyuali, O., Szabó-Révész, P., Aigner, P. Cryst. Growth Des. 2017; 17:5233.
Habgood, M. Cryst. Growth Des. 2013; 13:4549.
Haleblian, J. K. J. Pharm. Sci. 1975; 64:1269.
Hancock, B. C., and Parks, M. Pharm. Res. 2000; 17:397.
Harner, R. S. Ressler, R. J., Briggs, R. L, et al. Org. Process Res. Des. 2009; 13:114.
Hartel, R. W. Crystallization in Foods. Springer, Berlin, 2001.
Harter, A., Schenck, L., Lee, I., and Cote, A. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2013; 17:1335.
Hartman, P., and Bennema, P. J. Cryst. Growth. 1980; 49:145.
Hartman, P., and Perdok, W. G. Acta Crystal. 1955; 8:49.
Hilfiker, R. Polymorphism: In the Pharmaceutical Industry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006.
Hsi, K. H.-Y., Chadwick, K., Fried, A., Kenny, M., and Myerson, A. S. Cryst. Eng. Commun. 2012; 14:2386.
Horn, D., and Rieger, J. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2001; 40:4330.
Human, H. J., Van Enckerork, W. J. A., and Bennema, P. In Industrial Crystallization 81 (Jancic, S. J., and De Jong, E. J., eds.), p. 387. North Holland, Amsterdam, 1982.
Huttenrauch, R., Fricke, S., and Zielke, P. Pharm. Res. 1985; 6:302.
Inokuma, Y., Yoshioka, S., Ariyoshi, J., et al. Nature. 2013; 495:461.
Irisawa, T. In Crystal Growth Technology, pp. 2554. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003.
James, S. L., Adams, C. J., Bolm, C., et al. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2012; 41:413.
Jiang, C., Wang, Y., Yan, J., et al. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2015; 19:1752.
Johnson, B. K., and Prud’homme, R. K. Aust. J. Chem. 2003; 56:1021.
Jones, A. G. Crystallization Process Systems. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2002.
Jones, W., and Eddleston, M. D. Faraday Discuss. 2014; 170:9.
Jung, J., and Perrut, M. J. Supercrit. Fluids. 2001; 20:179.
Kahr, B., and Gurney, R. W. Chem. Rev. 2001; 101:893.
Katz, J. L, Reick, M. R., Herzog, R. E., and Parsiegla, K. I. Langmuir 1993; 9:1423.
Kawashima, Y., Aoki, S., and Takenaka, H. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1982a; 30:1837.
Kawashima, Y., Okumura, M., and Takenaka, H. Science 1982b; 216:1127.
Kearns, K. L., Swallen, S. F., Ediger, M. D., Wu, T., and Yu, L. J. Chem. Phys. 2007; 127:154702.
Khan, G. M., and Jiabi, Z. Drug. Dev. Ind. Pharm. 1998; 24:463.
Khankari, R. K., and Grant, D. J. W. Thermochim. Acta. 1995; 248:61.
Khoshkhoo, S., and Anwar, J. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 1993; 26:B90.
Kim, J. W., Kim, J. K., Kim, H. S., and Koo, K. K. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2011; 15:602.
Kim, S., Lotz, B., Lindrud, M., et al. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2005; 9:894.
Kim, S., Wei, C., and Kiang, S. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2003; 7:997.
Kipp, S., Lacmann, R., Reichelt, M., and Schroder, W. Chem. Eng. Technol. 1996; 19:543.
Kitaigorodsky, A. I. Molecular Crystals and Molecules. Academic Press, New York, NY, 1973.
Kofler, L., and Kofler, A. Thermal Micromethods for the Study of Organic Compounds and Their Mixtures. Wagner, Innsbruck, 1952.
Kozma, D. CRC Handbook of Optical Resolutions via Diastereomeric Salt Formation. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2001.
Kubota, N., Doki, N., Yokota, M., and Sato, A. Powder Technol. 2001; 121:31.
Lahav, M., and Leiserowitz, L. Chem. Eng. Sci. 2001; 56:2245.
Laudise, R. A. The Growth of Single Crystals. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1970.
Lee, A. Y., Erdemir, D., and Myerson, A. S. Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 2011; 2:259.
Lefever, R.A. >Solid State Materials: Preparation and Properties, vol. 1: Aspects of Crystal Growth. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, 1971.
Leusen, F. J. J., Noordik, J. H., and Karfunkel, H. R. Tetrahedron 1993; 49:5377.
Levi, A. C., and Kotrla, M. J. Phys. Condens. Matter. 1997; 9:299.
Lewiner, F., Fevotte, G., Klein, J. P., and Puel, F. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2002; 41:1321.
Lewis, A. E., Seckler, M. M., Kramer, H., and Rosmalen, G. V. Industrial Crystallization: Fundamentals and Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015.
Leyssens, T., Springuel, G., Montis, R., Candoni, N., and Veesler, S. Cryst. Growth Des. 2012; 12:1520.
Li, H., Wang, J., Bao, Y., Guo, Z., and Zhang, M. J. Cryst. Growth. 2003; 247:192.
Lindrud, M. D., Kim, S., and Wei, C. US Patent No. 6,302,958. Washington, DC: US Patent Office, 2001.
Liu, X. Y., Boek, E. S., Briels, W. J., and Bennema, P. Nature 1995; 374:342.
Liversidge, G. G., and Cundy, K. C. Int. J. Pharm. 1995; 125:91.
Lopez-Cordoba, A., Deladino, L., Agudelo-Mesa, L., and Martino, M. J. Food Eng. 2014; 124:158.
Lovette, M. A., Muratore, M., and Doherty, M. F. AIChE J. 2012; 58:1465.
Lu, J. J., and Ulrich, J. Cryst. Res. Technol. 2003; 38:63.
Lucaioli, P., Nauha, E., Singh, I., and Blagden, N. Cryst. Growth Des. 2018; 18:1062.
Lung-Somarriba, B. L. M., Moscosa-Santillan, M., Porte, C., and Delacroix, A. J. Cryst. Growth. 2004; 270:624.
Luque de Castro, M. D., and Priego-Capote, F. Ultrason. Sonochem. 2007; 14:717.
Lusi, M. Crys. Growth. Des. 2018; 18:3704.
MacLeod, C. S., and Muller, F. L. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2012; 16:425.
Mahajan, A. J., and Kirwan, D. J. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 1993; 26:B176.
Mann, S. Biomineralization: Principles and Concept in Bioinorganic Materials Chemistry. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 2002.
Markman, O., Elias, D., Addadi, L., Cohen, I. R., and Berkovitch-Yellin, Z. J. Cryst. Growth. 1992; 122:344.
Martillo, M. A., Nazzai, L., and Crittenden, D. B. Curr. Rheumatol Rep. 2014; 16:400.
Matsuda, Y., Kawaguchi, S., Kobayashi, H., and Nishijo, J. J. Pharm. Sci. 1984; 73:173.
Matsuda, Y., Akazawa, R., Teraoka, R., and Otsuka, M. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1994; 46:162.
McCabe, W. L. Ind. Eng. Chem. 1929; 21:112.
McCausland, L. J., Cains, P. W., and Martin, P. D. Chem. Eng. Prog. 2001; 97:56.
McCrone, W. In Physics and Chemistry of the Organic Solid State (Fox, D., Labes, M. M., and Weissberger, A., eds.), pp. 725–67, Wiley Interscience, New York, NY, 1965.
Melikhov, I. V., and Kutepov, A. M. Theor. Found. Chem. Eng. 2001; 35:427.
Mersmann, A. Crystallization Technology Handbook (2nd edn). Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, 2001.
Michaels, A. S., and Coville, A. R. J. Phys. Chem. 1960; 64:13.
Midler, M., Paul, E. L., Whittington, E. F., et al. US Patent No. 5,314,506, 1994.
Mir, N. A., Dubey, R., and Desiraju, G. R. IUCrJ 2016; 3:96.
Mitscherlich, E. Ann. Chim. Phys. 1822; 19:350.
Morimoto, M., Kobatake, S., and Irie, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003; 125:11080.
Morissette, S. L., Almarsson, O., Peterson, M. L., et al. Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 2004; 46:275.
Morris, K. R. In Polymorphism in Pharmaceutical Solids (Brittain, H. G., ed.), pp. 125–81, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, 1999.
Morris, K. R., Griesser, U. J., Eckhardt, C. J., and Stowell, J. G. Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 2001; 48:91.
Mougin, P., Clydesdale, G., Hammond, R. B., and Roberts, K. J. J. Phys. Chem. B. 2003; 107:13262.
Mukuta, T., Lee, A. Y., Kawakami, T., and Myerson, A. S. Cryst. Growth Des. 2005; 5:1429.
Mullin, J. W. Crystallization (3rd edn). Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1993.
Mullin, J. W., and Gaska, J. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 1969; 47:483.
Mullin, J. W., Garside, J., and Gaska, C. Chem. Ind. 1966; 41:704.
Myerson, A. S. Handbook of Industrial Crystallization (2nd edn). Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2002.
Myerson, A. S., and Kirwan, D. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund. 1977; 16:420.
Nangia, A. Acc. Chem. Res. 2008; 41:595.
Newman, A. Pharmaceutical Amorphous Solid Dispersions. Wiley, New York, NY, 2015.
Nyvlt, J., Sohnel, O., Matuchova, M., and Broul, M. The Kinetics of Industrial Crystallization. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1985.
Oberholtzer, E. R., and Brenner, G. S. J. Pharm. Sci. 1979; 68:863.
Ohara, M., and Reid, R. C. Modeling Crystal Growth Rates from Solution. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1973.
Panda, T., Horike, S., Hag, K., et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2017; 56:2413.
Parrott, E. L. In Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Technology (Swarbrick, J., and Boylan, J. C., eds.), pp. 101–21. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, 1990.
Pathak, P., Meziani, M. J., Desai, T., and Sun, Y.-P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004; 126:10842.
Paul, E. L., Tung, H. H., and Midler, M. Powder Technol. 2005; 150:133.
Pons-Siepermann, C. A., Huang, S., and Myerson, A. S. Cryst. Eng. Commun. 2016; 18:7487.
Price, C. J. Chem. Eng. Prog. 1997; 93:34.
Prodan, E. A. React. Solid. 1990; 8:299.
Pudipeddi, M., and Serajuddin, A. T. M. J. Pharm. Sci. 2005; 94:929.
Qiao, N., Li, M., Schlindwein, W., et al. Int. J. Pharm. 2011; 419:1.
Qiu, Y., and Rasmussen, A. C. AIChE J. 1990; 36:665.
Qiu, Y., Dalal, S., and Ediger, M. D. Soft Matter. 2018; 14:2827.
Rahman, Z., Agarabi, C., Zidan, A. S., Khan, S. R., and Khan, M. A. AAPS Pharm. Sci. Tech. 2011; 12:693.
Rams-Baron, M., Jachowicz, R., Boldyreva, E., et al. Amorphous Drugs: Benefits and Challenges, Springer, New York, NY, 2018.
Randolph, A. AIChE Symp. Series. 1984; 240:80.
Randolph, A., and Larson, M. Theory of Particulate Processes (2nd edn). Academic Press, New York, NY, 1986.
Rasenack, N., and Muller, B. W. Int. J. Pharm. 2002; 244:45.
Resnati, G., Metrangolo, P., Terraneo, G., and Baldrighi, M. US2015/0051280 A1, 2015.
Reutzel-Edens, S. M. Curr. Opin. Drug Discov. Dev. 2006; 9:806.
Richards, W. T., and Loomis, A. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1927; 49:3086.
Rifani, M., Yin, Y. Y., Elliott, D. S., et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995; 117:7572.
Roberts, K. J., Sherwood, J. N., Yoon, C. S., and Docherty, R. Chem. Mater. 1994; 6:1099.
Rudolph, P. Handbook of Crystal Growth (2nd edn, vol. IIA). Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2015.
Ruecroft, G., Hipkiss, D., Ly, T., Maxted, N., and Cains, P. W. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2005; 9:923.
Ruoff, A. L. Materials Science. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1973.
Sanchez-Guadarrama, O., Mendoza-Navarro, F., Cedillo-Cruz, A., et al. Cryst. Growth Des. 2016; 16:307.
Sander, J. R. G., Zeiger, B. W., and Suslick, K. S. Ultrason. Sonochem. 2014; 21:1908.
Sangwal, K. Additives and Crystallization Processes: From Fundamental to Applications. Wiley, West Sussex, 2007.
Sato, K. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 1993; 26:B77.
Sato, K. Crystallization of Lipids: Fundamentals and Applications in Food, Cosmetics, and Pharmaceuticals. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, 2018.
Schmidt, M. U., Hofmann, D. W. M., Buchsbaum, C., and Metz, H. J. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2006; 45:1313.
Schoen, H. M., Grove, C. S. Jr., and Palermo, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956; 33:373.
Schultheiss, N., and Newman, A. Cryst. Growth Des. 2009; 9:2950.
Schuth, F. Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 2001; 5:389.
Sgualdino, G., Aquilano, D., Tamburini, E., Vaccari, G., and Mantovani, G. Mater. Chem. Phys. 2000; 66:316.
Shah, N., Sandhu, H., Choi, D. S., Chokshi, H., and Malick, A. W. Amorphous Solid Dispersions, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
Shan, N., and Zaworotko, M. J. Drug Discov. Today. 2008; 13:440.
Shakhtshneider, T. P., and Boldyrev, V. V. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 1993; 19:2055.
Sheikh, A. Y., Raham, S. A., Hammond, R. B., and Roberts, K. J. Cryst. Eng. Commun. 2009; 11:501.
Shekunov, B. Y., and York, P. J. Cryst. Growth. 2000; 211:122.
Simmons, D. L., Ranz, R. J., Gyanchandani, N. D., and Picotte, P. J. Pharm. Sci. 1972; 7:121.
Simone, E., Klapwijk, A. R., Wilson, C. C., and Nagy, Z. K. Cryst. Growth Des. 2017; 17:1695.
Sjostrom, B., Bergenstahl, B., Lindberg, M., and Rasmuson, A. C. J. Dispers. Sci. Technol. 1994; 15:89.
Slaminko, P., and Myerson, A. S. AIChE J. 1981; 11:1029.
Sőhnel, O., and Garside, J. Precipitation: Basic Principles and Industrial Applications. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1992.
Springuel, G., and Leyssens, T. Cryst. Growth Des. 2012; 12:3374.
Srinivasan, K., Sankaranarayanan, K., Thangavelu, S., and Ramasamy, P. J. Cryst. Growth. 2000; 212:246.
Stahl, P. H., and Wermuth, C. G. Pharmaceutical Salts: Properties, Selection, and Use (2nd edn). Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2011.
Stahly, G. P. Cryst. Growth Des. 2009; 9:4212.
Steed, J. W. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 2013; 34:185.
Strickland-Constable, R. F. Kinetics and Mechanism of Crystallization. Academic Press, New York, NY, 1968.
Sukenik, C. N., Bonapace, J. A. P., Mandel, N. S., et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1977; 99:851.
Sun, C. C., and Grant, D. J. W. Pharm. Res. 2004; 21:382.
Sun, C. C., and Kiang, Y. H. J. Pharm. Sci. 2007; 97:3456.
Tavare, N. S. Industrial Crystallization: Process Simulation Analysis and Design. Springer Science+Business Media, New York, NY, 1995.
Tavare, N. S., and Garside, J. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 1986; 64:109.
ter Horst, J. H., Kramer, H. J. M., van Rosmalen, G. M., and Jansens, P. J. J. Cryst. Growth. 2002; 23739:2215.
Texter, J. J. Dispers. Sci. Technol. 2001; 22:499.
Thakuria, R., Delori, A., Jones, W., et al. Int. J. Pharm. 2013; 453:101.
Tom, J. W., and Debenedetti, P. G. J. Aerosol Sci. 1991; 22:555.
Tung, H.-H., Paul, E. L., Midler, M., and McCauley, J. A. Crystallization of Organic Compounds: An Industrial Perspective. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
Vainshtein, B. K. >Modern Crystallography, vol. 1: Fundamentals of Crystals: Symmetry and Methods of Structural Crystallography (2nd edn). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994.
Van Rosmalen, R., and Bennema, P. J. Cryst. Growth. 1975; 29:342.
Van’t Land, C. M., and Wunk, B. G. Control of Particle Size in Industrial Sodium Chloride Crystallization (Mullin, J. W., ed.), p. 51. Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1978.
Variankaval, N., Lee, C., Xu, J., et al. Org. Process Res. Des. 2007; 11:229.
Violanto, M. R., and Fischer, H. W. US Patent No. 4,826,689, 1989.
Vippagunta, S. R., Brittain, H. G., and Grant, D. J. W. Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 2001; 48:3.
Vries, T., Wynberg, H., van Echten, E., et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1998; 37:2349.
Wang, J. R., Fan, X., Ding, Q., and Mei, X. J. Mol. Struct. 2016; 1119:269.
Wedd, M. W., Price, C. J., York, P., Maginn, S. J., and Mullin, J. W. Anal. Proc. 1993; 30:447.
Wells, A. Discuss. Faraday Soc 5, p. 197. 1949.
Whitaker, A. In Analytical Chemistry of Synthetic Colorants (Peters, A. T., and Szep, J., eds.), pp. 148. Springer Science + Business Media, Berlin, 1995.
White, E. T., and Wright, A. G. Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp. Series. 1971; 110:6781.
Wiedersich, J., Kudlik, A., Gottwald, J., et al. J. Phys. Chem. B. 1997; 101:5800.
Williams-Seton, L., Davey, R. J., and Lieberman, H. F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999; 121:4563.
Winn, D., and Doherty, M. F. AIChE J. 1998; 44:2501.
Withbroe, G. J., Seadeek, C., Girard, K. P., et al. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2013; 17:500.
Wőhler, F Justus Liebigs Ann. Chem. 1844; 51:153.
Wright, J. D. Molecular Crystals (2nd edn). Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 1995.
Yang, H. G., Sun, C. H., Qiao, S. Z., et al. Nature. 2008; 453:638.
Yano, J., Furedi-Milhofer, H., Wachtel, E., and Garti, N. Langmuir 2000; 16:10005.
York, P. Int. J. Pharm. 1983; 14:1.
York, P., Kompella, U. B., and Shekunov, B. Y. Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.
Yu, L. Acc. Chem. Res. 2010; 43:1257.
Yu, L., Reutzel-Edens, S. M., and Mitchell, C. A. Org. Process Res Dev. 2000; 4:396.
Zhong, W., Quiang, W., Zhi, X. H., and Ayami, F. CN 103535579 A, 2014.
Zhu, M., and Yu, L. J. Chem. Phys. 2017; 146:244503.