Skip to main content Accessibility help
Handbook of Human Oocyte Cryopreservation
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Human oocyte cryopreservation has undergone rapid growth, with technical improvement and increasing clinical application over the last ten years. Storing eggs is ethical and gives many young women their most realistic chance of conception. Cryopreservation, however, is still considered by many as an experimental technique and conflicting reports are published as to its efficacy. For these reasons, it is necessary to give reproductive researchers and practitioners comprehensive and systematic information about the field. This book describes and analyses the history of human oocyte freezing, the main steps of technical evolution, and the pros and cons of different techniques. In addition, the clinical applications, long-term outcome, efficiency and safety of oocyte cryopreservation are detailed. The Handbook of Human Oocyte Cryopreservation gives a complete picture of the field today and is a valuable text for embryologists, cryobiologists, reproductive medicine practitioners and anyone involved in researching and implementing the technique.


'This succinct book addresses all aspects of cryopreservation from the clinical, ethical and practical aspects and, in addition to embryologists, would be of interest to reproductive medicine practitioners, clinicians in other disciplines whose patients might need fertility preservation, and gynaecology trainees and medical students.'

Source: The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.



Abir R, Fisch B, Nahum R, et al. Turner’s syndrome and fertility: current status and possible putative prospects. Hum Reprod Update 2001;7:603–10.
Aigner S, Van der Elst J, Siebzehnrubl E, et al. The influence of slow and ultra-rapid freezing on the organization of the meiotic spindle in the mouse oocyte. Hum Reprod 1992;7:857–64.
Al-Hasani S, Diedrich K. Oocyte storage. In: Grudzinskas JG, Yovich JL, editors. Gametes-The Oocyte. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;1995, 376–95.
Al-Hasani S, Diedrich K, van der Ven H, Krebs D. Initial results of the cryopreservation of human oocytes. Geburthshilfe Franuehilkild 1986;6:643–4.
Al-Hasani S, Diedrich K, van der Ven H, et al. Cryopreservation of human oocytes. Hum Reprod 1987;2:695–700.
Allan J. Re: case report: pregnancy from intracytoplasmic injection of a frozen-thawed oocyte. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2004;44(6):588.
Antinori S, Dani G, Selman HA, et al. Pregnancies after sperm injection into cryopreserved human oocytes. Hum Reprod 1998;13:157–8.
Antinori M, Licata E, Dani G, et al. Cryotop vitrification of human oocytes results in high survival rate and healthy deliveries. Reprod Biomed Online 2007;14:72–9.
Asahina E. Intracellular freezing and frost resistance in egg-cells of the sea urchin. Nature 1961;191:1263–5.
Aso K, Koto S, Higuchi A, et al. Serum FSH level below 10 mIU/mL at twelve years old is an index of spontaneous and cyclical menstruation in Turner syndrome. Endocrine J 2010;57(10):909–13.
Ata B, Chian RC, Tan SL. Cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos for fertility preservation for female cancer patients. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2010;24:101–12.
Attar E, Berkman S, Topuz S, et al. Evolutive peritoneal disease after conservative management and the use of infertility drugs in a patient with stage IIIC borderline micro-papillary serous carcinoma (MPSC) of the ovary: case report. Hum Reprod 2004;19(6):1472–5.
Azambuja R, Badalotti M, Teloken C, Michelon J, Petracco A. Successful birth after injection of frozen human oocytes with frozen epididymal spermatozoa. Reprod Biomed Online 2005;11:449–51.
Azambuja R, Petracco A, Okada L, et al. Experience of freezing human oocytes using sodium-depleted media. Reprod Biomed Online 2011;22(1):83–7.
Azim A, Oktay K. Letrozole for ovulation induction and fertility preservation by embryo cryopreservation in young women with endometrial carcinoma. Fertil Steril 2007;88(3):657–64.
Azim A, Ferrando MC, Lostritto K, Oktay K. Relative potencies of anastrozole and letrozole to suppress estradiol in breast cancer patients undergoing ovarian stimulation before in vitro fertilization. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007a;92(6):2197–200.
Azim A, Costantini-Ferrando M, Oktay K. Safety of fertility preservation by ovarian stimulation with letrozole and gonadotropins in patients with breast cancer: a prospective controlled study. J Clin Oncol 2008;26(16):2630–5.
Bahadur G. Fertility issues for cancer patients. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2000;169(1–2):117–22.
Baka SG, Toth TL, Veeck LL, et al. Evaluation of the spindle apparatus of in-vitro matured human oocytes following cryopreservation. Hum Reprod 1995;10(7):1816–20.
Bakalov V, Shawker T, Ceniceros I, Bondy CA. Uterine development in Turner syndrome. J Pediatr 2007;151(5):528–31.
Balakier H, Bouman D, Sojecki A, et al. Morphological and cytogenetic analysis of human giant oocytes and giant embryos. Hum Reprod 2002;17:2394–401.
Balash J, Gratacós E. Delayed childbearing: effects on fertility and the outcome of pregnancy. Fetal Diagn Ther 2011;29:263–73.
Bankowski B, Lyverly AD, Faden RR, Wallach EE. The social implications of embryo cryopreservation. Fertil Steril 2005;4:823–32.
Barritt J, Luna M, Duke M, et al. Report of four donor-recipient oocyte cryopreservation cycles resulting in high pregnancy and implantation. Fertil Steril 2007;87:189.e13–17.
Bernard A, Fuller BJ. Cryopreservation of human oocytes: a review of current problems and perspectives. Hum Reprod Update 1996;2:193–207.
Bernard A, Imoedembe DA, Shaw RW, Fuller B. Effects of cryprotectants on human oocytes. Lancet 1985;1:632–3.
Bianchi V, Coticchio G, Fava L, Flamigni C, Borini A. Meiotic spindle imaging in human oocytes frozen with a slow freezing procedure involving high sucrose concentration. Hum Reprod 2005;20:1078–83.
Bianchi V, Coticchio G, Distratis V, et al. Differential sucrose concentration during dehydration (0.2 mol/l) and rehydration (0.3 mol/l) increases the implantation rate of frozen human oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online 2007;14:64–71.
Bianchi V, Lappi M, Bonu MA, Borini A. Oocyte slow freezing using a 0.2–0.3 M sucrose concentration protocol: is it really the time to trash the cryopreservation machine? Fertil Steril 2012;97(5):1101–7.
Birkebaek N, Crüger D, Hansen J. Fertility and pregnancy outcome in Danish women with Turner syndrome. Clin Genet 2002;61:34–9.
Bodri D, Vernaeve V, Figueras F, et al. Oocyte donation in patients with Turner’s syndrome: a successful technique but with an accompanying high risk of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Hum Reprod 2006;21:829–32.
Boiso I, Mati M, Santalo J, et al. A confocal microscopy analysis of the spindle and chromosome configurations of human oocytes cryopreserved at the germinal vesicle and metaphase II stage. Hum Reprod 2002;17:1885–91.
Boissonnas CC, Davy C, Bornes M, et al. Careful cardiovascular screening and follow-up of women with Turner syndrome before and during pregnancy is necessary to prevent maternal mortality. Fertil Steril 2009;91(3):929.e5–7.
Boldt J, Cline D, McLaughlin D. Human oocyte cryopreservation as an adjunct to IVF-embryo transfer cycles. Hum Reprod 2003;18:1250–5.
Boldt J, Tidswell N, Sayers A, Kilani R, Cline D. Human oocyte cryopreservation: 5-year experience with a sodium-depleted slow freezing method. Reprod Biomed Online 2006;13:96–100.
Bondy CA. Turner Syndrome Study Group. Care of girls and women with Turner syndrome: a guideline of the Turner Syndrome Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92:10–25.
Borgstrom B, Hreinsson J, Rasmussen C, et al. Fertility preservation in girls with Turner syndrome: prognostic signs of the presence of ovarian follicles. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94(1):74–80.
Borini A, Bafaro MG, Bonu MA, et al. Pregnancies after oocyte freezing and thawing, preliminary data. Hum Reprod 1998;13:124–5.
Borini A, Bonu MA, Coticchio G, et al. Pregnancies and births after oocyte cryopreservation. Fertil Steril 2004;82(3):601–5.
Borini A, Lagalla C, Bonu MA, et al. Cumulative pregnancy rates resulting from the use of fresh and frozen oocytes: 7 years’ experience. Reprod Biomed Online 2006a;12:481–6.
Borini A, Sciajno R, Bianchi V, et al. Clinical outcome of oocyte cryopreservation after slow cooling with a protocol utilizing a high sucrose concentration. Hum Reprod 2006b;21:512–17.
Borini A, Bianchi V, Bonu MA, et al. Evidence-based clinical outcome of oocyte slow cooling. Reprod Biomed Online 2007a;15:175–81.
Borini A, Cattoli M, Mazzone S, et al. Survey of 105 babies born after slow cooling oocyte cryopreservation. Fertil Steril 2007b;88:S13.
Borini A, Levi Setti PE, Anserini P, et al. Multicenter observational study on slow-cooling oocyte cryopreservation: clinical outcome. Fertil Steril 2010;94(5):1662–8.
Brugger EC. “Other selves”: moral and legal proposals regarding the personhood of cryopreserved human embryos. Theor Med Bioeth 2009;30:105–29.
Bryman I, Sylvén L, Berntorp K, et al. Pregnancy rate and outcome in Swedish women with Turner syndrome. Fertil Steril 2011;95(8):2507–10.
Burks JL. Morphologic evaluation of frozen rabbit and human ova. Fertil Steril 1965;16:638–41.
Cabanes L, Chalas C, Christin-Maitre S, et al. Turner syndrome and pregnancy: clinical practice. Recommendations for the management of patients with Turner syndrome before and during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2010;152:18–24.
Cao YX, Chian RC. Fertility preservation with immature and in vitro matured oocytes. Semin Reprod Med 2009;27(6):456–64.
Cha KY, Koo JJ, Ko JJ, et al. Pregnancy after in vitro fertilization of human follicular oocytes collected from nonstimulated cycles, their culture in vitro and their transfer in donor oocyte program. Fertil Steril 1991;55:109–13.
Chamayou S, Alecci C, Ragolia C, et al. Comparison of in-vitro outcomes from cryopreserved oocytes and sibling fresh oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online 2006;12:730–6.
Chang CC. Two successful pregnancies obtained following oocyte vitrification and embryo re-vitrification. Reprod BioMed Online 2008;16(3):346–9.
Chang CC, Shapiro DB, Bernal DP, et al. Human oocyte vitrification: in-vivo and in-vitro maturation outcomes. Reprod Biomed Online 2008a;17(5):684–8.
Chang MC. Probability of normal development after transplantation of fertilized rabbit ova stored at different temperatures. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1948a;161:978.
Chang MC. Transplantation of fertilized rabbit ova: the effect on viability of age, in vitro storage period, and storage temperature. Nature 1948b;159:602.
Chang MC. Storage of unfertilized rabbit ova: subsequent fertilization and the probability of normal development. Nature 1953;172:353–4.
Chen C. Pregnancy after human oocyte cryopreservation. Lancet 1986;1:884–6.
Chen C. Pregnancies after human oocyte cryopreservation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1988;541:541–9.
Chen SU, Lien YR, Tsai YY, et al. Successful pregnancy occurred from slowly freezing human oocytes using the regime of 1.5 mol/l 1,2 propanediol with 0.3 mol/l sucrose. Hum Reprod 2002;17:1412–13.
Chen SU, Lien YR, Chen HF, et al. Observational clinical follow-up of oocyte cryopreservation using a slow freezing method with 1,2-propanediol plus sucrose followed by ICSI. Hum Reprod 2005;20:1975–80.
Chen ZJ, Li M, Li Y, et al . Effects of sucrose concentration on the developmental potential of human frozen-thawed oocytes at different stages of maturity. Hum Reprod 2004;19(10):2345–9.
Chia C, Chan W, Quah E, Cheng L. Triploid pregnancy after ICSI of frozen testicular spermatozoa into cryopreserved human oocytes. Case report. Hum Reprod 2000;15:1962–4.
Chian RC, Son WY, Huang JY, et al. High survival rates and pregnancies of human oocytes following vitrification: preliminary report. Fertil Steril 2005;84:S36.
Chian RC, Huang JY, Tan SL, et al. Obstetrics and perinatal outcome in 200 infants conceived from vitrified oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online 2008;16(5):608–10.
Chian RC, Gilbert L, Huang JYJ, et al. Live birth after vitrification of in vitro matured human oocytes. Fertil Steril 2009;91(2):372–6.
Choung CJ. Effects of cryopreservation on the viability and fertilizability of unfertilized hamster oocytes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986;155(6):1240–5.
Ciotti PM, Notarangelo L, Morrselli-Labate AM, et al. First polar body morphology is not related to embryo quality or pregnancy rate. Hum Reprod 2004;19(10):2334–9.
Ciotti PM, Porcu E, Notarangelo L, et al. Meiotic spindle recovery is faster in vitrification of human oocytes compared to slow freezing. Fertil Steril 2009;91(6):2399–407.
Cobo A, Rubio C, Gerli S, et al. Use of fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess the chromosomal status of embryos obtained from cryopreserved oocytes. Fertil Steril 2001;75:354–60.
Cobo A, Bellver J, Domingo J, et al. New options in assisted reproduction technology: the Cryotop method of oocyte vitrification. Reprod Biomed Online 2008a;17:68–72.
Cobo A, Domingo J, Perez S, et al. Vitrification: an effective new approach to oocyte banking and preserving fertility in cancer patients. Clin Transl Oncol 2008b;10:268–73.
Cobo A, Kuwayama M, Perez S, et al. Comparison of concomitant outcome achieved with fresh and cryopreserved donor oocytes vitrified by the Cryotop method. Fertil Steril 2008c;89:1657–64.
Cobo A, Perez S, Zulategui J, et al. Effect of different cryopreservation protocols on the metaphase II spindle in human oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online 2008d;17:350–9.
Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Age-related fertility decline: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril 2008;90(5 suppl):S154–5.
Coticchio G, De Santis L, Rossi G, et al. Sucrose concentration influences the rate of human oocytes with normal spindle and chromosome configurations after slow-cooling cryopreservation. Hum Reprod 2006;21(7):1771–6.
Critser JK. Cryopreservation of hamster oocytes: effects of vitrification or freezing on human sperm penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes. Fertil Steril 1986;46(2):277–84.
De Geyter M, Steimann S, Holzgreve W, De Geyter C. First delivery of healthy offspring after freezing and thawing of oocytes in Switzerland. Swiss Med Wkly 2007;137:443–7.
Demirtas E, Elizur SE, Holzer H, et al. Immature oocyte retrieval in the luteal phase to preserve fertility in women with cancer facing imminent gonadotoxic therapy: it is worth a try. Reprod Biomed Online 2008;17:520–3.
De Santis L, Cino I, Rabellotti E, et al. Oocyte cryopreservation: clinical outcome of slow-cooling protocols differing in sucrose concentration. Reprod Biomed Online 2006;14:57–63.
Diedrich K, Al-Hasani S, van der Ver H, Krebs D. Successful in vitro fertilization of frozen-thawed rabbit and human oocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1988;541:562–71.
Ding J, Rana N, Dmowski WP. Successful pregnancies after oocyte cryopreservation with slow-freezing method: a report of 3 cases. J Reprod Med 2008;53(10):813–20.
Doerr HG, Bettendorf M, Hauffa BP, et al. Uterine size in women with Turner syndrome after induction of puberty with estrogens and long-term growth hormone therapy: results of the German IGLU Follow-up Study 2001. Hum Reprod 2005;20:1418–21.
Doherty L, Pal L. Reproductive banking and older women. Maturitas 2011;70(1):3–4.
Donnez J, Dolmans M, Demylle D, et al. Livebirth after orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue. Lancet 2004;364:1405–10.
Dumoulin JCM, Bergers-Janssen JM, Pieters MH, et al. The protective effect of polymers in the cryopreservation of human and mouse zonae pellucidae and embryos. Fertil Steril 1994;62:793–8.
Ebner T, Moser M, Yaman C, et al. Elective transfer of embryos selected on the basis of first polar body morphology is associated with increased rates of implantation and pregnancy. Fertil Steril 1999;72:599–603.
Ebner T, Moser M, Sommergruber C, et al. First polar body morphology and blastocyst formation rate in ICSI patients. Hum Reprod 2002;17:2415–18.
Edwards RG. Maturation in vitro of human ovarian oocytes. Lancet 1965;2:926–9.
Eichenlaub-Ritter U, Schmiady H, Kentenich H, et al. Recurrent failure in polar body formation and premature chromosome condensation in oocytes from a human patient: indicators of asynchrony in nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation Hum Reprod 1995;10:2343–9.
Elizur SE, Beiner ME, Korach J, et al. Outcome of in vitro fertilization treatment in infertile women conservatively treated for endometrial adenocarcinoma. Fertil Steril 2007;88(6):1562–7.
El-Shawarby SA, Sharif AF, Conway G, Serhal P, Davies M. Oocyte cryopreservation after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in mosaic Turner syndrome: another fertility preservation option in a dedicated UK clinic. BJOG 2010;117(2):234–7.
Ezcurra D, Rangnow J, Craig M, Schertz J. The Human Oocyte Preservation Experience (HOPE) a phase IV, prospective, multicenter, observational oocyte cryopreservation registry. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2009;7:53.
Fabbri R, Porcu E, Marsella T, et al. Human oocyte cryopreservation: new perspectives regarding oocyte survival. Hum Reprod 2001;16:411–16.
Fasouliotis SJ, Davis O, Schattman G, et al. Safety and efficacy of infertility treatment after conservative management of borderline ovarian tumors: a preliminary report. Fertil Steril 2004;82(3):568–72.
Fortin A, Morice P, Thoury A, et al. Impact of infertility drugs after treatment of borderline ovarian tumors: results of a retrospective multicenter study. Fertil Steril 2007;87(3):591–6.
Fosas N, Marina F, Torres PJ, et al. The births of five Spanish babies from cryopreserved donated oocytes. Hum Reprod 2003;18:1417–21.
Foudila T, Soderstrom-Anttila V, Hovatta O. Turner’s syndrome and pregnancies after oocyte donation. Hum Reprod 1999;14:532–5.
Funaki K, Mikamo K. Giant diploid oocytes as a cause of digynic triploidy in mammals. Cytogenet Cell Genet 1980;28:158–68.
Gardner DK, Courtney BS, Rienzi L, Katz-Jaffe M, Larman MG. Analysis of oocyte physiology to improve cryopreservation procedures. Theriogenology 2007;67:64–72.
George MA, Pickering SJ, Braude PR, Johnson MH. The distribution of a- and g-tubulin in fresh and aged mouse and human oocytes exposed to cryoprotectant. Mol Hum Reprod 1996;2:445–56.
Glenister PH, Wood MJ, Kirby C, Whittingham DG. Incidence of chromosome anomalies in first-cleavage mouse embryos obtained from frozen-thawed oocytes fertilized in vitro. Gamete Res 1987;16:205–16.
Goodwin PJ, Ennis M, Pritchard KI, Trudeau M, Hood N. Risk of menopause during the first year after breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 1999;17(8):2365–70.
Gook DA, Edgar DH. Human oocyte cryopreservation. Hum Reprod Update 2007;13:591–605.
Gook D, Osborn SM, Johnston WI. Cryopreservation of mouse and human oocytes using 1,2 propanediol and the configuration of the meiotic spindle. Hum Reprod 1993;8:1101–9.
Gook D, Osborn SM, Bourne H, Johnston WI. Fertilization of human oocytes following cryopreservation; normal karyotypes and absence of stray chromosomes. Hum Reprod 1994;9:684–91.
Gook DA, Osborn SM, Johnston WI. Parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes following cryopreservation using 1,2-propanediol. Hum Reprod 1995a;10:654–8.
Gook D, Schiewe MC, Osborn SM, et al. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo development of human oocytes cryopreserved using 1,2-propanediol. Hum Reprod 1995b;10:2637–41.
Gook DA, Osborn SM, Archer J, Edgar DH, McBain J. Follicle development following cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004;113 (Suppl 1):S60–2.
Gook DA, Hale L, Edgar DH. Live birth following transfer of a cryopreserved embryo generated from a cryopreserved oocyte and a cryopreserved sperm: case report. J Assist Reprod Genet 2007a;24:43–5.
Goold I, Savulescu J. In favour of freezing eggs for non-medical reasons. Bioethics 2009;23(1):47–58
Gosden RG. Gonadal tissue cryopreservation and transplantation. Reprod Biomed Online 2002;4(Suppl 1):64–7.
Hadnott TN, Gould HN, Gharib AM, Bondy CA. Outcomes of spontaneous and assisted pregnancies in Turner syndrome: the US National Institute of Health experience. Fertil Steril 2011;95(7):2251–6.
Hagen CP, Aksglaede L, Sørensen K, et al. Serum levels of anti-Mullerian hormone as a marker of ovarian function in 926 healthy females from birth to adulthood and in 172 Turner syndrome patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:5003–10.
Hjerrild BE, Mortensen KH, Gravholt CH. Turner syndrome and clinical treatment. Br Med Bull 2008;86:77–93.
Hoffman JS, Laird L, Benadiva C, Dreiss R. In vitro fertilization following conservative management of stage 3 serous borderline tumor of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol 1999;74:515–18.
Hoffman DI, Zellman GL, Fair CC, et al. Cryopreserved embryos in the United States and their availability for research. Fertil Steril 2003;79:1063–9.
Hong SW, Chung HM, Lim JM, et al. Improved human oocyte development after vitrification: a comparison of thawing methods. Fertil Steril 1999;72(1):142–6.
Hreinsson JG, Otala M, Fridström M, et al. Follicles are found in the ovaries of adolescent girls with Turner’s syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:3618–23.
Huang JY, Buckett WM, Gilbert L, Tan SL, Chian RC. Retrieval of immature oocytes followed by in vitro maturation and vitrification: a case report on a new strategy of fertility preservation in women with borderline ovarian malignancy. Gynecol Oncol 2007a;105(2):542–4.
Huang JY, Chen HY, Park JY, Tan SL, Chian RC. Comparison of spindle and chromosome configuration in in vitro- and in vivo-matured mouse oocytes after vitrification. Fertil Steril 2007b;90(4 suppl):1424–32.
Huang JYJ, Tulandi T, Holzer H, et al. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue and in vitro matured oocytes in a female with mosaic Turner syndrome: case Report. Hum Reprod 2008a;23(2):336–9
Huang JY, Tulandi T, Holzer H, Tan SL, Chian RC. Combining ovarian tissue cryobanking with retrieval of immature oocytes followed by in vitro maturation and vitrification: an additional strategy of fertility preservation. Fertil Steril 2008b;89(3):567–72.
Huttelova R, Becvarova V, Brachtlova T. More successful oocyte freezing. J Assist Reprod Genet 2003;20(8):293.
Joly C, Bchini O, Boulekbache H, Testart J, Maro B. Effects of 1,2-propanediol on the cytoskeletal organisation of the mouse oocyte. Hum Reprod 1992;3:374–8.
Kahraman S, Yakin K, Donmez E, et al. Relationship between granular cytoplasm of oocytes and pregnancy outcome following intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum Reprod 2000;15:2390–3.
Katayama KP, Stehlik J, Kuwayama M, et al. High survival rate of vitrified human oocytes results in clinical pregnancy. Fertil Steril 2003;80:223–4.
Kazem R, Thompson LA, Srikantharajah A, et al. Cryopreservation of human oocytes and fertilization by two techniques: in-vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum Reprod 1995;10:2650–4.
Keefe D, Liu L, Wang W, Silva C. Imaging meiotic spindles by polarization light microscopy: principles and applications to IVF. Reprod Biomed Online 2003;4:24–9.
Khastgir G, Abdalla H, Thomas A, et al. Oocyte donation in Turner’s syndrome: an analysis of the factors affecting the outcome. Hum Reprod 1997;12(2):279–85.
Kim TJ, Hong SW, Park SE, Cha KY. Pregnancy after vitrification of human oocytes and blastocysts using same cryoprotectant solution, ethylene glycol and sucrose. Fertil Steril 2003;80:S143.
Kim T, Hong S, Cha K. Pregnancies from cryopreserved oocytes using vitrification protocol. Fertil Steril 2005;84(Suppl 1):S179.
King CR, Magenis E, Bennett S. Pregnancy and the Turner syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 1978;52(5):617–24.
Klock SC, Sheinin S, Kazer RR. The disposition of unused frozen embryos. N Engl J Med 2001;345:69–70.
Kola I, Kirby C, Shaw J, Davey A, Trounson A. Vitrification of mouse oocytes results in aneuploid zygotes and malformed fetuses. Teratology 1988;38:467–74.
Konc J, Kanyo K, Cseh S. Does oocyte cryopreservation have a future in Hungary? Reprod Biomed Online 2007;14:11–13.
Konc J, Kanyo K, Varga E, Kriston R, Cseh S. Oocyte cryopreservation: the birth of the first Hungarian babies from frozen oocytes. J Assist Reprod Genet 2008a;25:349–52.
Konc J, Kanyo K, Varga E, Kriston R, Cseh S. Births resulting from oocyte cryopreservation using a slow freezing protocol with propanediol and sucrose. Syst Biol Reprod Med 2008b;54(4–5):205–10.
Kuleshova L, Gianaroli L, Magli C, et al. Birth following vitrification of a small number of human oocytes: case report. Hum Reprod 1999;14:3077–9.
Kuwayama M. Highly efficient vitrification for cryopreservation of human oocytes and embryos: the Cryotop method. Theriogenology 2007;67(1):73–80.
Kuwayama M, Vajta G, Kato O, Leibo SP. Highly efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of human oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online 2005;11:300–8.
Kyono K, Fuchinoue K, Yagi A, et al. Successful pregnancy and delivery after transfer of a single blastocyst derived from a vitrified mature human oocyte. Fertil Steril 2005;84:1017.
Larman MG, Sheehan CB, Gardner DK. Calcium free vitrification reduces cryoprotectant-induced zona pellucida hardening and increases fertilization rates in mouse oocytes. Reproduction 2006;131:53–61
Larman MG, Katz-Jaffe MG, Sheehan CB, Gardner DK. 1,2-propanediol and the type of cryopreservation procedure adversely affect mouse oocyte physiology. Hum Reprod 2007a;22:250–9
Larman MG, Minasi MG, Rienzi L, Gardner DK. Maintenance of the meiotic spindle during vitrification in human and mouse oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online 2007b;15:692–700.
La Sala GB, Vicoli A, Villani MT, et al. Outcome of 518 salvage oocyte-cryopreservation cycles performed as a routine procedure in an in vitro fertilization program. Fertil Steril 2006;86:1423–7.
Lassalle B, Testart J, Renard JP. Human embryo features that influence the success of cryopreservation with the use of 1,2 propanediol. Fertil Steril 1985;44:645–51.
Lau NM, Huang JY, MacDonald S, et al. Feasibility of fertility preservation in young females with Turner syndrome. Reprod Biomed Online 2009;18:290–5.
Leader A. Pregnancy and motherhood: the biological clock. Sex Reprod Menopause 2006;4:3–6.
Lee SJ, Shover LR, Partridge AH, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations on fertility preservation in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 2006;24(18):1–15.
Lee DR, Yang YH, Eum JH, et al. Effect of using slush nitrogen (SN2) on development of microsurgically manipulated vitrified warmed mouse embryos. Hum Reprod 2007;22:2509–14.
Levi Setti PE, Albani E, Novara PV, Cesana A. Normal birth after transfer of cryopreserved human embryos generated by microinjection of cryopreserved testicular spermatozoa into cryopreserved human oocytes. Fertil Steril 2005;83(4):1041.
Levi Setti PE, Albani E, Novara PV, Cesana A, Morreale G. Cryopreservation of supernumerary oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Hum Reprod 2006;21:370–5.
Li XH, Chen SU, Zhang X, et al. Cryopreserved oocytes of infertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology could be an important source of oocyte donation: a clinical report of successful pregnancies. Hum Reprod 2005;20:3390–4.
Liebermann J, Tucker MJ. Comparison of vitrification and conventional cryopreservation of day 5 and day 6 blastocysts during clinical application. Fertil Steril 2006;86(1):20–6.
Longhi A, Porcu E, Petracchi S, et al. Reproductive functions in female patients treated with adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy for localized osteosarcoma of the extremity. Cancer 2000;89(9):1961–5.
Lucena E, Bernal DP, Lucena C, et al. Successful ongoing pregnancies after vitrification of oocytes. Fertil Steril 2006;85:108–11.
Magistrini M, Szollosi D. Effects of cold and of isopropyl-N-phenylcarbamate on the second meiotic spindle of mouse oocytes. Eur J Cell Biol 1980;22(2):699–707.
Mandelbaum J, Junca AM, Plachot M, et al. Cryopreservation of human embryos and oocytes. Hum Reprod 1988a;3:117–19.
Mandelbaum J, Junca AM, Tibi C, et al. Cryopreservation of immature and mature hamster and human oocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1988b;541:550–61.
Marcello MF, Nuciforo G, Romeo R, et al. Structural and ultrastructural study of the ovary in childhood leukemia after successful treatment. Cancer 1990; 66(10):2099–104.
Matorras R, Matorras F, Expósito A, Martinez L, Crisol L. Decline in human fertility rates with male age: a consequence of a decrease in male fecundity with aging? Gynecol Obstet Invest 2011;71(4):229–35.
Mazur P. Kinetics of water loss from cells at subzero temperatures and the likelihood of intracellular freezing. J Gen Physiol 1963;47:347–51.
Mazur P. Cryobiology; the freezing of biological systems. Science 1970;168:939–49.
Mazur P. Freezing of living cells: mechanisms and implications. Am J Physiol 1984;16:c125–42.
Mazur P. The freezing of living cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1988;9:514–31.
McVie JG. Cancer treatment: the last 25 years. Cancer Treat Rev 1999;25(6):323–31.
Meirow D. Reproduction post-chemotherapy in young cancer patients. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2000;169:123–31.
Meriano JS, Alexis J, Visram-Zaver S, et al. Tracking of oocyte dysmorphisms for ICSI patients may prove relevant to the outcome in subsequent patient cycle. Hum Reprod 2001;16:2118–23.
Mhatre P, Mhatre J. Orthotopic ovarian transplant–review and three surgical techniques. Pediatr Transplant 2006;10:782–7.
Miller KA, Elkind-Hirsch K, Levy B, et al. Pregnancy after cryopreservation of donor oocytes and preimplantation genetic diagnosis of embryos in a patient with ovarian failure. Fertil Steril 2004;82:211–14.
Montag M, van der Ven K, Dorn C, et al. Birth after double cryopreservation of human oocytes at metaphase II and pronuclear stages. Fertil Steril 2006;85:751.e5–e7.
Nawroth F, Kissing K. Pregnancy after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) of cryopreserved human oocytes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1998;77:462–3.
Newton CR, Fisher J, Feyles V, et al. Changes in patient preferences in the disposal of cryopreserved embryos. Hum Reprod 2007;22(12):3124–8.
Nicosia SV, Matus-Ridley M, Meadows AT. Gonadal effects of cancer therapy in girls. Cancer 1985;55(10):2364–72.
Nielsen J, Sillesen I, Hansen KB. Fertility in women with Turner’s syndrome. Case report and review of literature. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1979;86:833–5.
Nieto Y, Cagnoni PJ, Shpall EJ, et al. A predictive model for relapse in high-risk primary breast cancer patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplant. Clin Cancer Res 1999;5(11):3425–31.
Nikolaou D, Templeton A. Early ovarian ageing: a hypothesis – detection and clinical relevance. Hum Reprod 2003;18:1137–9
Notrica J, Kanzepolsky L, Divita A, Neuspiller F, Polak de Fried E. A healthy female born after ICSI of a cryopreserved oocyte and cryopreserved spermatozoa banked prior to radiotherapy in a patient with a seminoma: a case report. Fertil Steril 2003;80(Suppl 3):S149.
Nottola SA, Macchiarelli G, Coticchio G, et al. Ultrastructure of human oocytes after slow cooling cryopreservation using different sucrose concentrations. Hum Reprod 2007;22(4):1123–33.
Nottola SA, Coticchio G, De Santis L, et al. Ultrastructure of human mature oocytes after slow freezing cryopreservation using ethylene glycol. Reprod Biomed Online 2008;17(3):368–77.
Noyes N, Chang C, Liu H, et al. Presence of meiotic spindle predicts embryo competence following oocyte cryopreservation. Fertil Steril 2006;86:S2.
Noyes N, Porcu E, Borini A. Over 900 oocyte cryopreservation babies born with no apparent increase in congenital anomalies. Reprod Biomed Online 2009;18(6):769–76.
Okimura T, Kato K, Zhan Q, et al. Update on clinical efficiency of the vitrification method for human oocytes in an in vitro fertilization program. Fertil Steril 2005;84(Suppl 1):S174.
Oktay K. Further evidence on the safety and success of ovarian stimulation with letrozole and tamoxifen in breast cancer patients undergoing in vitro fertilization to cryopreserve their embryos for fertility preservation. Clin Oncol 2005;23(16):3858–9.
Oktay K, Sonmezer M. Ovarian tissue banking for cancer patients: fertility preservation, not just ovarian cryopreservation. Hum Reprod 2004;19(3):477–80.
Oktay K, Hourvitz A, Sahin G, et al. Letrozole reduces estrogen and gonadotropin exposure in women with breast cancer undergoing ovarian stimulation before chemotherapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91(10):3885–90.
Oktay K, Demirtas E, Son WY, et al. In vitro maturation of germinal vesicle oocytes recovered after premature luteinizing hormone surge: description of a novel approach to fertility preservation. Fertil Steril 2008;89:228.e19–22.
Oktay K, Rodriguez-Wallberg KA, Sahin G. Fertility preservation by ovarian stimulation and oocyte cryopreservation in a 14-year-old adolescent with Turner syndrome mosaicism and impending premature ovarian failure. Fertil Steril 2010;94:753.e15–19.
Oldenbourg R. A new view on polarization microscopy. Nature 1996;381:811–12.
Pal L, Leykin L, Schifren JL, et al. Malignancy may adversely influence the quality and behaviour of oocytes. Hum Reprod 1998;13(7):1837–40.
Park CW, Yang KM, Kim HO, et al. Outcomes of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation/in vitro fertilization for infertile patients with borderline ovarian tumor after conservative treatment. J Korean Med Sci. 2007;22 (Suppl):S134–8.
Park SE, Son WY, Lee SH, et al. Chromosome and spindle configurations of human oocytes matured in vitro after cryopreservation at the germinal vesicle stage. Fertil Steril 1997;68(5):920–6.
Parkening TA, Tsunoda Y, Chang MC. Effects of various low temperatures, cryoprotective agents and cooling rates on the survival, fertilizability and development of frozen–thawed mouse eggs. J Exp Zool 1976;197(3):369–74.
Parmegiani L, Cogniti GE, Bernardi S, et al. Freezing within 2 h from oocyte retrieval increases the efficiency of human oocyte cryopreservation when using a slow freezing/rapid thawing protocol with high sucrose concentration. Hum Reprod 2008;12:1–7.
Pasquino AM, Passeri F, Pucarelli I, Segni M, Municchi G. Spontaneous pubertal development in Turner’s syndrome. Italian Study Group for Turner’s syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82(6):1810–13.
Paynter SJ, Borini A, Bianchi V, et al. Volume changes of mature human oocytes on exposure to cryoprotectant solution used in slow cooling procedures. Hum Reprod 2005;20(5):1194–9.
Pelletier C, Keefe DL, Trimarchi JR. Noninvasive polarized light microscopy quantitatively distinguishes the multilaminar structure of the zona pellucida of living human eggs and embryos. Fertil Steril 2004;81(Suppl 1):850–6.
Pennings G. The validity of contracts to dispose of frozen embryos. J Med Ethics 2002;28:295–8.
Pensis M, Loumaye E, Psalti I. Screening of conditions for rapid freezing of human oocytes: preliminary study toward their cryopreservation. Fertil Steril 1989;52:787–94.
Pickering SJ, Johnson MH. The influence of cooling on the organization of the meiotic spindle of the mouse oocyte. Hum Reprod 1987;2(3):207–16.
Pickering SJ, Braude PR, Johnson MH, Cant A, Currie J. Transient cooling to room temperature can cause irreversible disruption to the meiotic spindle in human oocytes. Fertil Steril 1990;54:102–8.
Pinto AB, Gopal M, Herzog TJ, Pfeifer JD, Williams DB. Successful in vitro fertilization pregnancy after conservative management of endometrial cancer. Fertil Steril 2001;76(4):826–9.
Polak de Fried E, Notrica J, Rubinstein M, Marazzi A, Gómez Gonzalez M. Pregnancy after human donor oocyte cryopreservation and thawing in association with intracytoplasmic sperm injection in a patient with ovarian failure. Fertil Steril 1998;69:555–7.
Porcu E. Cryopreservation of oocytes: indications, risks and outcomes. Hum Reprod 2005;20(Suppl 1):50.
Porcu E, Fabbri R, Seracchioli R, et al. Birth of a healthy female after intracytoplasmic sperm injection of cryopreserved human oocytes. Fertil Steril 1997;68:724–6.
Porcu E, Fabbri R, Seracchioli R, et al. Birth of six healthy children after intracytoplasmic sperm injection of cryopreserved human oocytes. Hum Reprod 1998;13:124.
Porcu E, Fabbri R, Ciotti PM, et al. Ongoing pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection of epididymal spermatozoa into cryopreserved human oocytes. J Assist Reprod Genet 1999a;16:283–5.
Porcu E, Fabbri R, Petracchi S, Ciotti PM, Flamingni C. Ongoing pregnancy after intracytoplasmic injection of testicular spermatozoa into cryopreserved human oocytes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999b;180:1044–5.
Porcu E, Fabbri R, Marsella T, et al. Clinical experience and application of oocyte cryopreservation. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2000a;169:33–7.
Porcu E, Fabbri R, Seracchioli R, et al. Obstetric, perinatal outcome and follow up of children conceived from cryopreserved oocytes. Fertil Steril 2000b;74(Suppl 1):S48.
Porcu E, Fabbri R, Ciotti P, et al. Four healthy children from frozen human oocytes and frozen human sperms. Fertil Steril 2001;76(Suppl 1):S76.
Porcu E, Fabbri R, Ciotti P, et al. Oocytes or embryo storage. Fertil Steril 2002;78(Suppl 1):S15.
Porcu E, Fabbri R, Damiano G, et al. Oocyte cryopreservation in oncological patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004;113(Suppl 1):S14–16.
Porcu E, Venturoli S, Damiano G, et al. Healthy twins delivered after oocyte cryopreservation and bilateral ovariectomy for ovarian cancer. Reprod Biomed Online 2008;17:267–9.
Purushothaman R, Lazareva O, Oktay K, Ten S. Markers of ovarian reserve in young girls with Turner’s syndrome. Fertil Steril 2010;94(4):1557–9.
Quintans CJ, Donaldson MJ, Bertolino MV, Godoy H, Pasqualini RS. Birth of a healthy baby after transfer of embryos that were cryopreserved for 8.9 years. Fertil Steril 2002;77(5):1074–6.
Rall WF, Fahy GM. Ice-free cryopreservation of mouse embryos at −196 degrees C by vitrification. Nature 1985;313:573–5.
Renard JP, Babinet C. High survival of mouse embryos after rapid freezing and thawing inside plastic straws with 1,2 propanediol as cryoprotectant. J Exp Zool 1984;230(3):443–8.
Requena A, Herrero J, Landeras J, et al. Use of letrozole in assisted reproduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update 2008;14:571–82.
Rienzi L, Martinez F, Ubaldi F, et al. Polscope analysis of meiotic spindle changes in living metaphase II human oocytes during the freezing and thawing procedures. Hum Reprod 2004;19:655–9.
Risco R, Elmoazzen H, Doughty M, Xiaoming H, Toner M. Thermal performance of quartz capillary for vitrification. Cryobiology 2007;55:222–9.
Ruvalcaba L, Marínez R, Cuneo S, et al. Improving donor programs with an oocyte bank using vitrification. Fertil Steril 2005;84(Suppl 1):S70.
Sànchez-Serrano M, Crespo J, Mirabet V, et al. Twins born after transplantation of ovarian cortical tissue and oocyte vitrification. Fertil Steril 2010;93:268.e11–13.
Sathananthan AH, Trounson A, Freemann L, Brady T. The effects of cooling human oocytes. Hum Reprod 1988;3:968–77.
Selman H, Angelini A, Barnocchi N, et al. Ongoing pregnancies after vitrification of human oocytes using a combined solution of ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide. Fertil Steril 2006;86:997–1000.
Sherman JK. Temperature shock and cold-storage of unfertilized mouse eggs. Fertil Steril 1959;10:384–96.
Sherman JK, Lin TP. Effect of glycerol and low temperature on survival of unfertilized mouse eggs. Nature 1958;181:785–6.
Smith GD, Fioravanti J, Hassun PA, et al. Prospective randomized controlled study of human oocyte cryopreservation by slow-rate freezing and/or vitrification. Fertil Steril 2006;86(Suppl 2):S96.
Smith GD, Serafini PC, Fioravanti J, et al. Prospective randomized comparison of human oocyte cryopreservation with slow-rate freezing or vitrification. Fertil Steril 2010;94(6):2088–95.
Smitz JEJ, Thompson JG, Gilchrist RB. The promise of in vitro maturation in assisted reproduction and fertility preservation. Semin Reprod Med 2011;29(1):24–37.
Son WY, Park SE, Lee KA, et al. Effects of 1,2-propanediol and freezing on the in vitro developmental capacity of human immature oocytes. Fertil Steril 1996;66:996–9.
Stoop D, Nekkebroeck J, Devroey P. A survey on the intentions and attitudes towards oocyte cryopreservation for non-medical reasons among women of reproductive age. Hum Reprod 2011;26(3):655–61.
Stachecki JJ, Cohen J, Willadsen S. Detrimental effects of sodium during mouse oocyte cryopreservation. Biol Reprod 1998;59:395–400.
Swapp GH, Johnston AW, Watt JL, Couzin DA, Stephen GS. A fertile woman with non-mosaic Turner’s syndrome. Case report and review of the literature. J Obstet Gynaecol 1989;96(7):876–80.
Tarani L, Lampariello S, Raguso G, et al. Pregnancy in patients with Turner’s syndrome: six new cases and review of literature. Gynecol Endocrinol 1998;12:83–7.
The Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility preservation and reproduction in cancer patients. Fertil Steril 2005;83(6):1622–8.
Tjer GC, Chiu TT, Cheung LP, Lok IH, Haines CJ. Birth of a healthy baby after transfer of blastocysts derived from cryopreserved human oocytes fertilized with frozen spermatozoa. Fertil Steril 2005;83:1547–9.
Toth TL, Baka SG, Veeck LL, et al. Fertilization and in vitro development of cryopreserved human prophase I oocytes. Fertil Steril 1994;61:891–4.
Trounson A. Preservation of human eggs and embryos. Fertil Steril 1986;46:1–12.
Trounson A, Mohr L. Human pregnancy following cryopreservation, thawing and transfer of an eight-cell embryo. Nature 1983;305:707–9.
Tucker M, Wright G, Morton P, et al. Preliminary experience with human oocyte cryopreservation using 1,2-propanediol and sucrose. Hum Reprod 1996;11:1513–15.
Tucker MJ, Wright G, Morton PC, Massey JB. Birth after cryopreservation of immature oocytes with subsequent in vitro maturation. Fertil Steril 1998a;70:578–9.
Tucker MJ, Morton PC, Wright G, Sweitzer CL, Massey JB. Clinical application of human egg cryopreservation. Hum Reprod 1998b;13(11):3156–9.
UK Office for the National Statistics. Who is having babies? Office for National Statistics Statistical Bulletin 2008:1–11.
Van Blerkom J, Davis PW. Cytogenetic, cellular, and developmental consequences of cryopreservation of immature and mature mouse and human oocytes. Microsc Res Tech 1994;27:165–93.
Van Der Elst J, Van Den Abbeel E, Nerinckx S, Van Steirteghem A. A parthenogenetic activation pattern and microtubular organization of the mouse oocyte after exposure to 1,2-propanediol. Cryobiology 1992;29:549–62.
Van Uem JF, Siebzehnrubl ER, Schuh B, et al. Birth after cryopreservation of unfertilised oocytes. Lancet 1987;1:752–3.
Vincent C, Garnier V, Heyman Y, Renard JP. Solvent effects on cytoskeletal organization and in-vivo survival after freezing of rabbit oocytes. J Reprod Fertil 1989;87:809–20.
Virant-Klun I, Bacer-Kermavner LB, Tomazevic T, Vrtacnik-Bokal E. Slow oocyte freezing and thawing in couples with no sperm or an insufficient number of sperm on the day of in vitro fertilization. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2011;9:19.
Wallace WH, Anderson RA, Irvine DS. Fertility preservation for young patiens with cancer: who is at risk and what can be offered? Lancet Oncol 2005;6:209–18.
Wang WH, Meng L, Hackett RJ, Oldenbourg R, Keefe DL. Limited recovery of meiotic spindles in living human oocytes after cooling-rewarming observed using polarized light microscopy. Hum Reprod 2001;16:2374–8.
Wennerholm UB, Söderström-Anttila V, Bergh C, et al. Children born after cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes: a systematic review of outcome data. Hum Reprod 2009;24(9):2158–72.
Whittingham DG. Fertilization in vitro and development to term of unfertilized mouse oocytes previously stored at −196 degrees C. J Reprod Fertil 1977;49:89–94.
Whittingham DG, Leibo SP, Mazur P. Survival of mouse embryos frozen to −196 degrees and −269 degrees C. Science 1972;178:411–14.
Winslow K, Yang D, Blohm P, et al. Oocyte cryopreservation /a three year follow up of sixteen births. Fertil Steril 2001;76(Suppl 1):S120–1.
Wu J, Zhang L, Wang X. In vitro maturation, fertilization and embryo development after ultrarapid freezing of immature human oocytes. Reproduction 2001;121:389–93.
Wurfel W, Schleyer M, Krusmann G, Hertwig IV, Fiedler K. Fertilization of cryopreserved and thawed human oocytes (Cryo-Oo) by injection of spermatozoa (ICSI)–medical management of sterility and case report of a twin pregnancy. Zentralbl Gynakol 1999;121:444–8.
Yang D, Blohm P, Winslow K, Cramer L. A twin pregnancy after microinjection of human cryopreserved oocyte with a specially developed oocyte cryopreservation regime. Fertil Steril 1998;70(Suppl 1):S239.
Yang D, Winslow K, Blohm P, et al. Oocyte donation using cryopreserved donor oocytes. Fertil Steril 2002;78(Suppl 1):S14.
Yang D, Brown SE, Nguyen K, et al. Live birth after the transfer of human embryos developed from cryopreserved oocytes harvested before cancer treatment. Fertil Steril 2007;87:1469.e1–4.
Yarali H, Bozdag G, Aksu T, Ayhan A. A successful pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer in a patient with endometrial cancer who was treated conservatively. Fertil Steril 2004;81(1):214–16.
Yaron Y, Ochshorn Y, Amit A, et al. Patients with Turner’s syndrome may have an inherent endometrial abnormality affecting receptivity in oocyte donation. Fertil Steril 1996;65:1249–52.
Yoon TK, Kim TJ, Park SE, et al. Live births after vitrification of oocytes in a stimulated in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer program. Fertil Steril 2003;79:1323–6.
Yoon TK, Lee DR, Cha SK, et al. Survival rate of human oocytes and pregnancy outcome after vitrification using slush nitrogen in assisted reproductive technologies. Fertil Steril 2007;88:925–6.
Young E, Kenny A, Puigdomenech E, et al. Triplet pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection of cryopreserved oocytes: case report. Fertil Steril 1998;70:360–1.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.