Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: April 2016

8 - Color vision changes in normal aging

from Part III - Development of and differences in color vision
Balazsi, A. G., Rootman, J., Drance, S. M., Schulzer, M., and Douglas, G. R. (1984). The effect of age on the nerve fiber population of the human optic nerve. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 97, 760–6.
Barbur, J. L., Harlow, J. A., and Williams, C. (1997). Light scattered in the eye and its effect on the measurement of the colour constancy index. In Cavonius, C. R. (ed.), Colour Vision Deficiencies XIII (pp. 439–48). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
Barbur, J. L., Konstantakopoulou, E., Rodriguez-Carmona, M., Harlow, J. A. Robson, A. G., and Moreland, J. D. (2010). The Macular Assessment Profile Test – a new VDU-based technique for measuring the spatial distribution of the macular pigment, lens density and rapid flicker sensitivity. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 30, 470–83.
Barbur, J. L., and Rodriguez-Carmona, M. (2012). Variability in normal and defective colour vision: consequences for occupational environments. In Best, J. (ed.), Colour Design (pp. 2482). Cambridge: Woodhead.
Barbur, J. L., Rodriguez-Carmona, M., and Harlow, J. A. (2006). Establishing the statistical limits of “normal” chromatic sensitivity. Ottawa: CIE Publication x030:2006.
Barbur, J. L., Rodriguez-Carmona, M., and Morgan, M. J. (2002). “Double-blindsight” in human vision. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 43, E-abstract 3909.
Birch, J. (2008). Performance of colour-deficient people on the Holmes–Wright lantern (type A): consistency of occupational colour vision standards in aviation. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 28, 253–8.
Birch, J., Barbur, J. L., and Harlow, J. A. (1992). New method based on random luminance masking for measuring isochromatic zones using high resolution colour displays. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 12, 133–6.
Bronson-Castain, K. W., Bearse, M. A. Jr., Neuville, J., et al. (2012). Early neural and vascular changes in the adolescent type 1 and type 2 diabetic retina. Retina, 32, 92102.
Calkins, D. J. (2013). Age-related changes in the visual pathways: blame it on the axon. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 54, ORSF3741.
Chaparro, A., Stromeyer, C. F. III, Huang, E. P., Kronauer, R. E., and Eskew, R. T. (1993). Colour is what the eye sees best. Nature, 361, 348–50.
Chylack, L. T. Jr., Wolfe, J. K., and Friend, J., et al. (1993). Quantitating cataract and nuclear brunescence, the Harvard and LOCS systems. Optometry and Vision Science, 70, 886–95.
Cranwell, M. B., Pearce, B., Loveridge, C., and Hurlbert, A. (2013). Performance on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test is significantly related to non-verbal IQ. Poster presented at the 23rd Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, 14–17 July, Winchester, UK.
Curcio, C. A., and Drucker, D. N. (1993). Retinal ganglion cells in Alzheimer’s disease and aging. Annals of Neurology, 33, 248–57.
Curcio, C. A., Millican, C. L., Allen, K. A., and Kalina, R. E. (1993). Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 34, 3278–96.
Enoch, J. M., and Werner, J. S., Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G., Lakshminarayanan, V., Rynders, M. (1999). Forever young: visual functions not affected or minimally affected by aging: a review. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 54, B336–51.
Feitosa-Santana, C., Paramei, G. V., Nishi, M., Gualtieri, M., Costa, M. F., and Ventura, D. F. (2010). Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 30, 717–23.
Graven, S. N. (2004). Early neurosensory visual development of the fetus and newborn. Clinics in Perinatology, 31, 199216.
Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G., Schneck, M. E., and Brabyn, J. A. (1999). Seeing into old age: vision function beyond acuity. Optometry and Vision Science, 76, 141–58.
Harrison, W. W., Chang, A., and Cardenas, M. G., et al. (2012). Blood pressure, vessel caliber, and retinal thickness in diabetes. Optometry and Vision Science, 89, 1715–20.
Haug, H., Kuhl, S., Mecke, E., Sass, N. L., and Wasner, K. (1984). The significance of morphometric procedures in the investigation of age changes in cytoarchitectonic structures of human brain. Journal für Hirnforschung, 25, 353–74.
Hirata, Y., and Nishiwaki, H. (2006). The choroidal circulation assessed by laser-targeted angiography. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 25, 129–47.
Hofer, H., Carroll, J., Neitz, J., Neitz, M., and Williams, D. R. (2005). Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 9669–79.
Hurlbert, A., Loveridge, C., Ling, Y., Kourkoulou, A., and Leekam, S. (2011). Color discrimination and preference in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Vision, 11, 429.
Johnson, B. M., Miao, M., and Sadun, A. A. (1989). Age-related decline of human optic nerve axon populations. Age, 10, 59.
Jonas, J. B., Muller-Bergh, J. A., Schlotzer-Schrehardt, U. M., and Naumann, G. O. (1990). Histomorphometry of the human optic nerve. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 31, 736–44.
Jonas, J. B., Schmidt, A. M., Muller-Bergh, J. A., Schlotzer-Schrehardt, U. M., and Naumann, G. O. (1992). Human optic nerve fiber count and optic disc size. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 33, 2012–18.
Kinnear, P. R. (1970). Proposals for scoring and assessing the 100-hue test. Vision Research, 10, 423–33.
Kinnear, P. R., and Sahraie, A. (2002). New Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5–22 and for age decades 30–70. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 86, 1408–11.
Knoblauch, K., Barbur, J. L., and Vital-Durand, F. (1995). Development and aging of chromatic sensitivity. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 36(4), S910.
Knoblauch, K., Saunders, F., and Kusuda, M., et al. (1987). Age and illuminance effects in the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test. Applied Optics, 26, 1441–8.
Knoblauch, K., Vital-Durand, F., and Barbur, J. L. (2001). Variation of chromatic sensitivity across the life span. Vision Research, 41, 2336.
Koenker, R. (1981). A note on studentizing a test for heteroscedasticity. Journal of Econometrics, 17(1), 107–12.
Marvasti, A. H., Tatham, A. J., and Zangwill, L. M., et al. (2013). The relationship between visual field index and estimated number of retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma. PLoS ONE, 8, e76590.
Neitz, M., Carroll, J., Renner, A., Knau, H., Werner, J. S., and Neitz, J. (2004). Variety of genotypes in males diagnosed as dichromatic on a conventional clinical anomaloscope. Vision Neuroscience, 21, 205–16.
Neitz, J., and Neitz, M. (2011). The genetics of normal and defective color vision. Vision Research, 51, 633–51.
Neufeld, A. H., and Gachie, E. N. (2003). The inherent, age-dependent loss of retinal ganglion cells is related to the lifespan of the species. Neurobiology of Aging, 24, 167–72.
Owsley, C. (2011). Aging and vision. Vision Research, 51, 1610–22.
Panda-Jonas, S., Jonas, J. B., and Jakobczyk-Zmija, M. (1996). Retinal pigment epithelial cell count, distribution, and correlations in normal human eyes. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 121, 181–9.
Paramei, G. V., and Oakley, B. (2014). Variation of color discrimination across the life span. Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision, 31, A37584.
Peters, A., Moss, M. B., and Sethares, C. (2000). Effects of aging on myelinated nerve fibers in monkey primary visual cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurolology, 419, 364–76.
Peters, A., Moss, M. B., and Sethares, C. (2001). The effects of aging on layer 1 of primary visual cortex in the rhesus monkey. Cerebral Cortex, 11, 93103.
Peters, A., Sethares, C., and Moss, M. B. (2010). How the primate fornix is affected by age. Journal of Comparative Neurolology, 518, 3962–80.
Rauscher, F. G., Chisholm, C. M., Edgar, D. F., and Barbur, J. L. (2013). Assessment of novel binocular colour, motion and contrast tests in glaucoma. Cell and Tissue Research, 353, 297310.
Regan, B. C., Reffin, J. P., and Mollon, J. D. (1994). Luminance noise and the rapid determination of discrimination ellipses in colour deficiency. Vision Research, 34, 1279–99.
Repka, M. X., and Quigley, H. A. (1989). The effect of age on normal human optic nerve fiber number and diameter. Ophthalmology, 96, 2632.
Rodriguez-Carmona, M., Harlow, J. A., Walker, G., and Barbur, J. L. (2005). The variability of normal trichromatic vision and the establishment of the “normal” range. Proceedings of 10th Congress of the International Colour Association (Granada), pp. 979–82.
Rodriguez-Carmona, M., Kvansakul, J., Harlow, J. A., Kopcke, W., Schalch, W., and Barbur, J. L. (2006). The effects of supplementation with lutein and/or zeaxanthin on human macular pigment density and colour vision. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 26, 137–47.
Rodriguez-Carmona, M., O’Neill-Biba, M., and Barbur, J. L. (2012). Assessing the severity of color vision loss with implications for aviation and other occupational environments. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 83, 1929.
Roorda, A., and Williams, D. R. (1999). The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye. Nature, 397, 520–2.
Squire, T. J., Rodriguez-Carmona, M., Evans, A. D., and Barbur, J. L. (2005). Color vision tests for aviation: comparison of the anomaloscope and three lantern types. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 76, 421–9.
Tam, J., Dhamdhere, K. P., Tiruveedhula, P., et al. (2012). Subclinical capillary changes in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Optometry and Vision Science, 89, E692703.
Tatham, A. J., Meira-Freitas, D., Weinreb, R. N., Marvasti, A. H., Zangwill, L. M., and Medeiros, F. A. (2014). Estimation of retinal ganglion cell loss in glaucomatous eyes with a relative afferent pupillary defect. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 55, 513–22.
Tucker, T. R., and Fitzpatrick, D. (2004). Contributions of vertical and horizontal circuits to the response properties of neurons in primary visual cortex. In Chalupa, L. M. and Wertheim, A. H. (eds.), The Visual Neurosciences (pp. 733–46). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Verriest, G. (1963). Further studies on acquired deficiency of color discrimination. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 53, 185–95.
Vincent, S. L., Peters, A., and Tigges, J. (1989). Effects of aging on the neurons within area 17 of rhesus monkey cerebral cortex. Anatomical Record, 223, 329–41.
Vital-Durand, F. (1996). An acuity cards cookbook. Strabismus, 4, 8997.
Werner, J. S., Delahunt, P. B., and Hardy, J. L. (2004). Chromatic-spatial vision of the aging eye. Optical Review, 11, 226–34.
Werner, J. S., Peterzell, D. H., and Scheetz, A. J. (1990). Light, vision, and aging. Optometry and Vision Science, 67, 214–29.
Werner, J. S., and Steele, V. G. (1988). Sensitivity of human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span. Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision, 5, 2122–30.
Wong, R., Khan, J., Adewoyin, T., Sivaprasad, S., Arden, G. B., and Chong, V. (2008). The ChromaTest, a digital color contrast sensitivity analyzer, for diabetic maculopathy: a pilot study. BMC Ophthalmology, 8(15).