Alberts, W., and van der Geest, T. M. (2011). Color matters: color as trustworthiness cue in websites. Technical Communication, 58, 149–60.
Allen, M. S., and Jones, M. V. (2014). The home advantage over the first 20 seasons of the English Premier League: effects of shirt colour, team ability and time trends. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12, 10–18.
Andersson, M. (1994). Sexual Selection. Princeton University Press.
Archer, J. (2006). Testosterone and human aggression: an evaluation of the challenge hypothesis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 319–45.
Aslam, M. M. (2006). Are you selling the right colour? A cross-cultural review of colour as a marketing cue. Journal of Marketing Communications, 12, 15–30.
Attrill, M. J., Gresty, K. A., Hill, R. A., and Barton, R. A. (2008). Red shirt colour is associated with long-term team success in English football. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26, 577–82.
Bamford, S., and Ward, R. (2008). Predispositions to approach and avoid are contextually sensitive and goal dependent. Emotion, 8, 174–83.
Barton, R. A., and Hill, R. A. (2005). Sporting contests: seeing red? Putting sportswear in context (reply). Nature, 437, E10–11.
Bazire, M., and Brézillon, P. (2005). Understanding context before using it. In Dey, A., Kokinov, B., Leake, D., and Turner, R. (eds.), Context, (pp. 29–40). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Bergman, T. J., Ho., L., and Beehner, J. C. (2009). Chest color and social status in male geladas (Theropithecus gelada). International Journal of Primatology, 30, 791–806.
Bertrams, A., Baumeister, R. F., Englert, C., and Furley, P. (2015). Ego depletion in color priming research: self-control strength moderates the detrimental effect of red on cognitive test performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41, 311–22.
Borade, A. B., Bansod, S. V., and Gandhewar, V. R. (2008). Hazard perception based on safety words and colors: an Indian perspective. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 14, 407–16.
Bottomley, P. A., and Doyle, J. R. (2006). The interactive effects of colors and products on perceptions of brand logo appropriateness. Marketing Theory, 6, 63–83.
Bruno, N., Martani, M., Corsini, C., and Oleari, C. (2013). The effect of the color red on consuming food does not depend on achromatic (Michelson) contrast and extends to rubbing cream on the skin. Appetite, 71, 307–13.
Buiks, T. J. M. (2013). The Influence of Background Color and Type of Graph on Information Retrieval from Graphs. MA thesis, Tilburg University.
Cacioppo, J. T., Gardner, W. L., and Berntson, G. G. (1999). The affect system has parallel and integrative processing components: form follows function. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 839–55.
Caldwell, D. F., and Burger, J. M. (2011). On thin ice: does uniform color really affect aggression in professional hockey? Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2, 306–10.
Changizi, M. A. (2009). The Color Revolution: How the Latest Research Overturns Everything We Thought We Knew About Human Vision. Dallas, TX: BenBalla Books.
Changizi, M. A., Zhang, Q., and Shimojo, S. (2006). Bare skin, blood and the evolution of primate colour vision. Biological Letters, 2, 217–21.
Chebat, J. C., and Morrin, M. (2007). Colors and cultures: exploring the effects of mall décor on consumer perceptions. Journal of Business Research, 60, 189–96.
Chien, Y. H. (2011a). Message framing and color combination in the perception of medical information. Psychological Reports, 108, 667–72.
Chien, Y. H. (2011b). Use of message framing and color in vaccine information to increase willingness to be vaccinated. Social Behavior and Personality, 39, 1063–72.
Clary, R., and Wandersee, J., and Schexnayder, E. (2007). Does the color-coding of examination versions affect college science students’ test performance? Counter claims of bias. Journal of College Science Teaching, 37, 40–7.
Cohn, J. (1894). Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Gefühlsbetonung der Farben, Helligkeiten und ihrer Kombinationen [Experimental investigation of the emotional effect of color, lightness, and their combinations]. Philosophische Studien, 10, 562–603.
Covington, M. V. (1992). Making the Grade: A Self-Worth Perspective on Motivation and School Reform. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cuthill, I. C., Hunt, S., Cleary, C., and Clark, C. (1997). Colour bands, dominance, and body mass regulation in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 264, 1093–9.
Darwin, C. (1874). The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, 2nd edn. London: John Murray.
Derryberry, D., and Reed, M. A. (1998). Anxiety and attentional focusing: trait, state, and hemispheric influences. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 745–61.
Diehl, J. J., Wolf, J., Herlihy, L., and Moller, A. C. (2011). Seeing red: color selection as an indicator of implicit social conceptions about the autism spectrum. Disability Studies Quarterly, 31, 1–14.
Dijkstra, P. D., and Preenen, P. T. (2008). No effect of blue on winning contests in judo. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 275, 1157–62.
Dreiskaemper, D., Strauss, B., Hagemann, N., and Büsch, D. (2013). Influence of red jersey color on physical parameters in combat sports. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 35, 44–9.
Drummond, P. D. (1997). Correlates of facial flushing and pallor in anger-provoking situations. Personality and Individual Differences, 23, 575–82.
Dukes, R. L., and Albanesi, H. (2013). Seeing red: quality of an essay, color of the grading pen and student reactions to the grading process. Social Science Journal, 50, 96–100.
Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 149–69.
Elliot, A. J. (2015). Color and psychological functioning: a review of theoretical and empirical work. Frontiers of Psychology, 6(368).
Elliot, A. J., and Church, M. A. (2003). A motivational analysis of defensive pessimism and self-handicapping. Journal of Personality, 71, 369–96.
Elliot, A. J., and Maier, M. A. (2012). Color-in-context theory. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 61–125.
Elliot, A. J., and Maier, M. A. (2014). Color psychology: effects of perceiving color on psychological functioning in humans. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 95–120.
Elliot, A. J., Maier, M. A., Binser, M. J., Friedman, R., and Pekrun, R. (2009). The effect of red on avoidance behavior in achievement contexts. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 365–75.
Elliot, A. J., Maier, M. A., Moller, A. C., Friedman, R., and Meinhardt, J. (2007). Color and psychological functioning: the effect of red on performance attainment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 154–68.
Elliot, A. J., and Niesta, D. (2008). Romantic red: red enhances men’s attraction to women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1150–64.
Elliot, A. J., Payen, V., Brisswalter, J., Cury, F., and Thayer, J. F. (2011). A subtle threat cue, heart rate variability, and cognitive performance. Psychophysiology, 48, 1340–5.
Ellis, H. (1900). The psychology of red. Popular Science Monthly, 57, 365–75.
Eysenck, M. W., Derakshan, N., Santos, R., and Calvo, M. G. (2007). Anxiety and cognitive performance: attentional control theory. Emotion, 7, 336–53.
Farrelly, D., Slater, R., Elliott, H. R., Walden, H. R., and Wetherell, M. A. (2013). Competitors who choose to be red have higher testosterone levels. Psychological Science, 24, 2122–4.
Feldman Barrett, L., Mesquita, B., and Smith, E. R. (2010). The context principle. In Mesquita, B., Barrett, L. F., and Smith, E. R. (eds.), The Mind in Context (pp. 1–22). New York: Guilford Press.
Feltman, R., and Elliot, A. J. (2011). The influence of red on perceptions of dominance and threat in a competitive context. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33, 308–14.
Fink, B., Grammer, K., and Matts, P. J. (2006). Visible skin color distribution plays a role in the perception of age, attractiveness, and health in female faces. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 433–42.
Fordham, D. R., and Hayes, D. C. (2009). Worth repeating: paper color may have an effect on student performance. Issues in Accounting Education, 24, 187–94.
Funk, D., and Ndubisi, N. O. (2006). Colour and product choice: a study of gender roles. Management Research News, 29, 41–52.
Furley, P., Dicks, M., and Memmert, D. (2012). Nonverbal behavior in soccer: the influence of dominant and submissive body language on the impression formation and expectancy of success of soccer players. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 34, 61–82.
García-Rubio, M. A., Picazo-Tadeo, A. J., and González-Gómez, F. (2011). Does a red shirt improve sporting performance? Evidence from Spanish football. Applied Economics Letters, 18, 1001–4.
Geier, A., Wansink, B., and Rozin, P. (2012). Red potato chips: segmentation cues can substantially decrease food intake. Health Psychology, 31, 398–401.
Genschow, O., Reutner, L., and Wänke, M. (2012). The color red reduces snack food and soft drink intake. Appetite, 58, 699–702.
Gerald, M. (2003). How color may guide the primate world: possible relationships between sexual selection and sexual dichromatism. In Jones, C. (ed.), Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Primates: New Perspectives and Directions (pp. 141–72). Norman, OK: American Society of Primatologists.
Gerald, M., Waitt, C., and Little, A. C. (2009). Pregnancy coloration in macaques may act as a warning signal to reduce antagonism by conspecifics. Behavioural Processes, 80, 7–11.
Gerend, M. A., and Sias, T. (2009). Message framing and color priming: how subtle threat cues affect persuasion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 999–1002.
Gnambs, T., Appel, M., and Batinic, B. (2010). Color red in web-based knowledge testing. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1625–31.
Goethe, W. (1967/1810). Theory of Colours. London: Frank Cass.
Gollwitzer, P. M., and Bargh, J. A. (2005). Automaticity in goal pursuit. In Elliot, A. and Dweck, C. (eds.), Handbook of Competence and Motivation (pp. 624–46). New York: Guilford.
Gorn, G. J., Chattopadhyay, A., Sengupta, J., and Tripathi, S. (2004). Waiting for the web: how screen color affects time perception. Journal of Marketing Research, 41, 215–25.
Greenlees, I. A., Eynon, M., and Thelwell, R. C. (2013). Color of soccer goalkeepers’ uniforms influences the outcome of penalty kicks. Perceptual and Motor Skills: Exercise and Sport, 116, 1–10.
Greenlees, I. A, Leyland, A., Thelwell, R. C., and Filby, W. (2008). Soccer penalty takers’ uniform colour and pre-penalty kick gaze affect the impressions formed of them by opposing goalkeepers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26, 569–76.
Guéguen, N. (2012). Color and women attractiveness: when red clothed women are perceived to have more intense sexual intent. Journal of Social Psychology, 152, 261–5.
Guéguen, N., and Jacob, C. (2014). Coffee cup color and evaluation of a beverage’s “warmth quality.” Color Research & Application, 39, 79–81.
Hackney, A. C. (2006). Testosterone and human performance: influence of the color red. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 96, 330–3.
Hagemann, N., Strauss, B., and Leissing, J. (2008). When the referee sees red … Psychological Science, 19, 769–72.
Hanss, D., Böhm, G., and Pfister, H. R. (2012). Active red sports car and relaxed purple-blue van: affective qualities predict color appropriateness for car types. Journal of Consumer Behavior, 11, 368–80.
Healey, M., Uller, T., and Olsson, M. (2007). Seeing red: morph-specific contest success, and survival rates, in a colour-polymorphic agamid lizard. Animal Behaviour, 73, 337–41.
Heckhausen, H., Schmalt, H.-D., and Schneider, K. (1985). Achievement Motivation in Perspective. New York: Academic Press.
Hembree, R. (1988). Correlates, causes, effects, and treatment of test anxiety. Review of Educational Research, 58, 47–77.
Henderson, L. M., Tsogka, N., and Snowling, M. J. (2013). Questioning the benefits that coloured overlays can have for reading in students with and without dyslexia. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 13, 57–65.
Hill, R. A., and Barton, R. A. (2005). Red enhances human performance in contests. Nature, 435, 293.
Houtman, F., and Notebaert, W. (2013). Blinded by an error. Cognition, 128, 228–36.
Hulshof, B. (2013). The Influence of Colour and Scent on People’s Mood and Cognitive Performance in Meeting Rooms. MA thesis, University of Twente.
Humphrey, N. (1976). The colour currency of nature. In Porter, T. and Mikellides, B. (eds.), Colour for Architecture (pp. 95–8). London: Studio-Vista.
Ilie, A., Ioan, S., Zagrean, L., and Moldovan, M. (2008). Better to be red than blue in virtual competition. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 375–7.
Imhof, M. (2004). Effects of color stimulation on handwriting performance of children with ADHD without and with additional learning disabilities. European Child and Adolescent Psychology, 13, 191–8.
Ioan, S., Sandulache, M., Avramescu, S., Ilie, A., Neacsu, A., Zagrean, L., and Moldovan, M. (2007). Red is a distractor for men in competition. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 285–93.
Jiang, F., Lu, S., Yao, X., Yue, X., and Au, W. (2014). Up for down? How culture and color affect judgments. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 27, 226–34.
Jung, I., Kim, M. S., and Han, K. (2011). Red for romance, blue for memory. In HCI International 2011–Posters’ Extended Abstracts (pp. 284–8). Berlin: Springer.
Kliger, D., and Gilad, D. (2012). Red light, green light: color priming in financial decisions. Journal of Socio-Economics, 41, 738–45.
Kocher, M. G., and Sutter, M. (2008). Shirt colour and team performance in football. In Andersson, P., Ayton, P., and Schmidt, C. (eds.), Myths and Facts About Football: The Economics and Psychology of the World’s Greatest Sport (pp. 125–30). Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Krenn, B. (2014). The impact of uniform color on judging tackles in association football. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, 222–5.
Kuhbandner, C., and Pekrun, R. (2013). Joint effects of emotion and color on memory. Emotion, 13, 375–9.
Küller, R., Mikellides, B., and Janssens, J. (2009). Color, arousal, and performance – a comparison of three experiments. Color Research & Application, 34, 141–52.
Kumi, R., Conway, C. M., Limayem, M., and Goyal, S. (2013). Learning in color: how color and affect influence learning outcomes. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 56, 2–15.
Labrecque, L. I., and Milne, G. R. (2012). Exciting red and competent blue: the importance of color in marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40, 711–27.
Labrecque, L. I., and Milne, G. R. (2013). To be or not to be different: exploration of norms and benefits of color differentiation in the marketplace. Marketing Letters, 24, 165–76.
Lee, S., and Rao, V. S. (2010). Color and store choice in electronic commerce: the explanatory role of trust. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 11, 110–26.
Lehrl, S., Gerstmeyer, K., Jacob, J. H., Frieling, H., Henkel, A. W., Meyrer, R., and Wiltfang, J. (2007). Blue light improves cognitive performance. Journal of Neural Transmission, 14, 457–60.
Lichtenfeld, S., Elliot, A. J., Maier, M. A., and Pekrun, R. (2012). Fertile green: green facilitates creative performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 784–97.
Lichtenfeld, S., Maier, M. A., Elliot, A. J., and Pekrun, R. (2009). The semantic red effect: processing the word red undermines intellectual performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 1273–6.
Lin, H. (2014). Red-colored products enhance the attractiveness of women. Displays, 35, 202–5.
Little, A. C., and Hill, R. A. (2007). Attribution to red suggests special role in dominance signalling. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 5, 161–8.
Magee, R. G. (2012). Impression formation online: how web page colors can interact with physical temperature. Journal of Media Psychology, 24, 124–33.
Maier, M. A., Barchfeld, P., Elliot, A. J., and Pekrun, R. (2009). Context-specificity of implicit preferences: the case of human preference for red. Emotion, 9, 734–8.
Maier, M. A., Elliot, A. J., Lee, B., Lichtenfeld, S., Barchfeld, P., and Pekrun, R. (2013). The influence of red on impression formation in a job application context. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 389–401.
Maier, M. A., Elliot, A. J., and Lichtenfeld, S. (2008). Mediation of the negative effect of red on intellectual performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1530–40.
Matsumoto, D., Konno, J., Hata, S., and Takeuchi, M. (2007). Blue judogis may bias competition outcomes. Research Journal of Budo, 39, 1–7.
Mazur, A. (2005). Biopsychology of Dominance and Deference. London: Rowman and Hudson.
McClelland, D. C. (1985). Human Motivation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mehta, R., and Zhu, R. J. (2009). Blue or red? Exploring the effect of color on cognitive task performances. Science, 7, 1226–9.
Meier, B. P., D’Agostino, P. R., Elliot, A. J., Maier, M. A., and Wilkowski, B. M. (2012). Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior. PLoS ONE, 7, 1–5.
Meyer, M. J., and Bagwell, J. (2012). The non-impact of paper color on exam performance. Issues in Accounting Education, 27, 691–706.
Mikulincer, M., Kedem, P., and Paz, D. (1990). Anxiety and categorization. I. The structure and boundaries of mental categories. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 805–14.
Moller, A. C., Elliot, A. J., and Maier, M. A. (2009). Basic hue-meaning associations. Emotion, 9, 898–902.
Moscoso del Prado Martín, M. F., Hauk, O., and Pulvermüller, F. (2006). Category specificity in the processing of color-related and form-related words. NeuroImage, 29, 29–37.
Norem, J. (2002). The Power of Negative Thinking: Using Defensive Pessimism to Harness Anxiety and Perform at Your Peak. Cambridge, MA: Basic Books.
O’Connor, Z. (2010). Colour harmony revisited. Color Research & Application, 35, 267–73.
Osborne, J. W. (1995). Academics, self-esteem, and race: a look at the underlying assumptions of the disidentification hypothesis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 449–55.
Osteroth, P. (2012). Seeing Red: The Effect of Color Priming on Detail-Oriented Performance in Achievement Contexts. Master’s thesis, Free University Berlin.
Pedley, A., and Wade, A. R. (2013). No psychological effect of color context in a low level vision task. F1000Research, 2, 247.
Piatti, M., Savaga, D. A., and Torgler, B. (2012). The red mist? Red shirts, success and team sports. Sport in Society, 15, 1209–27.
Piotrowski, C., and Armstrong, T. (2012). Color red: implications for applied psychology and marketing. Psychology and Education Journal, 49, 55–7.
Piqueras-Fiszman, B., and Spence, C. (2012). The influence of the color of the cup on consumers’ perceptions of a hot beverage. Journal of Sensory Studies, 27, 324–31.
Pollet, T. V., and Peperkoorn, L. S. (2013). Fading red? No evidence that color of trunks influences outcomes in the ultimate fighting championship (UFC). Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 643.
Pravossoudovitch, K., Cury, F., Young, S. G., and Elliot, A. J. (2014). Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red–danger association. Ergonomics, 57, 503–10.
Pryke, S. R., Andersson, S., Lawes, M. J., and Piper, S. E. (2001). Carotenoid status signaling in captive and wild red-collared widowbirds: independent effects of badge size and color. Behavioral Ecology, 13, 622–31.
Pryke, S. R., and Griffith, S. C. (2006). Red dominates black: agonistic signalling among head morphs in the color polymorphic Gouldian finch. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 273, 949–57.
Puccinelli, N. M., Chandrashekaran, R., Grewal, D., and Suri, R. (2013). Are men seduced by red? The effect of red versus black prices on price perceptions. Journal of Retailing, 89, 115–25.
Roberts, S. C., Owen, R. C., and Havlicek, J. (2010). Distinguishing between perceiver and wearer effects in clothing color-associated attributions. Evolutionary Psychology, 8, 350–64.
Rook, L. (2014). Exposure to the color red enhances creative thinking depending on appetitive-aversive cues. Creativity Research Journal, 26, 124–30.
Roskes, M., Elliot, A. J., and De Dreu, C. K. W. (2014). Why is avoidance motivation problematic and what can be done about it? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 133–5.
Ross, C. F., Bohischeid, J., and Weller, K. (2008). Influence of visual masking technique on the assessment of 2 red wines by trained and consumer assessors. Journal of Food Science, 73, S279–85.
Rowe, C., Harris, J. M., and Roberts, S. C. (2005). Seeing red? Putting sportswear in context. Nature, 437, E10.
Runco, M. A. (2005). Motivation, competence, and creativity. In Elliot, A. and Dweck, C. (eds.), Handbook of Competence and Motivation (pp. 609–23). New York: Guilford Press.
Rutchick, A. M., Slepian, M. L., and Ferris, B. D. (2010). The pen is mightier than the word: object priming of evaluative standards. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 704–8.
Schwartz, N. (2007). Attitude construction: evaluation in context. Social Cognition, 25, 638–56.
Schwarz, S., and Singer, M. (2013). Romantic red revisited: red enhances men’s attraction to young, but not menopausal women. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 161–4.
Setchell, J. M., and Wickings, E. J. (2005). Dominance, status signals, and coloration in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). Ethology, 111, 25–50.
Shapley, R., and Hawkin, M. J. (2011). Color in the cortex: single- and double-opponent cells. Vision Research, 51, 701–17.
Shavit, T., Rosenboim, M., and Cohen, C. (2013). Does the color of feedback affect investment decisions? International Journal of Applied Behavioral Economics, 2, 15–26.
Shevell, S. K., and Kingdom, F. A. A. (2008). Color in complex scenes. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 143–66.
Shi, B., Zhang, X., and Jiang, F. (2015). Does red undermine individuals’ intellectual performance? A test in China. International Journal of Psychology, 50, 81–4.
Simmons, W. K., Ramjee, V., Beauchamp, M. S., McRae, K., Martin, A., and Barsalou, L. W. (2007). A common neural substrate for perceiving and knowing about color. Neuropsychologia, 45, 2802–10.
Sinclair, R. C., Soldat, A. S., and Mark, M. M. (1998). Affective cues and processing strategy: color-coded examination forms influence performance. Teaching of Psychology, 25, 130–2.
Skinner, N. F. (2004). Differential test performance from differently colored paper: white paper works best. Teaching of Psychology, 31, 111–13.
Smajic, A., Merritt, S., Banister, C., and Blinebry, A. (2014). The red effect, anxiety, and exam performance: a multistudy examination. Teaching of Psychology, 41, 37–43.
Soldat, A. S., Sinclair, R. C., and Mark, M. M. (1997). Color as an environmental processing cue: external affective cues can directly affect processing strategy without affecting mood. Social Cognition, 15, 55–71.
Sorokowski, P., and Szmajke, A. (2007). How does the “red win” effect work? The role of sportswear colour during sports competitions. Polish Journal of Applied Psychology, 5, 71–9.
Steele, K. M. (2014). Failure to replicate the Mehta and Zhu (2009) color-priming effect on anagram solution times. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 771–76.
Stephen, I. D., Coetzee, V., Law Smith, M., and Perrett, D. I. (2009). Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation colour affect perceived human health. PLoS ONE, 4, E5083.
Stephen, I. D., Law Smith, M. J., Stirrat, M. R., and Perrett, D. I. (2009). Facial skin coloration affects perceived health of human faces. International Journal of Primatology, 30, 845–57.
Stephen, I. D., Oldham, F., Perrett, D. I., and Barton, R. A. (2012). Redness enhances perceived aggression, dominance and attractiveness in men’s faces. Evolutionary Psychology, 10, 562–72.
Stone, N. J. (2001). Designing effective study environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 179–90.
Szmajke, A., and Sorokowski, P. (2006). Permitted support in sport: the influence of sportsmen’s outfit colour on competitions in sport. Medicina dello Sport, 10, 119–22.
Tal, I. R., Akers, K. G., and Hodge, G. K. (2008). Effect of paper color and question order on exam performance. Teaching of Psychology, 35, 26–8.
Tanaka, A., and Tokuno, Y. (2011). The effect of the color red on avoidance motivation. Social Behavior and Personality, 39, 287–8.
Ten Velden, F. S., Baas, M., Shalvi, S., Preenen, P. T. Y., and De Dreu, C. K. W. (2012). In competitive interaction displays of red increase actors’ competitive approach and perceivers’ withdrawal. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1205–8.
Thorstenson, C. (2015). Functional equivalence of the color red and enacted avoidance behavior: replication and empirical integration. Social Psychology.
Urdan, T., and Midgley, C. (2001). Academic self-handicapping: what we know, what more there is to learn. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 115–38.
Valdez, P., and Mehrabian, A. (1994). Effects of color on emotions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123, 394–409.
Whitfield, T. W., and Wiltshire, T. J. (1990). Color psychology: a critical review. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 116, 385–411.
Wogalter, M. S., Kaisher, M. J., Frederick, L. J., Magurno, A. B., and Brewster, B. M. (1998). International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics, 2, 123–43.
Yamazaki, A. K. (2010). An analysis of background-color effects on the scores of a computer-based English test. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 6277, 630–6.
Yamazaki, A. K., and Eto, K. (2011). A preliminary examination of background-color effects on the scores of computer-based English grammar tests using near-infrared spectroscopy. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 6883, 31–9.
Yüksel, A. (2009). Exterior color and perceived retail crowding: effects on tourists’ shopping quality inferences and approach behaviors. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospital Tourism, 10, 233–54.
Zhang, T., and Han, B. (2014). Experience reverses the red effect among Chinese stockbrokers. PLoS ONE, 9, E89193.
Zimmermann, A., Lorenz, A., and Oppermann, R. (2007). An operational definition of context. In Dey, A., Kokinov, B., Leake, D., and Turner, R. (eds.), Context (pp. 558–71). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.