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  • Governing Climate Change
  • Polycentricity in Action?
  • Online publication date: May 2018
  • pp 384-390

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Index

Abu Dhabi Fund, 272
accountability, 6, 13, 19, 22, 44, 47, 53, 55, 92, 101, 126, 181, 196197, 205207, 213, 321, 331, 338342, 344, 346348, 351355, 360, 372, 375376, 378
adaptation, 8, 10, 2224, 33, 48, 5051, 53, 81, 91, 94, 135, 156, 164166, 169, 171, 180181, 185, 205206, 237, 250251, 273, 298, 303320, 324327, 329, 332334, 336, 339, 345, 352, 354, 363, 367, 370, 373376, 381382
adaptive governance, 308, 316318
aerosol injection, 288, 292
Africa, 24, 62, 66, 71, 79, 9293, 159, 304, 317, 319, 322, 333, 336, 348, 362
Al Gore, 74, 144145
alignment, 166, 313
allowance prices, 238, 242, 244
Amsterdam, ix, x, 90, 132, 187, 208209
Annex I, 213214, 227, 234, 289, 304
non-Annex I countries, 214
Asia, xiv, 38, 66, 9294, 159, 215, 235, 265, 275, 283284, 348, 350351, 355356
Asian Development Bank, 241, 271, 273
asymmetry, 311, 322
Australia, 77, 122, 133, 235, 239, 241, 246, 255, 318, 350351, 367
Austria, 141
Ban Ki-moon, 29, 68, 81, 92, 180, 278
bioenergy, 272, 286287
Black Sea, 159
BMW, 221
Bolivia, 293, 299
bonding, 311
BP, 221, 234, 246
Brazil, 53, 236, 269270, 273, 323, 326, 348, 362
Brent Spar, 141, 150
Brexit, 145
bridging, 15, 311
Building with Nature, 314
C40, 83, 8890, 9394, 127, 191, 198, 203, 255, 259, 329
Cadbury, 257
Canada, 7, 30, 53, 60, 155, 163, 265, 323, 351, 367
capacity building, 239, 255
carbon capture and storage, 74, 122, 129, 286287
carbon disclosure, 126, 130, 133, 225
carbon markets, 54, 64, 66, 70, 7274, 7677, 199, 227, 231234, 236, 239247, 325, 329, 331332, 335
carbon neutral, 55
Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition, 4, 33, 72, 240241, 324, 348
Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum, 348
carbon tax, 157, 221, 234, 252
carbon trading, 6364, 113, 243, 246
Carbon Trust, 256258, 263
case studies, 60, 103, 133, 212, 214215, 319, 377
causal mechanisms, 36, 175, 365
CBD. See Convention on Biological Diversity
CDM, xiv, 73, 79, 105107, 171, 178, 267271, 275, 277280, 282284, 328329, 332, 365, See Clean Development Mechanism
centralised, 20, 50, 125, 189, 194, 203, 211, 251, 278, 288, 297298, 303, 305, 316
Chicago, 25, 85, 113114, 131, 208, 227, 234235, 328, 335
China, 50, 57, 60, 84, 108, 133, 141, 150, 157, 159, 162163, 213214, 216, 218, 226, 232, 235, 237, 240, 242, 245246, 269271, 273, 276, 283284, 293, 326, 348, 367
cities, 45, 47, 53, 60, 6465, 68, 78, 8194, 96, 112, 127, 139, 144, 146, 148, 152, 159, 161, 164165, 167, 169170, 182183, 191, 196, 198, 216, 235, 249250, 252253, 255, 259, 261, 263264, 274, 278, 309, 311312, 314, 316320, 324325, 329, 331, 333, 337, 344345, 349, 359, 361, 367, 370, 376
Cities Climate Leadership Group, 88, 255, 329
city networks, 8892, 146, 161, 256, 362, 368, 371, 373, 375, 379
civil society, 40, 4748, 54, 63, 67, 86, 9193, 99, 147, 154, 170, 182183, 191, 211212, 220, 222, 311, 325, 334, 342, 345, 347, 349, 351, 367, 372
Clean Development Mechanism, xiv, 30, 36, 44, 73, 105, 115, 120, 171, 234, 267, 282284, 328, 341, 365, See CDM
clean energy, 57, 64, 7071, 7374, 76, 199, 260, 266268, 271278, 280281, 307
climate change adaptation, 62, 81, 165, 305307, 309, 311313, 315318, 334
Climate Change Resilience Alliance, 304
climate engineering, 285287, 289299, 301302, 368, 372
Climate Investment Funds, 33, 201, 273, 284
climate justice, 113, 320322, 324325, 329336
climate leadership, 135, 149151, 158
climate litigation, 5659
Climate Registry, 197, 328
climate risks, 305, 312
clubs, 90, 166, 171, 186, 191, 344, 348351, 354356, 376
climate club, 350
club goods, 350
coal companies, 57
coalition building, 67, 253, 255
Coca-Cola, 257
coercion, 16, 128, 131, 155, 157, 166
collective action, xi, 7, 1314, 21, 2425, 79, 95, 107, 109110, 129, 147, 150, 167, 186, 193, 208, 210, 226, 246, 249252, 261264, 283, 287, 311, 314, 316, 339, 352, 355, 369, 382
competition, 16, 23, 3839, 83, 123, 155, 157, 166, 193, 240241, 243, 259, 263, 272, 274, 310, 346, 354, 370
complex adaptive systems, 15, 365
Conference of the Parties, xiv, 35, 45, 67, 81, 124, 158, 179, 190, 298, 327, 353, 366, See COP
conflict, 19, 67, 77, 167, 170, 241, 310, 315, 346, 369370
conflict resolution, 19, 310, 315
connectivity, 184, 311, 313
consensus-building, 87
constituencies, 53, 123, 255, 338, 342343, 379
Convention on Biological Diversity, xiv, 32, 43, 191, 208, 291, 296, 298
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, 292
Coors, 257
COP, xiv, 3536, 38, 6768, 81, 124, 158, 179180, 190, 197, 202204, 291, 298, 327, See Conference of the Parties
Copenhagen Accord, 3032, 41, 213
core propositions, 20, 22, 153, 170, 189, 236, 304, 362
courts, 19, 5658, 6162
Covenant of Mayors, 4, 8889, 144, 146, 148149, 159, 191, 197, 275, 282, 304
decarbonisation, 22, 101, 232, 242, 248256, 258263, 265, 334, 360, 363, 365, 374375
decentralised, 17, 20, 99, 138, 189, 192193, 205, 234, 248, 251253, 261, 267, 380
deliberation, 42, 339, 341342, 346, 351352
democratic theory, 338, 347
demonstration effects, 129, 206, 255
Denmark, 141, 145, 148, 218, 272
Deutsche Bank, 221
development banks, 267, 271274, 279, 283, 365
diffusion, 24, 108, 131132, 153168, 175, 231, 237, 239, 243246, 256, 261262, 264, 268, 270, 275279, 282283, 304, 309, 324, 366, 378379, 382
discourse, 73, 100101, 157, 303, 305, 312, 322, 336, 346
diversity, xi, 12, 17, 19, 21, 32, 100101, 122, 128, 176, 311, 321, 324, 327, 331332, 341, 352, 356, 363
divestment, 64, 70, 7377, 79, 365, 368
domains of authority, 261
empowerment, 309
Energy Cities, 275, 329
England, 73, 315, 318
entrenchment, 256258, 261262
entrepreneurship, 96, 117134, 143, 148, 245, 273274, 304, 378
equity, 22, 281, 320321, 324326, 328332, 335336, 360, 374375
Ethiopia, 218, 314, 318, 323
ETS, xiv, 142, 145, 231241, 243245
EU, xii, xiv, 5, 12, 2425, 45, 122, 124, 131132, 134, 137, 142146, 148150, 153, 158162, 165168, 186, 212, 221, 231232, 234235, 237239, 241242, 245247, 293, 296, 300, 304, 322, 345346, 362, 367, 381, 383, See European Union
Europe, 2324, 75, 77, 96, 132, 142, 148150, 159, 167, 233234, 245, 317318, 355
European Commission, 4, 117, 142, 146, 161, 195, 216, 221, 225, 236, 345
European Investment Bank, 271, 273
European Union, xiv, 5, 24, 41, 60, 122, 132, 137, 148151, 153, 171, 231, 246, 271, 293, 304, 322, 342, 355, 362, 383, See EU
evaluation, 1718, 21, 23, 25, 51, 66, 132, 164, 181, 211212, 214, 216, 219221, 223, 258, 308, 369, 371372, 376, 380, 383
evaporation, 288
evidence base, 64, 93
executive orders, 59, 362
experimental space, 107
experimentalist governance, 20, 29, 101, 113, 339
experimentation, 9, 1719, 21, 23, 25, 35, 39, 46, 58, 67, 82, 8788, 99105, 108, 111112, 114, 116, 130, 152153, 184, 189, 205, 207, 223, 234, 236, 239, 256, 260261, 276, 279, 281, 296, 308, 311, 313, 316, 341, 346, 362, 367369, 374, 378, 382
externalities, 14, 150, 302
ExxonMobil, 221, 254
feed-in tariff, 55
finance, 33, 40, 45, 51, 66, 68, 71, 87, 90, 191, 196, 198199, 201, 204, 206, 215, 268, 272273, 278279, 283, 304, 307, 327, 333, 366, 370, 375
financial assistance, 326, 331
Finland, x, 113, 157, 161, 218, 293, 309310
forestry, 64, 143, 200, 278, 290, 318, 346
fossil fuel companies, 7376
fossil fuel subsidies, 33, 177, 212, 215, 217218, 224
fragmentation, 5, 7, 20, 23, 25, 29, 43, 4546, 64, 77, 138, 185, 209, 240, 310, 333, 338, 341, 356
France, 68, 144, 179, 197, 258, 265, 275
Friends of the Earth, 140, 294, 299
frontrunners, 87
G20, xiv, 33, 38, 44, 59, 191, 212, 215, 217218, 220, 224225, 255, 349351
GEF, xiv, 198, 204, 268269, 278
George W. Bush, 19
German energy transition, 138
Germany, 142, 145, 150, 157, 161162, 165167, 185, 218, 265, 272, 274, 293, 323, 362
Gleneagles, 279, 348
Global Forum, 197, 204, 206
Global Methane Initiative, 71, 348
global North, 66, 82, 90, 92, 281, 363
global South, 66, 83, 90, 9293, 260, 267, 281, 347, 363
Google, 221, 254
Green Climate Fund, 201, 274
gridlock, 377
Guatemala, 105
hierarchical relations, 136
human rights, 7, 29, 32, 34, 3738, 73, 330
ICLEI, 8891, 95, 191, 259, 275, 278, 312, 329
IEA, xiv, 176, 217, 225226, 271272, 277, 279280, 282, See International Energy Agency
IMF, xiv, 212, 215, 217220, 226
inclusion, 41, 72, 76, 113, 122, 132, 143, 196, 237, 335, 340342, 346
India, 159, 269271, 275276, 282283, 293, 326, 348, 350
information sharing, 18, 126, 362
injustice, 321, 329, 333
innovation, 910, 1617, 2124, 39, 55, 64, 70, 76, 90, 103, 110, 112114, 116, 133, 154, 156157, 161163, 166, 182, 189, 205, 208, 237, 256, 258, 260, 264, 270, 282284, 296, 314, 329, 339, 360, 367368, 374, 379, 381
institutional arrangements, 51, 172, 174, 294, 304, 339, 352
institutional interactions, 365
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, xi, xv, 6, 47, 73, 95, 144, 190, 266, 283, 287, 300, 306, 318, 335
International Carbon Action Partnership, 232, 235, 240241, 245
international climate change governance, 29
International Council for Science, 292
International Emissions Trading Association, 72, 110, 240241, 245
International Energy Agency, xiv, 176, 186, 217, 225226, 271, See IEA
International Maritime Organization, xv, 34, 4344, 293
international relations theory, 141
International Solar Alliance, 275, 282
International trade agreements, 33
IPCC, xv, 47, 73, 78, 8384, 95, 144145, 148149, 190, 266, 283, 287, 292293, 296, 299300, 306, 318, 322, 335, See Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPEEC, xv, 271
key propositions, 12, 20
Kigali Amendment, 33
knowledge transfer, 287
Kyoto Protocol, xi, 4, 8, 22, 3032, 34, 3637, 39, 49, 65, 73, 75, 93, 105, 120121, 135, 158, 160, 166, 171, 178, 231, 233234, 243, 267268, 273, 275, 278, 284, 290, 298, 301, 326328, 332, 341, 348, 360, 363, 366
Law of the Sea, 291, 299, 301
learning, 6, 10, 1618, 21, 23, 25, 39, 59, 63, 78, 101102, 125, 146, 152153, 155, 157159, 162164, 166, 174175, 182, 189, 197, 199, 205206, 210211, 218, 221224, 237, 240, 243, 245246, 250, 255, 261262, 266, 269, 277, 287, 296, 304, 308309, 314, 339, 367, 369, 379, 382383
legitimacy, 6, 9, 13, 22, 37, 55, 76, 107, 112, 142, 145, 147, 151, 179, 193, 195196, 204, 213, 217218, 236, 311, 338344, 346355, 360, 364, 375378, 380, 383
forms of legitimacy, 377
Lima-Paris Action Agenda, xv, 68, 78, 180, 183, 192, 345
Lindblom, 1516, 24, 102, 114
linking, 182183, 237, 239240, 243, 249, 255
Local Agenda 21, 81, 85
lock-in, 248, 250253, 256, 259, 261263, 265, 309
London Convention, 291, 293294, 296, 299
Marrakech, xv, 40, 46, 70, 76, 79, 81, 105, 164, 180, 192, 203, 208, 327, 345
Melbourne, 90
Mexico, 105, 163, 218, 236, 348, 362
minilateralism, 40, 339, 344, 348350, 354
monitoring, 8, 1819, 21, 25, 31, 51, 67, 73, 146, 172, 210212, 215, 250, 260, 262, 289, 308, 340341, 344, 364, 366, 369, 371372, 376, 379380, 383
monocentric, 4, 6, 8, 1112, 2930, 32, 37, 39, 42, 63, 99, 101, 118, 120128, 130131, 136138, 193, 250, 268, 270, 298, 304, 311, 316, 360, 364365, 369, 372, 375, 378
Montreal Protocol, 32, 37, 46, 191, 292
multilateral governance, 248
multilateralism, 29, 345, 350, 354
multi-level governance, 20, 6162, 135, 149, 209, 308310, 316
mutual adjustment, 6, 13, 1517, 19, 35, 3738, 42, 47, 54, 63, 73, 76, 102, 125128, 184, 189, 193, 195196, 203, 259, 261262, 272, 274, 277, 281, 296, 311, 313, 351, 362, 365367, 373
national governments, 4, 3536, 47, 49, 5155, 58, 68, 82, 8486, 88, 9293, 143144, 154, 160, 179, 204, 211, 217, 241, 297, 309
national laws, 5152, 362
nationally determined contributions, 7, 31, 48, 72, 125, 135, 164, 170, 223, 236, 321, 330, 353, 367
NAZCA, xv, 36, 41, 6869, 71, 180, 182, 192, 196197, 199, 202204, 261, 345, 351, See Non-State Actor Zone for Climate Action
NEC, 221
negative emissions technologies, 74, 286, See NETs
net zero emissions, 74, 294
NETs, xv, 286294, 296297
network governance, 113, 308, 310, 313, 316
network structure, 44, 278, 311, 318, 382
New York, 25, 60, 78, 83, 9496, 114, 132, 134, 149150, 163, 165, 198, 200, 208, 235, 245, 264, 282, 284, 299, 301, 335, 355, 383
NGOs, 5558, 6465, 73, 75, 140, 142145, 147148, 150151, 191, 195196, 198, 206, 277, 361, 366, 370, See non-governmental organisations
non-compliance, 31, 87
non-governmental actors, 11, 42, 47, 5455, 5859, 92
non-governmental organisations, 38, 55, 64, 107, 140, 177, 191, 252, 294, 332, 361, See NGOs
Non-State Actor Zone for Climate Action, 36, 180, 192, 261, 265, 345, 365, See NAZCA
normalisation, 254, 257
normative changes, 130
normative legitimacy, 338339, 342343, 349
North America, 73, 75, 77, 142, 232, 252
North-South gap, 75
Norway, 55, 105, 132, 157, 198, 219, 232, 234, 293, 364
Obama, 57, 141, 150, 216, 219, 293
ocean(s), 23, 286, 289291, 293294, 297
OECD, xv, 165, 216218, 221, 225226, 236, 239, 246, 268, 272, 317
offsets, 105, 192, 198, 259, 275, 278, 328, 331, 334, 341, 365
one-size-fits-all, 311, 339, 352
opportunity structure, 19, 153, 163, 366
optimum scale, 13
orchestration, 15, 36, 68, 76, 179, 188189, 191192, 194196, 198, 200207, 249, 253, 261, 353, 376, 378, 380
Ostrom
Elinor, xi, 36, 10, 14, 20, 22, 25, 48, 113, 136, 193, 232, 252, 359, 361, 378, 380, 383
Vincent, xi, 1011, 13, 15, 24, 59, 193
overarching rules, 15, 1919, 21, 35, 41, 5152, 59, 65, 112, 137, 152, 311, 315316, 341, 362364, 367, 376
overlaps, 29, 193, 195, 205, 241, 243, 279
Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate., 275
Paris
agreement, xi, 4, 7, 1819, 23, 29, 3134, 3641, 4346, 48, 5053, 57, 6062, 64, 67, 7176, 78, 8182, 93, 96, 120, 125126, 132, 135, 141, 148, 153, 164, 169, 177, 179181, 184, 188, 190191, 197, 200, 206, 209, 211212, 214, 218, 222, 224, 227, 231, 236, 240241, 245, 248, 252, 263, 275, 282, 285, 290, 297298, 301, 303306, 318, 320321, 326, 330332, 334, 336, 345, 350, 352355, 363364, 366, 371372, 375, 380381, 383
post-, 22, 49, 58, 76, 331, 352, 367
participation, 13, 18, 49, 53, 57, 75, 109, 115, 143, 197, 202, 206, 214, 218, 282, 291, 295, 298, 311312, 322324, 328, 334, 339, 341, 343, 345347, 351352, 362, 373, 375376
partnerships, 66, 76, 79, 123, 143, 152, 165, 175, 177, 196, 207, 255, 270, 272275, 278, 281, 283, 313, 349350, 353, 379
periphery, 311
petroleum industry, 129
pilot projects, 88, 105, 107108, 139, 199, 235, 240, 242, 257, 272
pioneers, 71, 90, 135136, 139140, 145147, 150, 163, 376
planned adaptation, 306
pledge-and-review, 31, 39, 126127, 210, 214, 331
policy diffusion, 155156, 163, 264
policy instruments, 51, 53, 145, 156157, 166, 279
policy surveillance, 43, 210, 212213, 217, 220, 222, 224
policy windows, 121, 123125, 128
political power, 99, 111, 378
politics, x, xi, 2324, 30, 4546, 60, 6264, 7779, 95, 100, 102104, 106108, 110116, 118, 123, 132133, 139140, 145, 150, 163, 165, 173, 183, 208, 227, 231, 236, 244, 246, 249250, 252253, 259, 261266, 281282, 299, 307, 317, 320, 324, 333334, 336, 345, 347, 353355, 364, 375, 381382
polycentric approach, 23, 4345, 48, 5960, 113, 125, 185, 208, 214, 222223, 231, 251252, 263, 266, 340, 354, 367, 377, 381382
polycentric climate governance, xii, 2324, 30, 4144, 4849, 52, 58, 6465, 67, 7071, 76, 79, 83, 85, 93, 117, 119, 122, 124, 127, 130, 136, 138, 146148, 150, 153154, 156, 158160, 162164, 166, 169170, 172173, 178179, 182, 184, 208, 262264, 283, 318, 321, 326, 330331, 339344, 348, 351353, 376377, 381
polycentric governance thinking, 6, 17
polycentric system, 45, 10, 13, 1516, 22, 5455, 59, 63, 76, 82, 127, 136137, 161, 169, 171, 183, 211, 239240, 242243, 249250, 252, 262, 267, 271, 276279, 281, 338, 341, 344, 359360, 364, 366, 379
polycentric theory, 12, 16, 90, 92, 108, 171172, 184, 234, 304, 342, 350, 359360, 364, 369370, 377378
power relations, 99100, 103, 105, 111
power relationships, 22, 129
price floor, 235, 242
public good, 4, 210, 219, 223, 249, 288, 297
REDD+, xv, 32, 37, 39, 132, 234, 236, 244, 302
regime complex, 7, 24, 29, 4344, 64, 77, 186, 207208, 266, 282283, 361, 380, 382383
regime complexity, 20, 331, 377
regulations, 53, 55, 87, 175, 212, 216217, 219221, 224
REN 21, xv, 176, 275, 277, 279
renewable energy, 50, 55, 7071, 122, 139, 157158, 160, 167168, 176178, 184, 241, 252, 255, 265, 271273, 275, 277279, 284, 345
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, 71, 173, 177, 260, 275, 278, 324
resilience, 55, 180181, 188, 306308, 312, 317, 367
Rio de Janeiro, 81, 125
Rotterdam, 311, 314
Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, 151, 345, 347
rule of law, 15, 48, 56, 58, 61, 363
Russia, 160, 166, 225, 362
Saint Petersburg, 160
Samsung, 221
self-organisation, 13, 14, 20, 52, 63, 65, 93, 101, 125, 152, 169, 171, 191, 193, 195196, 202, 253, 259, 314, 370, 372
sequestration, 66, 269, 286, 290
shadow of hierarchy, 311, 352
shadow pricing, 254
sinks, 157, 290
small island states, 349
sociological legitimacy, 338339, 341343, 347
solar radiation, 287
South Asia, 315
South Korea, 55, 232, 234235, 237, 245, 265, 271
Spain, 55, 272
stranded assets, 74
subnational action, 36, 54
subnational governments, 4, 48, 5354, 56, 6263, 144, 188, 191, 193, 195196, 198, 200, 211, 244, 249
subsidies, 46, 83, 154, 156157, 177, 215, 217220, 255, 270
sulphur, 220, 233, 288, 292
Sustainable Development Goals, 8182, 278
Sydney, 83, 85, 94
synchronisation, 313, 319
tacit knowledge, 87
technology transfer, 105, 200, 266283, 326327, 331332, 365, 370, 375376
TEPCO, 221
Tesco, 257, 265
the Climate Change Leadership Awards, 90
The Netherlands, ix, xii, 57, 103, 105, 114, 132, 185, 244, 311, 313
Tokyo, 83, 95, 234235
Toto, 221
transaction costs, 304
transboundary, 289
transition management, 103, 109, 113116, 264265
transnational climate governance., 36, 44, 6162, 7879, 186, 208, 325, 353, 355, 373, 380382
transparency, 19, 32, 40, 42, 51, 74, 126, 181, 197, 205, 210215, 217218, 220225, 240, 295, 321, 331, 339, 342, 344, 346347, 351, 366, 371, 376
Trump
administration, 142, 331, 364
Donald, xi, 19, 326
trust, 1213, 1819, 21, 35, 40, 42, 4547, 64, 67, 92, 193, 211212, 214, 217, 224, 236237, 239, 250, 259261, 310311, 314, 318, 341, 343, 369372
UN General Assembly, 278, 280
UNEP, xv, 3, 25, 68, 71, 73, 171, 190, 195, 197, 199200, 202, 204206, 214, 227, 271, 273274, 277, 279, 281, 284, 292, 299, 301, 330, 336, See United Nation Environment Programme
UNESCO, xv, 291292, 299, 301
UNFCCC, xv, 37, 9, 19, 2224, 2932, 3543, 4547, 6264, 6668, 7172, 7577, 7980, 105107, 113, 115, 123125, 158, 169173, 177184, 186187, 190192, 194, 196197, 199200, 202207, 211214, 220, 222223, 225, 227, 233, 236, 240241, 261, 265275, 278281, 283285, 289290, 296, 301, 303, 320, 322323, 325326, 328, 339, 341, 344345, 348, 350354, 356, 359360, 363368, 370371, 374375, 377, 380, 383, See United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Unilever, 221
United Arab Emirates, 159, 272
United Kingdom, xv, 55, 145, 161, 256257, 275, 285, 293, 301, 348, 361
United Nations, xi, xv, 3, 8, 25, 29, 34, 4547, 6263, 6768, 71, 79, 8182, 92, 96, 105, 115, 123, 144, 148, 155, 158, 169, 171, 186, 190, 198, 211, 214, 227, 233, 265266, 268, 271, 273, 284, 289, 291292, 299, 301, 303, 320321, 333, 339, 345, 348, 350351, 359, 365, 379
United Nations Environment Programme, 68, 190, See UNEP
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, xi, xv, 3, 29, 4547, 6263, 79, 105, 115, 123, 148, 158, 169, 186, 190, 211, 227, 233, 265266, 284, 289, 301, 303, 320, 333, 339, 359
United States, xi, xv, 5, 7, 11, 16, 19, 24, 30, 38, 46, 5354, 5657, 60, 73, 84, 91, 105, 108, 113, 122, 137138, 141, 149, 155, 167, 188, 212, 216, 218, 220, 226, 233, 235, 264265, 268, 274275, 293, 322, 324, 326, 337, 350, 362, 382
upscaling, 108, 155, 161162, 164, 367
urban climate governance, 82, 8588, 9093, 96, 172
VCO, xv, 328
vector-borne diseases, 306
veto players, 154
voluntary commitments, 8, 87, 177, 181, 190, 192, 197198, 202203, 210
vulnerability, 13, 51, 305307, 312, 318319, 327, 333, 349
Washington, 45, 80, 113, 150, 185186, 207, 226227, 245247, 264, 283, 300301, 350
World Bank, 25, 33, 36, 45, 48, 6162, 7173, 80, 105, 107, 191, 198199, 201204, 217, 226, 238, 240241, 247, 264, 271, 273274, 277, 279, 283284, 348, 379, 382
World Meteorological Organization, 292
World Summit on Sustainable Development, 260, 379