Skip to main content Accessibility help
Globalization and the Politics of Development in the Middle East
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 38
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

In this 2010 edition of their book on the economic development of the Middle East and North Africa, Clement Henry and Robert Springborg reflect on what has happened to the region's economy since 2001. How have the various countries in the Middle East responded to the challenges of globalization and to the rise of political Islam, and what changes, for better or for worse, have occurred? Utilizing the country categories they applied in the previous book and further elaborating the significance of the structural power of capital and Islamic finance, they demonstrate how over the past decade the monarchies (as exemplified by Jordan, Morocco and those of the Gulf Cooperation Council) and the conditional democracies (Israel, Turkey and Lebanon) continue to do better than the military dictatorships or 'bullies' (Egypt, Tunisia and now Iran) and 'the bunker states' (Algeria, Iraq, Libya, Sudan, Syria and Yemen).


'… the book provides readers with a deep analysis of economic decision-making processes in a number of country cases, and it is particularly successful in highlighting the reasons behind the economic success of democratic countries vis-à-vis authoritarian regimes. The framework the authors establish throughout the study is useful for comprehending the political economy of development in the MENA region.'

Yusuke Kawamura Source: New Middle Eastern Studies

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Aarts, PaulNonneman, Gerd 2005 Saudi Arabia in the Balance: Political Economy, Society, Foreign AffairsLondonHurst
Abdel-Kader, Khaled 2006 Private Sector Access to Credit in Egypt: Evidence from Survey DataCairo
Abrahamian, Ervand 2008 A History of Modern IranNew YorkCambridge University Press
Aburish, Saïd K. 1995 The Rise, Corruption and Coming Fall of the House of SaudLondonBloomsbury
Addi, Lahouari 1991 Les réformes économiques et leurs limitesLes cahiers de l’Orient 23 115
Addi, Lahouari 1999 L’armée algérienne se diviseLe monde diplomatique
Rory, McCarthy 2008 16
Agence France Presse (APF) 2010,adinejads-administration-accused-ofstealing-billions/
Aissaoui, Ali 2008 Diversifying MENA petroleum-dependent economies – where does Saudi Arabia standEconomic Commentary 3 1
Akhavi-Pour, HosseinAzodanloo, Heidar 1998 Economic bases of political factions in IranCritique: Journal for Critical Studies of the Middle East13
Al-Ahnaf, M.Botiveau, BernardFrank, Frégosi 1991 L’Algérie par ses islamistesParisKarthala
Al-Atrash, HasanYousef, Tarik 2000 Intra-Arab Trade: Is It Too Little?IMF
Al-Awadi, Hesham 2004 In Pursuit of Legitimacy: The Muslim Brothers and Mubarak, 1982–2000LondonI. B. Tauris
Alexander, Christopher 2010 Tunisia: Stability and Reform in the Modern MaghrebAbingdon, Oxon, and New YorkRoutledge
Al-Hashimi, Muhammad 1998 The Politicization of Islam: A Case Study of TunisiaBoulder, ColoradoWestview
Al-Kikhia, Mansour O. 1997 Libya's Qaddafi: The Politics of ContradictionGainesvilleUniversity Press of Florida
Almounsor, Abdullah 2008 Capital flight accounting and welfare implications in the MENA regionReview of Middle East Economics and Finance 4
Al-Rasheed, Madawi 2008 Kingdom without Borders: Saudi Arabia's Political, Religious and Media FrontiersLondonHurst
Al-Rasheed, Madawi 2009 Money Replaces Ideas as Petitioner's Silence Leaves Saudi Reform at an Impasse, and Princely Power to Test Succession PlansJoshua, CrazeHuband, MarkThe Kingdom: Saudi Arabia and the Challenge of the 21st Century19LondonHurst
Alsharekh, AlanoudSpringborg, Robert 2008 Popular Culture and Political Identity in the Arab Gulf StatesLondonSaqi Books
Alsheikh, Hend M.21 2007
Altug, S.Filiztekin, A. 2006 The Turkish EconomyLondonRoutledge
Amin, Galal 2004 Whatever Else Happened to the EgyptiansCairoAUC Press
Amin, Galal 2006 The Illusion of Progress in the Arab World: A Critique of Western MisconstructionsCairoAUC Press
Amuzegar, Jahangir 1993 Iran's Economy under the Islamic RepublicLondonI. B. Tauris
Amuzegar, Jahangir 2010 The Rial ProblemForeign Policy
Amuzegar, Jahangir 2010 Iran's Economy in TurmoilInternational Economic BulletinWashington, DC
Andoni, Lamis 2000 King Abdullah: In His Father's Footsteps?Journal of Palestine Studies 29 77
Angkinand, ApanardBarth, James R.Li, TongLu, WenlingYago, Glenn 2009 Capital Access Index 2008: Best Markets for Business Access to CapitalMilken Institute
APICORP Research, October 1 2006 Review of Energy Capital Investment Requirements in the MENA Region and the Arab World for the Period 2007–2011Arab Petroleum Investments Corporation
APICORP 2008 Economic Commentary 3 1
Arab Trade Financing Program 2009
Assaad, Ragui 2009 Labor supply, employment, and unemployment in the Egyptian economy, 1988–2006Assaad, RaguiThe Egyptian Labor Market Revisited1CairoThe American University in Cairo Press
Assaad, RaguiEl Hamidi, Fatma 2009 Women in the Egyptian labor market: An analysis of developments, 1988–2006Assaad, RaguiThe Egyptian Labor Market Revisited219CairoThe American University in Cairo Press
Aydin, Zulkuf 2005 The Political Economy of TurkeyLondonPluto Press
Ayubi, Nazih N. 1995 Over-stating the Arab State: Politics and Society in the Middle EastLondonI. B. Tauris
Bagehot, Walter 1904 Lombard Street: A Description of the Money MarketLondon
Bank Al-Maghrib 2009
2009 198
Banque du Liban (BDL) 1999 Quarterly Bulletin 80
Barkai, HaimLiviatan, Nissan 2007 The Bank of Israel: A Monetary HistoryNew YorkOxford University Press
Basha, Hasan 1990 Mudhakkirat Hasan Abu Basha fi al amn wa al siyasah (Memoirs of Hasan Abu Basha in Security and Politics)CairoDar al Hilal
Baskan, Filiz 2009 Political Involvement of the Rising Islamist Business Elite in TurkeyEuropean University Institute, Florence
Batatu, Hanna 1999 Syria's Peasantry, the Descendants of its Lesser Rural Notables, and their PoliticsPrinceton, New JerseyPrinceton University Press
Beattie, Kirk J. 1988 Egypt: Thirty-five years of praetorian politicsMilitary Disengagement from Politics201New YorkRoutledge
Beau, NicolasGraciet, Catherine 2009 La régente de Carthage: Main basse sur la TunisieParisLa Découverte
Beau, NicolasTuquoi, Jean-Pierre 1999 Notre ami Ben Ali: l'envers du “miracle tunisienParisEditions La Découverte
Beck, ThorstenDemirguc-Kunt, AsliEric Levine, Ross 2009,contentMDK:20696167∼pagePK:64214825∼piPK:64214943∼theSitePK:469382,00.html
Behrendt, Sven 2008 When Money Talks: Arab Sovereign Wealth Funds in the Global Public Policy DiscourseWashington, DCCarnegie Papers12
Belkhodja, Tahar 1998 Les trois décennies BourguibaParisPublisud
Bellin, Eva 2000 Contingent democrats: Industrialists, labor and democratization in late-developing countriesWorld Politics 52 175
Benfodil, Mustapha 2010 2
Bennoune, MahfoudEl-Kenz, Ali 1990 Le hasard et l'histoire: entretiens avec Belaid AbdesselamAlgiersENAG
Berger, Sharon 2000 11
Berger, SuzanneRonald, Dore 1996 National Diversity and Global CapitalismIthaca, New YorkCornell University Press
Bergsten, C. Fred 2009 The dollar and the deficitsForeign Affairs 88 20
Bilgin, BerksoGulcin Ozkan, F. 2009 The Banking Sector and Macroeconomic Performance – Is There a Role: The Case of TurkeyEuropean University Institute, Florence
Bill, James A.Robert, Springborg 2000 Politics in the Middle EastNew YorkAddison-Wesley
Bolbol, Ali A. 1999 Arab Trade and Free Trade: A Preliminary AnalysisInternational Journal of Middle East Studies 31 3
Boogaerde, Pierre Van Den 1991 Financial Assistance from Arab Countries and Arab Regional InstitutionsWashington, DCIMF
Bowker, Robert 2010 Egypt and the Politics of Change in the Arab Middle EastCheltenham, UKEdward Elgar
Bozorgmehr, Najmeh 2009 7
Bozorgmehr, Najmeh 2010 7
Bradley, John R. 2008 Inside Egypt: The Land of the Pharaohs on the Brink of a RevolutionLondonPalgrave Macmillan
Brahimi, Abdelhamid 1991 L’économie algérienne: défis et enjeuxAlgiersDahlab
Brand, Laurie A. 1998 Women, the State and Political Liberalization: Middle Eastern and North African ExperiencesNew YorkColumbia University Press
British Petroleum (BP) 2009
Brown, L. Carl 1984 International Politics and the Middle East: Old Rules, Dangerous GamePrinceton, New JerseyPrinceton University Press
Brown, Nathan 1997 The Rule of Law in the Arab WorldCambridgeCambridge University Press
Brownlee, Jason 2007 Authoritarianism in an Age of DemocratizationNew YorkCambridge University Press
Bruck, TilmanBinzel, ChristineHandrich, Lars 2007
Brülhart, Marius 2008 An Account of Global Intraindustry Trade, 1962–2006Washington, DC, World Bank
Brülhart, Marius 2009 “An account of global intra-industry trade, 1962–2006World Economy 32 401
Buchta, Wilfried 2000 Who Rules Iran: The Structure of Power in the Islamic RepublicWashington, DCWashington Institute for Near East Policy
Buck, Tobias 2008 7
Bugra, Ayse 1998 Class culture and state: An analysis of interest representation by two Turkish business associationsInternational Journal of Middle East Studies 30 521
Burgat, François 2008 Islamism in the Shadow of al-QaedaAustin, UniversityTexas Press
Camau, Michel 2003 Le syndrome autoritaire: Politique en Tunisie de Bourguiba a Ben AliParis
Cammett, Melani 2007 Globalization and Business Politics in Arab North Africa: A Comparative PerspectiveNew YorkCambridge University Press
Caprio, GerardLevine, Ross EricBarth, James R. 2008,contentMDK:20345037∼pagePK:64214825∼piPK:64214943∼theSitePK:469382,00.html#Survey_III
Carapico, Sheila 1998 Civil Society in Yemen: The Political Economy of Activism in Modern ArabiaCambridge University Press
Carothers, Thomas 2009
Cassarino, Jean-Pierre 1999 The EU-Tunisian ASSOCIATION Agreement and Tunisia's structural reform programMiddle East Journal 53 69
“CDG-BMCE Bank: Les enjeux du rapprochement 2010
Chalcraft, John 2009
Chandrasekaran, Rajiv 2006 Imperial Life in the Emerald City: Inside Iraq's Green ZoneNew YorkKnopf
Chaudhry, Kiren Aziz 1992 Economic liberalization in oil-exporting countriesHarik, IlyaSullivan, Denis J.Privatization and Liberalization in the Middle East145BloomingtonIndiana University Press
Chaudhry, Kiren Aziz 1997 The Price of Wealth: Economies and Institutions in the Middle EastIthaca, New YorkCornell University Press
Chon, Gina 2009 1
Clague, ChristopherKeefer, PhilipKnack, StephenOlson, Mancur 1997 Contract Intensive MoneyUniversity of Maryland
Comité Directeur du Rapport 2006
Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) 2009
Cook, Steven A. 2007 Ruling but Not Governing: The Military and Political Development in Egypt, Algeria, and TurkeyBaltimoreThe Johns Hopkins University Press
Cooper, Mark 1982 The demilitarization of the Egyptian cabinetInternational Journal of Middle East Studies 14 201
Copley, Gregory R. 1995 Defense and Foreign Affairs Handbook on Egypt132LondonInternational Media Corporation
Cordesman, Anthony H. 2009
Corm, Georges 1993 La réforme économique algérienne: une réforme mal aimée?Maghreb-Machrek 139 9
Corm, Georges 1998 Reconstructing Lebanon's EconomyShafik, NematEconomic Challenges Facing Middle Eastern and North African CountriesNew YorkSt. Martin's Press
Corm, Georges 2009 42
Crumley, Bruce 2003,9171,485713,00.html
Crystal, Jill 1990 Oil and Politics in the Gulf: Rulers and Merchants in Kuwait and QatarCambridgeCambridge University Press
Dagge, John 2008 25
Davidson, Christopher M. 2005 The United Arab Emirates: A Study in SurvivalBoulderColorado, Westview
Davidson, Christopher M. 2008 Dubai: The Vulnerability of SuccessLondonHurst
Davidson, Christopher M. 2009 Abu Dhabi: Oil and BeyondLondonHurst
Davidson, Christopher M.Mackenzie-Smith, Peter 2008 Higher Education in the Gulf States: Shaping Economies, Politics and CultureLondonSaqi Books
Davis, Eric 2010 The Political Economy of Modern IraqSorenson, David S.Interpreting the Middle East337Boulder, ColoradoWestview
Davutyan, Nurhan 2008 Estimating the Size of Turkey's Informal Sector: An Expenditure Based ApproachCairoEconomic Research Forum2
Dekmejian, H. Hrair 1971 Egypt under Nasir: A Study in Political DynamicsAlbanyState University of New York Press
Dhillon, NavtejYousef, Tarik 2009 Generation in Waiting: The Unfulfilled Promise of Young People in the Middle EastWashington, DCBrookings Institution Press
Dibeh, Ghassan 2005 The Political Economy of Postwar Reconstruction in LebanonTokyoUnited Nations University
Dibeh, Ghassan 2009
Dillman, Bradford 1997 Reassessing the Algerian economy: Development and reform through the eyes of five policy-makersJournal of Modern African Studies 35 153
Dillman, Bradford 2000 State and Private Sector in Algeria: The Politics of Rent-Seeking and Failed DevelopmentBoulderColorado, Westview
Dillman, Bradford 2001 Facing the market in North AfricaMiddle East Journal 55 198
Doron, Gideon 1996 Two civil societies and one state, in Augustus Richard NortonCivil Society in the Middle East193LeidenBrill
Dreher, Axel 2006 Does globalization affect growth? Evidence from a new index of globalizationApplied Economics 38 1091
Dreher, AxelGaston, NoelMartens, Pim 2008 Measuring Globalization – Gauging its ConsequenceNew YorkSpringer
Drummond, James 2007 8
Dunn, Michael Collins 1986 Egypt: From domestic needs to export marketEverett Katz, JamesThe Implications of Third World Military Industrialization119LexingtonMassachusetts, Lexington Books
Dunn, Ross 1998 11
Dunne, Michele 2006 Evaluating Egyptian ReformWashington, DCCarnegie Endowment
Duzgit, Senem AydinCakir, Rusen 2009 Turkey: A sustainable case of de-radicalisaton?Emerson, MichaelKausch, KristinaYoungs, RichardIslamist Radicalisation: The Challenge for Euro-Mediterranean Relations87BrusselsCentre for European Policy Studies
Egypt, Ministry of Finance 2010
Ehteshami, Anoushiravan 2009 Globalization and Geopolitics in the Middle East: Old Games, New RulesLondonRoutledge
Ehteshami, AnoushiravanWright, Steven M. 2008 Reform in the Middle East Oil MonarchiesLondonIthaca Press
El-Erian, Mohammed A. 1996 Middle Eastern Economies’ External Environment: What Lies Ahead?Middle East Policy 53 137
El-Gamal, Mahmoud A. 2006 Islamic Finance: Law, Economics, and PracticeNew YorkCambridge University Press
El-Gamal, Mahmoud A.Jaffe, Amy M. 2009 Oil, Dollars, Debt, and Crises: The Global Curse of Black GoldNew YorkRoutledge
El-Ghonemy, M. Riad 1998 Affluence and Poverty in the Middle EastLondonRoutledge
El-Gibali, Abdel-Fattah 2009
El Kadi, Ihsan 1998 L’administration, éternel butin de guerrePouvoirs: Revue francaise d'etudes constitutionelles et politiques 86 57
El-Kenz, Ali 1991 Algeria: The Challenge of ModernityEast LansingMichigan State University Press
El Mahdi, AliaRashed, Ali 2009 The changing economic environment and the development of micro- and small enterprises in Egypt, 2006Assaad, RaguiThe Egyptian Labor Market Revisited87CairoThe American University in Cairo Press
El-Mahdi, RababMarfleet, Philip 2009 Egypt: The Moment of ChangeLondonZed Books
El-Mikawy, NohaMohsen, Ramy 2006 Civil Society Participation in the Law-Making Process in EgyptEl-Mikawy, NohaGovernance of Economic Reform: Studies in Legislation, Participation and Information, Egypt, Morocco and Jordan445CairoEconomic Research Forum
Elmussa, SharifSowers, Jeannie 2009
El-Nahhas, Mona3 2008
England, Andrew 2009 3
England, AndrewAllam, Abeer 2009 13
England, AndrewAllam, Abeer 2009
England, AndrewKerr, Simon6 2009 8
Entelis, John P. 1986 Algeria: The Revolution InstitutionalizedBoulder, ColoradoWestview
Entelis, John P.Arone, Lisa J. 1992 Algeria in turmoil: Islam, democracy and the stateMiddle East Policy 40 23
Etling, BruceKelly, JohnFaris, RobertPalfrey, John 2009 Mapping the Arabic Blogosphere: Politics, Culture, and DissentBerkman CenterHarvard University
European Commission25 2000 5
European Union (EU) 2007
Farrell, DianaLund, Susan 2008 The new role of oil wealth in the world economyMcKinsey on Finance 26 14
Faruq, Abd al Khalaq 2009
Fassihi, Farnaz 2009
Field, Michael 1986 The Merchants: The Big Business Families of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf StatesNew YorkPenguin
Freely, Maureen 2007
Fuller, Graham E. 2004 The Youth Crisis in Middle Eastern SocietyClinton, MichiganThe Institute for Social Policy and Understanding
Galal, Ahmed 2008 Rethinking the Role of the State: Industrial Policy in the Middle East and North AfricaCairoThe American University in Cairo Press
Galal, AhmedEl Megharbel, Nihal 2009 Do governments pick winners or losers? An assessment of industrial policy in EgyptGalal, AhmedRethinking the Role of the State: Industrial Policy in the Middle East and North AfricaCairoThe American University in Cairo Press
Galloux, Michel 1999 The State's responses to private Islamic finance experiments in EgyptThunderbird International Business Review 41 494
Gaspard, Toufic K. 2004 A Political Economy of Lebanon 1948–2002: The Limits of Laissez-FaireLeidenBrill Academic Publishers
Gause, Gregory 1994 Oil Monarchies: Domestic and Security Challenges in the Arab Gulf StatesNew YorkCouncil on Foreign Relations Press
Gause, Gregory 2010 The International Relations of the Persian GulfCambridge, UKCambridge University Press
Gerges, Fawaz A. 2005 The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went GlobalCambridge, UKCambridge University Press
Gerstenfeld, Dan 2000 12
Ghabra, Shafeeq N. 1997 The Islamic Movement in KuwaitMiddle East Policy 5 58
Gheissari, Ali 2009 Contemporary Iran: Economy, society, politicsNew YorkOxford University Press
Ghilès, Francis 1998 L’armée a-t-elle une politique économiquePouvoirs: Revue française d’études constitutionelles et politiques 86 85
Ghoneim, Ahmed F.Pigato, Miria 2006 Egypt after the End of the Multiple-Fiber Agreement: A Comparative Regional AnalysisCairoEgyptian Center for Economic Studies
Glain, Stephen J. 2000 2
Glass, Charles 1990 Tribes with Flags: A Journey CurtailedLondonSecker and Warburg
Goldwasser, AmitZaks, DianaShlush, Shahr 2007 Beyond Bachar: Next Steps for Financial ReformLos AngelesMilken Institute
Gonzalez, GabriellaKaroly, Lynn A.Constant, LouaySalem, HanineGoldman, Charles A. 2008 Facing Human Capital Challenges in the 21st CenturyRAND–Qatar Policy InstituteSanta Monica, California
Gray, John 1998 False Dawn: The Delusions of Global CapitalismNew YorkThe New Press
Guazzone, LauraPioppi, Daniela 2009 The Arab State and Neo-Liberal Globalization: The Restructuring of State Power in the Middle EastReadingIthaca Press
Hachemaoui, Mohammed 2009 309
Hachemaoui, Mohammed 2009 La corruption politique en Algérie. Dynamiques, structures et acteurs d'un système de gouvernementbook manuscript to be published by Paris
Hadj-Nacer, Abderrahmane Roustoumi 1989 Les cahiers de la réformeAlgiers, ENAG
Haggard, StephanLee, Chung H. 1993 The Political Dimension of Finance in Economic DevelopmentHaggard, StephanLee, Chung H.Maxfield, SylviaThe Politics of Finance in Developing Countries3Ithaca, New YorkCornell University Press
Hamidi, Muhammad al-Hashimi 1998 The Politicization of Islam: A Case Study of TunisiaBoulderCO, Westview Press
Hammoudi, Abdellah 1997 Master and Disciple: The Cultural Foundations of Moroccan AuthoritarianismChicagoUniversity of Chicago Press
Handoussa, Heba 2008 Egypt's Social Contract: The Role of Civil SocietyCairoEgypt Human Development Report, United Nations Development Program
Havrylyshyn, OlehKunzel, Peter 1997
Henry, Clement M. 1996 The Mediterranean Debt Crescent: Money and Power in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and TurkeyGainesvilleUniversity Press of Florida
Henry, Clement M. 2007 Tunisia's “sweet little” regimeRotberg, RobertWorst of the Worst: Dealing with Repressive and Rogue Nations300Washington, DCBrookings Institution Press
Henry, Clement M.Wilson, Rodney 2004 The Politics of Islamic FinanceEdinburgh, ScotlandEdinburgh University Press
Henry, Pierrede Saint Laurent, Bénédict 2007
Herb, Michael 1999 All in the Family: Absolutism, Revolution and Democracy in the Middle Easern MonarchiesAlbanyState University of New York Press
Herb, Michael 2009 A Nation of Bureaucrats: Political Participation and Economic Diversification in Kuwait and the United Arab EmiratesInternational Journal of Middle East Studies 41 375
Heritage Foundation 2009
Heritage Foundation 2009
Herring, EricRangwala, Glen 2006 Iraq in Fragments: The Occupation and its LegacyLondonHurst
Hertog, Steffen 2005 Segmented clientelism: The political economy of Saudi reform effortsAarts, PaulNonneman, GerdSaudi Arabia in the Balance: Political Economy, Society, Foreign Affairs111LondonHurst
Hertog, Steffen 2005 Building the body politic: the emerging corporatism in Saudi Arabia and the GulfChroniques du Yémen et de la Péninsule Arabe 12
Hertog, SteffenMarch 22 2006
Hertog, Steffen 2008 Petromin: The slow death of statist oil development in Saudi ArabiaBusiness History 50 645
Hertog, Steffen 2010 Princes, Brokers, and Bureaucrats: Oil and State in Saudi ArabiaNew YorkColumbia University Press
Heydemann, Steven 2004 Networks of Privilege in the Middle East: The Politics of Economic Reform RevisitedLondonPalgrave Macmillan
Hidouci, Ghazi 1995 Algérie: la libération inachevéeParisEditions de la Découverte
Hilal, Rida 1987 The Construction of DependencyCairoDar Al-Mustaqbal Al-Arabi
Hilferding, Rudolph 1910 Finance Capital: A Study of the Latest Phase of Capitalist DevelopmentLondonRoutledge
Hinnebusch, RaymondSchmidt, Soren 2008 The State and the Political Economy of Reform in SyriaSt. Andrew'sSt. Andrew's Papers on Contemporary Syria
Hirst, David 1997 8
Howe, Marvine 2005 Morocco: The Islamist Wakening and Other ChallengesOxford, UKOxford University Press
Hudson, Michael 1968 The Precarious Republic: Political Modernization in LebanonNew YorkRandom House
Hudson, Michael 1977 Arab PoliticsNew HavenConnecticut, Yale University Press
Human Rights Watch 2005 Reading between the “Red Lines 17 6
Human Rights Watch, December 4 2007
Humphreys, CharlesBanerji, ArupNabli, Mustapha 2003 Better Governance for Development in the Middle East and North Africa: Enhancing Inclusiveness and AccountabilityWashington, DCThe International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Bank
Humphreys, MacartanSachs, Jeffrey D.Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2007 Escaping the Resource CurseNew YorkColumbia University Press
Ilias, Shayerah 2009 Iran's Economic Conditions: U.S. Policy IssuesCRS Report for CongressWashington, DCCongressional Research Service
International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) 1998 The Military Balance 1998/1999London
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 1998
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 2007
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 2008
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 2009 Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central AsiaWashington, DC
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 2009
International Monetary Fund (IMF) Staff Report 2009
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 2010
Iqbal, ZamirMirakhor, Abbas 1999 Progress and Challenges of Islamic BankingThunderbird International Business Review 41 4
Ismail, Salwa 2009 Changing social structure, shifting alliances and authoritarianism in SyriaLawson, Fred H.Demystifying Syria13LondonSaqi Books
Jabar, Faleh A. 2000 Shaykhs and ideologues: Detribalization and retribalization in Iraq, 1968–1998Middle East Report 215
Jang, Ji-Hyang 2005
Kabbani, NaderKamel, Noura 2009 Tapping into the Economic Potential of Young Syrians During a Time of TransitionYousef, T.Dhillon, N.Generation in Waiting: The Unfulfilled Promise of Young People in the Middle EastWashington, DC, Brookings Institution Press
Kapiszewski, Andrzej16 2005
Karawan, Ibrahim 1996 EgyptDanopolous, Constantine P.Watson, CynthiaThe Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook107WestportConnecticut, Greenwood Press
Karl, Terry Lynn 1997 The Paradox of Plenty: Oil Booms and Petro-StatesBerkeleyUniversity of California Press
Kasaba, Resat 2008 IntroductionKasaba, ResatThe Cambridge History of Turkey1Cambridge, UKCambridge University Press
Kelly, JohnEtling, Bruce 2009 Mapping Change in the Iranian BlogosphereBerkman CenterHarvard University
Kerr, Simeon 2009 7
Kerr, Simeon 2009 7
Kerr, Simeon 2009 17
Khalaf, AbdulhadiLuciani, Giacomo 2008 Constitutional Reform and Political Participation in the GulfDubaiGulf Research Center
Kheir-El-Din, Hanaa 2008 The Egyptian Economy: Current Challenges and Future ProspectsNew YorkThe American University of Cairo Press
Kheir-El-Din, HanaaEl-Sayed, Hoda 1997 Potential Impact of a Free Trade Agreement with the EU on Egypt's Textile IndustryCairoEgyptian Center for Economic Studies
Kingdom Holding 2000
Kostiner, Joseph 2000 Middle East Monarchies: The Challenge of ModernityBoulder, ColoradoLynne Rienner
Kukis, Mark 2009,8816,1899880,00.html
Kurtz, Marcus J.Schrank, Andrew 2007 Growth and governance: Models, measures, and mechanismsJournal of Politics 69 563
Lacey, Robert 2009 Inside the Kingdom: Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi ArabiaNew YorkViking
Lahlou, Kamal27 2010
Lamloum, O. 2006 Tunisie : quelle transition démocratiqueFerrié, Jean-NoëlSantucci, Jean-ClaudeDispositifs de démocratisation et dispositifs autoritaires en Afrique du NordAix-en-ProvenceEdition CNRS121
Lawson, Fred 1992 Divergent modes of economic liberalization in Syria and IraqHarik, IlyaSullivan, Denis J.Privatization and Liberalization in the Middle East123BloomingtonIndiana University Press
Lawson, Fred H. 2009 Demystifying SyriaLondonSaqi Books
Lesch, Ann Mosely 1996 The destruction of civil society in the SudanRichard Norton, A.Civil Society in the Middle EastLeidenE. J. Brill
Leveau, Rémy 1985 Le fellah marocain défenseur du trôneParisFondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques
Lindsey, Ursula 2009
Lippman, Thomas W. 2009 Cooperation under the radar: The U.S.-Saudi Arabian Joint Commission for Economic Cooperation (JECOR)The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1979–2009: Evolution of a Pivotal State71Washington, DCThe Middle East Institute
Lippman, Thomas W. 2009 Sand Trap inside the Mirage: America's Fragile Partnership with Saudi ArabiaBoulderColorado, Westview
Liverani, Andrea 2008 Civil Society in Algeria: The Political Functions of Associational LifeLondonRoutledge
Looney, Robert 2006 29
Looney, Robert 2007 Beyond the Iraq Study Group: The elusive goal of sustained growthStrategic Insights 6
Looney, Robert 2007 The re-emergence of Iranian petro-populismGulf Yearbook 2006–2007417DubaiGulf Research Center
Lopez-Claros, AugustoPorter, Michael E.Schwab, Klaus 2005 The Global Competitiveness Report 2004–2005World Economic Forum
Lowi, Miriam R. 2009 Oil Wealth and the Poverty of PoliticsNew YorkCambridge University Press
Lucas, Russell E. 2005 Institutions and the Politics of Survival in Jordan: Domestic Responses to External Challenges, 1988–2001AlbanyThe State University of New York Press
Luciani, Giacomo 2005 From Private Sector to National Bourgeoisie: Saudi Arabian BusinessAarts, PaulNonneman, GerdSaudi Arabia in the Balance: Political Economy, Society, Foreign Affairs144New YorkNew York University Press
Luciani, Giacomo 2007 The GCC refining and petrochemical industries in global perspectiveWoertz, EckartGulf Geo-Economics165DubaiGulf Research Center
Luciani, Giacomo 2007 Economic and political reform in the Middle EastSchlumberger, OliverDebating Arab Authoritarianism: Dynamics and Durability in Nondemocratic RegimesStanfordStanford University Press
Lustick, Ian S. 1999 Hegemony and the riddle of nationalismBinder, LeonardEthnic Conflict and International Politics in the Middle EastGainesvilleUniversity Press of Florida
Mahdavy, Hussein 1970 The patterns and problems of economic development in rentier states: The case of IranCook, M.Studies in Economic History of the Middle EastLondonOxford University Press
Mahdi, Kamil A. 2009 Oil and Oil Policy in IraqLondonPluto Press
Mahdi, Kamil A.Wurth, AnnaLackner, Helen 2007 Yemen into the Twenty-first Century: Continuity and ChangeReadingIthaca Press
Mahroug, Moncef 1996 Champions, menaces et condammésJeune Afrique 1853 91
Makdisi, Samir 2004 The Lessons of Lebanon. The Economics of War and DevelopmentLondonI. B. Tauris
Malley, Mohammed 2004 Jordan: A case study of the relationship between Islamic finance and Islamist politicsHenry, Clement M.Wilson, RodneyThe Politics of Islamic Finance191EdinburghScotland, Edinburgh University Press
Marcel, Valerie 2006 Oil Titans: National Oil Companies in the Middle EastWashington, DCBrookings Institution Press
Marshall, Shana 2009 Syria and the Financial Crisis: Prospects for ReformMiddle East Policy 16 106
Mattina, ToddCebotari, Aliona 2007 38
Meyer, Guenter 2001 Survival of Small-scale Manufacturing in Cairo during Structural Adjustment: Results from a Long-term StudyEconomic Research Forum for the Arab CountriesIran and Turkey, Working2021
The Middle East Institute 2009 The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1979–2009: Evolution of a Pivotal StateWashington, DC
Monroe, Elizabeth 1981 Britain's Moment in the Middle East, 1914–1971BaltimoreThe Johns Hopkins University Press
Montety, Henri 1940 1973, Old families and new elites in TunisiaWilliam Zartman, I.Man, State, and Society in the Contemporary Maghrib171New YorkPraeger
Moore, Clement Henry 1970 Politics in North AfricaBostonLittle, Brown
Moore, Clement Henry 1994 Images of Development: Egyptian Engineers in Search of IndustryCairoThe American University in Cairo Press
Moore, Pete W. 2009
Morocco, Institut Royal des Etudes Stratégiques (IRES) 2009
Mostafa, Hadia 1997 52
Moustafa, Tamir 2007 The Struggle for Constitutional Power: Law, Politics, and Economic Development in EgyptNew YorkCambridge University Press
Murphy, Emma C. 1999 Economic and Political Change in Tunisia: From Bourguiba to Ben AliNew YorkSt. Martin's Press
Myntti, Cynthia 1999 Paris along the Nile: Architecture in Cairo from the Belle EpoqueCairoThe American University in Cairo Press
Naim, Moises 2000 87
Nashashibi, KarimAlonso-Gamo, PatriciaBazzoni, StefaniaFéler, AlainLaframboise, NicoleParis Horvitz, Sebastian 1998 Algeria: Stabilization and Transition to the MarketWashington, DC
Nasr, Sherine2 2009
Niblock, TimMalik, Mona 2007 The Political Economy of Saudi ArabiaLondonRoutledge
Nitzan, JonathanBichler, Shimshon 2002 The Global Political Economy of IsraelLondonPluto Press
Nitzan, JonathanBichler, Shimshon 2009 Capital as Power: A Study of Order and CreorderLondonRoutledge
Noland, MarcusPack, Howard 2007 The Arab Economies in a Changing WorldWashington, DCPeterson Institute
Nuomani, FarhadBehad, Sohrab 2006 Class and Labor in Iran: Did the Revolution Matter?New YorkSyracuse University Press
O’Driscoll, Gerald P.Holmes, Kim R.Kirkpatrick, Melanie 2000 2000 Index of Economic FreedomWashington, DCThe Heritage Foundation
Onis, Ziya 2006 Varieties and crises of neoliberal globalisation: Argentina, Turkey and the IMFThird World Quarterly 27 239
Onis, Ziya 2009 Conservative globalism at the crossroads: the Justice and Development Party and the thorny path to democratic consolidation in TurkeyMediterranean Politics 14 21
Onis, ZiyaBakir, Caner 2007 Turkey's political economy in the age of financial globalization: The significance of the EU AnchorSouth European Society and Politics 12 147
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) 2008
Owen, Roger 2004 State, Power, and PoliticsLondonRoutledge
Owen, RogerPamuk, Sevket 1998 A History of Middle East Economics in the Twentieth CenturyLondonI. B. Tauris
Osmanoglu, Berrin 2009 The Political Character of Islamic Businessmen in TurkeyMeetingEuropean University Institute, Florence
Ozcan, Kivilcim MetinSevim Kafali, Nur 2007 The Structure of the Turkish Banking Sector after the 2000–2001 Crisis: An Empirical InvestigationCairoEconomic Research Forum
Paroush, Jacob 2007 Banking supervision in IsraelLiviatan, NissanBarkai, HaimThe Bank of Israel: Selected Topics in Israel's Monetary Policy130Oxford, UKOxford University Press
Patton, Marcie J. 1999 195
Pavel, Tal 2009
Perthes, Volker 1997 The Political Economy of Syria under AsadLondonI. B. Tauris
Pesaran, M. Hashem 2009
Phillips, Sarah 2007 Evaluating Political Reform in YemenWashington, DC
Piro, Timothy L. J. 1998 The Political Economy of Market Reforms in JordanLondonRowman and Littlefield
Plessner, Yakir 1994 The Political Economy of Israel: From Ideology to StagnationAlbanyState University of New York Press
Przeworski, AdamAlvarez, MichaelAntonio Cheibub, JoséLimongi, Fernando 1996 What makes democracies endure?Journal of Democracy 7 39
Qandil, Abdel Halim 2008 Al-Ayyam al-AkhiraCairoDar Ath-Thaqafa al-Jadida
Quandt, William B. 1998 Between Ballots and Bullets: Algeria's Transition from AuthoritarianismWashington, DCBrookings Institution Press
Rady, Faiza 2008 899
Ramadan, Tariq 2000 Islam, the West, and Challenges of ModernityLeicester, UKIslamic Foundation
Raphaeli, Nimrod 2007 Syria's fragile economyMiddle East Review of International Affairs 11 34
Raphaeli, NimrodGersten, Bianca 2008
2 2010
Reporters without Borders (RSF) 2009–2009.html
Richards, AlanWaterbury, John 2008 Political Economy of the Middle EastBoulder, ColoradoWestview
Rivlin, Paul 2000 Trade potential in the Middle East: Some optimistic findingsMiddle East Review of International Affairs 4
Rivlin, Paul 2009 Arab Economies in the Twenty-First CenturyNew YorkCambridge University Press
Roberts, Hugh 1994 Doctrinaire Economics and Political Opportunism in the Strategy of Algerian IslamismJohn, RuedyIslam and Secularism in North Africa123New York. Martin's Press
Rocard, Michel 1999 Strengthening Palestinian InstitutionsWashington, DCBrookings Institution Press
Rodrik, Dani 2008 Spence christens a new Washington ConsensusEconomists’ Voice 5
Rogowski, Ronald 1989 Commerce and Coalitions: How Trade Affects Domestic Political AlignmentsPrinceton, New JerseyPrinceton University Press
Ross, Michael L. 1999 The political economy of the resource curseWorld Politics 51 297
Ross, Michael L. 2008 Oil, Islam, and womenAmerican Political Science Review 102 107
Ross, Michael L. 2009
Roy, Sara 1999 De-development revisited: Palestinian economy and society since OsloJournal of Palestine Studies 28 64
Ruedy, John Douglas 2005 Modern Algeria: The Origins and Development of a NationBloomingtonIndiana University Press
Rutherford, Bruce K. 2008 Egypt after Mubarak: Liberalism, Islam, and Democracy in the Arab WorldPrinceton, New JerseyPrinceton University Press
Ryan, Curtis R. 1998 Peace, Bread and Riots: Jordan and the IMFMiddle East Policy 60 54
Saaf, Abdallah 2010 La transition au Maroc: le purgatoireRabat. MoroccoEditions du CERSS
Sachs, Jeffrey 1998 97
Sachs, JeffreyWarner, Andrew 1995 Economic reform and the process of global integrationBrainard, William C.Perry, George L.Brookings Papers on Economic Activity1Washington, DC
Said, Mona 2009 The fall and rise of earnings and inequality in EgyptAssaad, RaguiThe Egyptian Labor Market Revisited53CairoThe American University in Cairo Press
Sakr, Naomi 2001 Satellite Realms: Transnational Television, Globalization and the Middle EastLondonI. B. Tauris
Salamé, Ghassan 1990 “Strong” and “Weak” States: A Qualified Return to the MuqaddimahLuciani, GiacomoThe Arab State29BerkeleyUniversity of California Press
Saleem, Muhammad 2006
Salehi-Isfahani, Djavid 1999 34
Salehi-Isfahani, Djavad 2009 Poverty, inequality, and populist politics in IranJournal of Economic Inequality 7 5
Salem, Eli 1973 Modernization without RevolutionBloomingtonUniversity of Indiana Press
Salloukh, Bassel 2007 Opposition under Authoritarianism: The Case of Lebanon under SyriaMeetingEuropean University Institute
Sater, James N. 2010 Morocco: Challenges to Tradition and ModernityAbingdonOxon, and New York, Routledge
Saudi American Bank (SAMBA) 2009
Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) 1999 Thirty-Fifth Annual Report 1420H (1999G)RiyadhResearch and Statistics Department
Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) 2009 Forty-Fifth Annual Report 1430H (2009G)RiyadhResearch and Statistics Department
Saul, Samir 1997 La France et l’Egypte de 1882 à 1914 – intérêts économiques et implications politiquesParisMinistère de l’Economie, des Finances, et de l’Industrie
Sayan, Serdar 2009 Economic Performance in the Middle East and North Africa: Institutions, Corruption and ReformLondonRoutledge
Sayigh, Yezid 2009 Fixing Broken Windows: Security Sector Reform in Palestine, Lebanon, and YemenWashington, DCCarnegie Endowment, Carnegie Papers17
Selim, Tarek H. 2006 On Efficient Use of Egypt's Energy Resources: Oil and GasCairoEgyptian Center for Economic Studies, Working Paper117
Senor, DanSinger, Saul 2009 Start-up Nation: The Story of Israel's Economic MiracleNew YorkTime Warner Paperbacks
Setser, BradZiembar, Rachael 2009 GCC Sovereign Funds: Reversal of FortuneCouncil on Foreign RelationsCenter for Geoeconomic Studies, Working Paper
Sfakianakis, John 2004 The whales of the Nile: Networks, businessmen and bureaucrats during the era of privatization in EgyptHeydemann, StephenNetworks of Privilege in the Middle East: The Politics of Economic Reform77New YorkPalgrave Macmillan
Sfakianakis, John 2006
Sfakianakis, Johnal Hugail, TurkiMerzaban, Daliah 2009 Prudent Overspending: Saudi State Spending and Signs of RecoveryRiyadhBanque Saudi Fransi
Shehata, Samer 2006 Campaigning with Munir: Voting Behavior in Egyptian Parliamentary ElectionsRobert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies of the European University Institute
Siddiqa, Ayesha 2007 Military Inc.: Inside Pakistan's Military EconomyLondonPluto Press
SIGIR 2009 101
Siino, François 2004 Science et pouvoir dans la Tunisie contemporaineParisEditions Karthala, and Aix-en-Provence
Skinner, Anthony 2008 21
Skinner, Anthony 2009 4
Smith, Kristin 2004 The Kuwait Finance House and the Islamization of public life in KuwaitHenry, Clement M.Wilson, RodneyThe Politics of Islamic Finance168EdinburghScotland, Edinburgh University Press
Smyth, Gareth 2009
SNI-ONA 2010
Snider, Lewis W. 1996 Growth, Debt, and Politics: Economic Adjustment and the Political Performance of Developing CountriesBoulderColorado, Westview
Soliman, Samer 2005 al nizam al qawi wal dawlat al da`ifa: Idarat al azmat al maliyya wal taghyir al siyasi fi `ahd Mubarak (The System of Power and the Weak State: Administration of the Financial Crisis and Political Change in the Mubarak Era)CairoDar Merit
Sorensen, Bent E.Yosha, Oved 2003 Financial market integration in the Middle East: How big is the peace dividend?Israel Economic Review 2 1
Sorsa, Piritta 1999
Springborg, Robert 1989 Mubarak's Egypt: Fragmentation of Political OrderBoulder and LondonWestview
Springborg, Robert 2007 Oil and Democracy in IraqLondonSaqi Books
Springborg, Robert 2009 Development Models in Muslim Contexts: Chinese, “Islamic” and Neo-Liberal AlternativesEdinburghScotland, Edinburgh University Press
Standard and Poor's 2006 12
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2006 Making Globalization WorkLondonAllen Lane 2009
Stone, Martin 1998 The Agony of AlgeriaNew YorkColumbia University Press
Strauss, Delphine 2009 1
6 2007
Takeyh, Ray 2006 Hidden Iran: Paradox and Power in the Islamic RepublicNew YorkHolt
Thaindian News 2008
Transparency International (TI) 2007 Global Corruption Report 2007Cambridge, UKCambridge University Press
Transparency International (TI) 2009 Global Corruption Report 2009Cambridge, UKCambridge University Press
Tripp, Charles 2006 Islam and the Moral Economy: The Challenge of CapitalismCambridge, UKCambridge University Press
Tripp, Charles 2007 A History of IraqCambridgeCambridge University Press
Tsalik, SvetlanaSchiffrin, Anya 2005 Covering Oil: A Reporter's Guide to Energy and DevelopmentRevenue WatchOpen Society Institute
Tugal, Cihan 2009 Passive Revolution: Absorbing the Islamic Challenge to CapitalismStanfordStanford University Press
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 2009 Human Development Report 2009New YorkUNDP
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 2009 Arab Human Development Report 2009: Challenges to Human Security in the Arab countriesNew YorkUNDP
Ünver, H. Akin 2009 Turkey's “Deep-State” and the Ergenekon ConundrumThe Middle East InstitutePolicy Brief23
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) 1993 Assessment of the Legislative SectorCairoUSAID
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) 1993 Assessment of the Potential for Liberalization and Privatization of the Egyptian Cotton SubsectorCairoUSAID
Utvik, Bjorn Olaf 2006 Islamist Economics in Egypt: The Pious Road to DevelopmentBoulder, ColoradoLynne Rienner
Valeri, Marc 2009 Oman: Politics and Society in the Qaboos StateNew YorkColumbia University Press
Vandewalle, Dirk 2008 Libya since 1969: Qadhafi's Revolution RevisitedNew YorkPalgrave Macmillan
Vayrnen, R.Ohlson, T. 1986 Egypt: Arms production in the transnational contextBrzoska, MichaelOhlson, ThomasArms Production in the Third World105LondonTaylor and Francis
Vitalis, Robert 1999 Review of Chaudhry 1997International Journal of Middle East Studies 31 659
Vitalis, Robert 2007 America's Kingdom: Mythmaking on the Saudi Oil FrontierStanfordStanford University Press
Vogel, FrankHayes, Samuel L. 1998 Islamic Law and Finance: Religion, Risk and ReturnKluwer Law International
Wahish, Niveen 2009
Waldner, David 1999 State Building and Late DevelopmentIthacaNew York, Cornell University Press
Warde, Ibrahim 1997
Warde, Ibrahim 2010 Islamic Finance in the Global EconomyEdinburgh, ScotlandEdinburgh University Press
Waterbury, John 1970 Commander of the Faithful: The Moroccan Political Elite – A Study in Segmented PoliticsNew YorkColumbia University Press
Waterbury, John 1997 From Social Contracts to Extraction Contracts: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism and DemocracyEntelis, John P.Islam, Democracy, and the State in North Africa141BloomingtonIndiana University Press
Wehrey, FrederickGreen, Jerrold D.Nichiporuk, BrianNader, AlirezaHansell, LydiaNafisi, RasoolBohandy, S. R. 2009 The Rise of the Pasdaran: Assessing the Domestic Roles of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard CorpsSanta MonicaThe Rand Corporation, National Defense Research Institute
Werenfels, Isabelle 2007 Managing Instability in Algeria: Elites and Political Change since 1995LondonRoutledge
Wigglesworth, RobinTaylor, PaulMenn, Joseph 2009 7
Wiktorowicz, Quintan 1999 The limits of democracy in the Middle East: The case of JordanMiddle East Journal 53 606
Williams, Phil 2009 Criminals, Militias, and Insurgents: Organized Crime in IraqStrategic Studies InstituteU.S. Army War College
Williams, Timothy 2009
Williams, Timothy 2009
Williams, Timothy 2009
Williamson, John 1994 The Political Economy of ReformWashington, DCInstitute for International Economics
Wilson, Rodney 2009
Wilson, Rodney 2009 Shari'a Governance for Islamic Financial InstitutionsTheoryPractice and Muslim Pluralism at Play, Warwick in Venice Palazzo
Winters, Jeffrey A. 1994 Power and the control of capitalWorld Politics 46 419
Woertz, Eckart 2007 Gulf Geo-EconomicsDubaiGulf Research Center
Woertz, Eckart 2009 Implications of Dubai's Debt TroublesDubaiGulf Research Center
World Bank 1991 Arab Republic of Egypt Cotton and Textile Sector StudyWashington, DCWorld Bank
World Bank 1997 World Development Report 1997: The State in a Changing WorldWashington, DCOxford University Press
World Bank 2003 Better Governance for Development in the Middle East and North Africa: Enhancing Inclusiveness and AccountabilityWashington, DCWorld Bank
World Bank 2007
World Bank 2007
World Bank 2008 The Road Not Traveled: Education Reform in the Middle East and AfricaWashington, DCWorld Bank
World Bank 2008 2008 MENA Economic Developments and Prospects: Regional Integration for Global CompetitivenessWashington, DCWorld Bank
World Bank 2008 Doing Business 2009Washington, DCWorld
World Bank 2009 Doing Business 2010: Saudi ArabiaWashington, DCWorld
World Bank 2009 From Privilege to Competition: Unlocking private-led growth in the Middle East and North AfricaWashington, DCWorld Bank
World Bank 2009 2009 MENA Economic Development and Prospects: Navigating through the Global RecessionWashington, DCWorld Bank
World Bank, various yearsWorld Development IndicatorsWashington, DC
World Economic Forum 2007
World Trade Organization 2005
World Trade Organization 2008–449A-A323-56172C9CB127/0/DraftReportOct2008.pdf
Yavuz, M. Hakan 2009 Secularism and Muslim Democracy in TurkeyCambridge, UKCambridge University Press
Yeşilada, Birol 1998 The Mediterranean challengeRedmond, JohnRosenthal, Glenda G.The Expanding European Union Past, Present, and Future177BoulderColorado, Lynne Rienner
Zangeneh, Hamid 1998 The post-revolutionary Iranian Economy: A policy appraisalMiddle East Policy 6 120
Zartman, W. 1991 Tunisia: The Political Economy of ReformBoulder, ColoradoLynne Rienner
Zghal, Abdelkader 1991 The new strategy of the movement of the Islamic Way: Manipulation or expression of political culture?Zartman, I. W.Tunisia: The Political Economy of Reform205BoulderColorado, Lynne Rienner
Zisser, Eyal 2006 Bashar al-Asad and the First Years in PowerLondonI. B. Tauris
Zoubir, Yahia 1999 North Africa in Transition: State, Society, and Economic Transformation in the 1990sGainesvilleUniversity Press of Florida
Zuhur, Sherifa 2007 Egypt: Security, Political and Islamist ChallengesCarlisleStrategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College
Zybertowicz, Andrzej 2007 Transformation of the Polish secret services: From authoritarian to informal power networksBorn, HansCaparini, MarinaDemocratic Control of Intelligence Services: Containing Rogue Elephants65Ashgate Publishing
Zysman, John 1983 Governments, Markets, and Growth: Financial Systems and the Politics of Industrial ChangeIthacaNew York, Cornell University Press