Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 25
  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: September 2012

Chapter 5 - Energy and Security


Executive Summary

Uninterrupted provision of vital energy services (see Chapter 1, Section 1.2.2) – energy security – is a high priority of every nation. Energy security concerns are a key driving force of energy policy. These concerns relate to the robustness (sufficiency of resources, reliability of infrastructure, and stable and affordable prices); sovereignty (protection from potential threats from external agents); and resilience (the ability to withstand diverse disruptions) of energy systems. Our analysis of energy security issues in over 130 countries shows that the absolute majority of them are vulnerable from at least one of these three perspectives. For most industrial countries, energy insecurity means import dependency and aging infrastructure, while many emerging economies have additional vulnerabilities such as insufficient capacity, high energy intensity, and rapid demand growth. In many low-income countries, multiple vulnerabilities overlap, making them especially insecure.

Oil and its products lack easily available substitutes in the transport sector, where they provide at least 90% of energy in almost all countries. Furthermore, the global demand for transport fuels is steadily rising, especially rapidly in Asian emerging economies. Disruptions of oil supplies may thus result in catastrophic effects on such vital functions of modern states as food production, medical care, and internal security. At the same time, the global production capacity of conventional oil is widely perceived as limited. These factors result in rising and volatile prices of oil affecting all economies, especially low-income countries, almost all of which import over 80% of their oil supplies.

Adenikinju, A., 2005: Analysis of the Cost of Infrastructure Failures in a Developing Economy: The Case of the Electricity Sector in Nigeria. AERC Research Paper 148, African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Nairobi, Kenya.
Adenikinju, A., 2008: West African Energy Security Report. University of Ibadan, the Centre for Energy Economics at the University of Texas at Austin, and the Kumasi Institute of Energy, Technology and Environment, Ibadan, Nigeria; Austin, TX; Kumasi, Ghana.
Alhajii, A. F., 2007: What is energy security? (4/5). Middle East Economic Survey, L (52).
Andersson, G., P., Donalek, R., Farmer, N., Hatziargyriou, I., Kamwa, P., Kundur, N., Martins, J., Paserba, P., Pourbeik, J., Sanchez-Gasca, R., Schulz, A., Stankovic, C., Taylor and V., Vittal, 2005: Causes of the 2003 Major Grid Blackouts in North America and Europe, and Recommended Means to Improve System Dynamic Performance. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 20 (4): 1922–1928.
Angevine, G., 2010: Towards North American Energy Security: Removing Barriers to Oil Industry Development. Studies in Energy Policy, Fraser Institute, Vancouver, BC.
Anyanwu, J. C., k., Abderrahim and A., Feidi, 2010: Crude-oil and Natural Gas Production in Africa and the Global Market Situation. Commodities Brief, Vol. 1, Issue 4., African Development Bank, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
Arnold, M., G., Kohlin and R., Persson, 2006: Wood fuels, Livelihoods, and Policy Interventions: Changing Perspectives. World Development, 34(3): 596–611.
,ASCE, 2009: Dams. Available at (accessed 24 March, 2010).
,Asian Development Bank, 2009: Energy Outlook for Asia and the Pacific. Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines.
Auty, R. M., 1993: Sustaining Development in Mineral Economies: The Resource Curse Thesis. Routledge, London, UK and New York, NY.
Auty, R. M., 1994: Industrial policy reform in six large newly industrializing countries: The resource curse thesis. World Development, 22 (1): 11–26.
Balat, M. and H., Balat, 2009: Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel. Applied Energy, 86 (11): 2273–2282.
Bambawale, M. J. and B. K., Sovacool, 2011: China's Energy Security: The Perspective of Energy Users. Applied Energy, 88 (5): 1949–1956.
Bates, B. C., Z. W., Kundzewicz, S., Wu and J. P., Palutikof, (eds.), 2008: Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC). IPCC Secretariat, Geneva.
Bohi, D. R. and M. A., Toman, 1996: The Economics of Energy Security. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, Massachusetts.
,BP, 2007: Statistical Review of World Energy 2007. BP plc., London, UK.
,BP, 2009: Statistical Review of World Energy 2009. BP plc., London, UK.
,BP, 2010: Statistical Review of World Energy 2010. BP plc., London, UK.
Brown, L., 2010: U.S. Car Fleet Shrank by Four Million in 2009 – After a Century of Growth, U.S. Fleet Entering Era of Decline. Available at (accessed 7 April, 2010).
Brunnschweiler, C. N. and E. H., Bulte, 2008: The Resource Curse Revisited and Revised: A Tale of Paradoxes and Red Herrings. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 55 (3): 248–264.
Burnett, S. H. and W., Dwyer, 2011: Will Green Energy Make the United States Less Secure? Brief Analyses No. 739, National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA), Dallas, TX.
Buttle, J., J. T., Muir and J., Frain, 2004: Economic Impacts of Climate Change on the Canadian Great Lakes Hydro-electric Power Producers: A Supply Analysis. Canadian Water Resources Journal, 29: 89–109.
Cancel, D., 2009: Venezuela Orders 20% Reduction in Electricity Use (Update2). Available at (accessed 22 December, 2009).
Carter, J., 1980: State of the Union Address Delivered Before a Joint Session of the Congress. President of the United States of America.
,CEPAL, 2007: La Seguridad Energética en America Latina y el Caribe en el Contexto Mundial (Energy Security in Latin America and the Caribbean in the Global Context). Santiago, Chile, Comisión Económica para Lationamerica y el Caribe de Naciones Unidas (United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean [ECLAC])
Chaudhry, K. A., 1997: The Price of Wealth: Economies and Institutions in the Middle East. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Cherp, A. and J., Jewell, 2010: Measuring energy security: From universal indicators to contextualized frameworks. In The Routledge Handbook to Energy Security. B., Sovacool, (ed.), Routledge.
Cherp, A, and J., Jewell, 2011: The Three Perspectives on Energy Security: Intellectual History, Disciplinary Roots and the Potential for Integration. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 3 (4): 202–212
Cherp, A., J., Jewell and A., Goldthau, 2011: Governing Global Energy: Systems, Transitions, Complexity. Global Policy, 2 (1): 75–88.
Chester, L., 2010: Conceptualising Energy Security and Making Explicit its Polysemic Nature. Energy Policy, 38 (2): 887–895.
Chopra, K. and P., Dasgupta, 2000: Common Property Resources and Common Property Regimes in India: a Country Report. Institute of Economic Growth, New Delhi (Draft).
Collier, P., 2007: The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can be Done About It. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Comesaña, F., 2008: Integración energética en América Latina (Energy Integration in Latin America). Available at–03–27/569/integracion-energetica-en-america-latina/ (accessed 3 April, 2011).
Coutsoukis, P., 2008: World Pipelines Maps. Available at (accessed 24 February, 2011).
Crane, K., A., Goldthau, M., Toman, T., Light, S. E., Johnson, A., Nader, A., Rabasa and H., Dogo, 2009: Imported Oil and US National Security. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA.
Delucchi, M. A. and J. J., Murphy, 2008: US Military Expenditures to Protect the Use of Persian Gulf Oil for Motor Vehicles. Energy Policy, 36 (6): 2253–2264.
Dobson, I., B. A., Carreras, V. E., Lynch and D. E., Newman, 2007: Complex systems analysis of series of blackouts: cascading failure, critical points, and self-organization. Chaos, 17 (2): 026103.
Doggett, T., 2010: EPA Begins Study on Shale Gas Drilling. Reuters. Washington, DC
Donnan, S., 2005: Financial Times. Indonesian Outage Leaves 100m Without Electricity
,EISA, 2007: Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. Public Law 110–140, 110th United States Congress, Washington, DC.
,EIU, 2009: Index of Democracy 2008. Economist Intelligence Unit, London, UK.
,European Commission, 2000: Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply. Green Paper, Communication from the Commission to the European parliament, The Council, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, European Commission, Brussels.
,European Parliament, 2006: Directive 2005/89/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 January 2006 Concerning Measures to Safeguard Security of Electricity Supply and Infrastructure Investment. Official Journal of the European Union, European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, Strasbourg.
Eurostat, , 2011: Statistical Office of the European Communities. Available at (accessed 24 April, 2011).
Fardmanesh, M., 1991: Dutch Disease Economics and Oil Syndrome: An Empirical Study. World Development, 19 (6): 711–717.
Farrell, A. E., H., Zerriffi and H., Dowlatabadi, 2004: Energy Infrastructure and Security. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 29 (1): 421–469.
Fearon, J. D. and D. D., Laitin, 2003: Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War. American Political Science Review, 97 (01): 75–90.
Finon, D. and F., Roques, 2008: Financing Arrangements and Industrial Organisation for New Nuclear Build in Electricity Markets. Cambridge Working Papers in Economics, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Geller, H., P., Harrington, A. H., Rosenfeld, S., Tanishima and F., Unander, 2006: Polices for Increasing Energy Efficiency: Thirty Years of Experience in OECD Countries. Energy Policy, 34 (5): 556–573.
Gordon, J., R. W., Button, K. J., Cunningham, T. I., Reid, I., Blickstein, P. A., Wilson and A., Goldthau, 2008: Domestic Trends in the United States, China, and Iran. Implications for US Navy Strategic Planning. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA.
Grape, S. G., 2006: Technology-Based Oil and Natural Gas Plays: Shale Shock! Could There Be Billions in the Bakken?Washingtonk, DC, United States Energy Information Administration (US EIA)
Greene, D. L. and S., Ahmad, 2005: Costs of US Oil Dependence: 2005 Update. ORNL/TM-2005/45, United States Department of Energy (USDOE), Washington, DC.
Greene, D. L., 2010: Measuring energy security: Can the United States achieve oil independence?Energy Policy, 38 (4): 1614–1621.
Grove, A. S., 2008: An Energy Policy We Can Stick To. The Washington Post
Gupta, E., 2008: Oil Vulnerability Index of Oil-importing Countries. Energy Policy, 36 (3): 1195–1211.
Hester, A. and J., Welsh, 2009: Superpower? Oil could make Stephen Harper a Superhero. The Globe and Mail. Toronto, ON, 2009: Oficial: Gasoducto del Sur al archivo” (Official: South Gas Pipeline Shelved). Available at (accessed 24 April, 2011).
Hines, P., J., Apt and S., Talukdar, 2008: Trends in the history of large blackouts in the United States. Power and Energy Society General Meeting – Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, IEEE, 20–24 July, Pittsburgh, PA.
Hughes, L., 2010: Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications for regional energy security. Energy Policy, 38 (6): 2692–2699.
,IADB, 2010: Mesoamerica Renews Push Towards Integration. Available at–10–25/integration-mesoamerica-idb,8234.html (accessed 3 April, 2011).
,IAEA, 2007a: Extending the Operational Life Span of Nuclear Plants. Available at (accessed 7 April, 2010).
,IAEA, 2007b: Considerations to Launch a Nuclear Power Programme. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria.
,IAEA, 2008: Financing of new nuclear power plants. No. NG-T-4.2, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria.
,IAEA, 2010: Power Reactor Information System. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria.
,IAEA, 2011: Integrated fuel cycle information system. Available at (accessed 25 July, 2011).
Ibitoye, F. I. and A., Adenikinju, 2007: Future Demand for Electricity in Nigeria. Applied Energy, 84 (5): 492–504.
,IEA, 2007: World Energy Outlook 2007. International Energy Agency (IEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris, France.
,IEA, 2009a: Natural gas information 2009. IEA Statistics, International Energy Agency (IEA) or the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris, France.
,IEA, 2009b: Oil information 2009. IEA Statistics, International Energy Agency (IEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris, France.
,IEA, 2010a: World Energy Outlook 2010. International Energy Agency (IEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris, France.
,IEA, 2010b: International Energy Agency: Statistics and Balances. International Energy Agency (IEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris, France.
,IGU, 2010: World LNG Report. Petronas and International Gas Union (IGU), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Oslo, Norway.
,IHS, 2011: IHS Indexes. Available at (accessed 24 April, 2011).
Iimi, A., 2007: Estimating Global Climate Change Impacts on Hydropower Projects: Applications in India, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. Policy Research Working Paper 4344, The World Bank, Washington, DC.
,IPCC, 1998: The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, An Assessment of Vulnerability. A Special Report of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Iranzo, S. and M. C., Carrasco, 2008: La situación energética en Latinoamérica. (Energy Status in Latin America). Boletín Económico, Banco de España, Madrid.
Jaffe, A. M., M. T., Klare and N., Elhefnawy, 2008: The Impending Oil Shock: An Exchange. Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, 50 (4): 61–82.
Jansen, J. C., W. G., van Arkel and M. G., Boots, 2004: Designing Indicators of Long-term Energy Supply Security. ECN-C-007, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten, Netherlands.
Jansen, J. C. and A. J., Seebregts, 2010: Long-term Energy Services Security: What is it and How Can it be Measured and Valued?Energy Policy, 38 (4): 1654–1664.
Jewell, J., 2011: A Nuclear-powered North Africa: Just a Desert Mirage or is There Something on the Horizon?Energy Policy, 39(8): 4445–4457.
Jewell, J. 2011: Ready for Nuclear Energy?: An Assessment of Capacities and Motivations for Launching New National Nuclear Power Programs. Energy Policy, 39(3): 1041–1055.
Jones, D. W., P. N., Leiby and I. K., Paik, 2004: Oil Price Shocks the Macroeconomy: What Has Been Learned Since 1996. Energy Journal, 25 (2): 1–32.
Kane, R. P., 2002: Precipitation Anomalies in Southern America Associated with a Finer Classification of El Nino and and La Nina Events. International Journal of Climatology, 22: 357–373.
Karl, T. L., 1997: The Paradox of Plenty, Oil Booms and Petro-State. University of California Press, Berkley.
Karl, T.L., 1998: State Building and Petro Revenues. The Geopolitics of Oil, Gas, and Ecology in the Caucasus and Caspian Sea Basin, M., Garcelon, E. W., Walker, A., Patten-Wood and A., Radovich, (eds.), UC Berkeley: Berkeley Program in Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies., Berkely, CA.
Karl, T.L., 2005: Understanding the Resource Curse. In Covering Oil: A Guide to Energy and Development, Revenue Watch, Open Society Institute, New York, NY, pp. 21–27.
Katz, M., U., Bartsch, H., Malothra and M., Cuc, 2004: Lifting the Oil Curse: Improving Petroleum Revenue Management in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Monetary Fund (IMF), Washington, DC.
Kaufmann, D., A., Kraay and M., Mastruzzi, 2008: Governance Matters VII: Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators 1996–2007. Policy Research Working Paper 4654, Development Research Group and Global Governance Program, The World Bank, Washington, DC.
Kendell, J. M., 1998: Measures of Oil Import Dependence. United States Department of Energy (US DOE), Washington, DC.
Klare, M. T., 2008: Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet: The New Geopolitics of Energy. Metropolitan Books, New York, NY.
Komendantova, N., A., Patt, L., Barras and A., Battaglini, 2009: Perception of risks in renewable energy projects: The case of concentrated solar power in North Africa. Energy Policy, In Press, Corrected Proof.
Korowicz, D., 2010: Tipping point: Near-Term Systemic Implications of a Peak in Global Oil Production: An Outline Review. The Foundation for the Economics of Sustainability, Dublin.
Kruyt, B., D. P., van Vuuren, H. J. M., de Vries and H., Groenenberg, 2009: Indicators for Energy Security. Energy Policy, 37 (6): 2166–2181.
Le Coq, C. and E., Paltseva, 2009: Measuring the Security of External Energy Supply in the European Union. Energy Policy, 37 (11): 4474–4481.
Lehman, Brothers, 2008: Global Oil choke Points: How Vulnerable is the Global Oil Market?, Lehman Brothers Inc., New York, NY.
Leite, C. A. and J., Weidmann, 1999: Does Mother Nature Corrupt? Natural Resources, Corruption, and Economic Growth. Working Paper No. 99/85, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Washington, DC.
Lovins, A. B. and L. H., Lovins, 1982: Brittle Power: Energy Strategy for National Security. Brick house Publishing Company, Andover, MA.
Luft, G., 2010: The Falkland Islands – A New Frontier in the 21st Century Resource War?Journal of Energy Security, (March 2010).
Macfarlane, A. M. and M., Miller, 2007: Nuclear Energy and Uranium Resources. ELEMENTS, 3 (3): 185–192.
McAleb, W., 2005: The Future of the US LNG Marketplace. Business Briefing: LNG Review, R.W. Beck and Touch Briefings, McLean, VA and London, UK.
Meier, A., 2005: Saving Electricity in a Hurry: Dealing with Temporary Shortfalls in Electricity Supplies. International Energy Agency (IEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris, France.
,Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, 2010: Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period up to 2030. Moscow Institute of Energy Strategy, Moscow.
Müller-Kraenner, S., 2008: Energy Security: Re-measuring the World. Earthscan, London, UK.
,NADA, 2009: Economic Impact of America's New-car and New-truck Dealers. Available at (accessed 4 April, 2010).
,NAFTA, 2002: Chapter Six: Energy and Basic Petrochemicals. In North America Free Trade Association Treaty.
Nakano, J., 2011: Japan's Energy Supply and Security since the March 11 Earthquake. Available at (accessed 3 March, 2011).
,NEA, 2008: Nuclear Energy Outlook. Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), OECD Publishing, Paris, France.
Neff, T., 1997: Improving Energy Security in Pacific Asia: Diversification and Risk Reduction for Fossil and Nuclear Fuels. Project Commissioned by the Pacific Asia Regional Energy Security (PARES) Project, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
,NEI, 2010: Nuclear Industry's Comprehensive Approach Develops Skilled Work Force for the Future. Fact Sheet, Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), Washington, DC.
Nelson, P. and C. M., Sprecher, 2008: What determines the extent of national reliance on civil nuclear power? NSSPI-08–014, Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute, College Station, TX.
,North American Electric Reliability Corporation, 2010: Reliability Standards for the Bulk Electric Systems of North America., Princeton, NJ.
,OLADE, 2007a: Energy Statistics. Energy Economic Information System. Latin American Energy Organisation (OLADE), Quito, Equador.
,OLADE, 2007b: Eficiencia Energética: Recurso no Aprovechado (Energy Efficiency: a Forgotten Resource). Latin American Energy Organisation (OLADE), Quito, Ecuador.
Osborn, J. and C., Kawann, 2001: Reliability of the US Electricity System: Recent Trends and Current Issues. LBNL-47043, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
Parsons, Brinckerhoff, 2009: Powering the Future: Mapping Out Low-carbon Path to 2050. Parsons Brinckerhoff, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
,PDVSA, 2009: Petroamerica. Available at (accessed 24 April, 2011).
,PennEnergy, 2010: Chesapeake Energy wants to export LNG. Available at (accessed 23 January, 2011).
Pistilli, M., 2009: Uranium Resource Competition Heats Up. Available at (accessed 7 April, 2010).
Proyecto, Mesoamérica, 2009: Proyecto Integracion y Desarrollo Mesoamerica (Mesoamerican Integration and Development Project). San Salvador, El Salvador, Proyecto Mesoamérica
Reuters, , 2009: Brazil's Largest Cities Hit by Blackout, Reuters
Rogner, H.-H., 2009: Nuclear Power in the World today: Today and in the 21st Century. IAEA Regional Asia and the Pacific Seminar on Providing Decision Support for Nuclear Power Planning and Development, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Chengdu, China.
Roig-Franzia, M., 2007: A Culinary and Cultural Staple in Crisis: Mexico Grapples With Soaring Prices for Corn – and Tortillas. Washington Post
Ross, M. L., 2001: Does Oil Hinder Democracy?World Politics, 53 (3): 325–361.
Sacchetti, D., 2008: Generation Next. IAEA Bulletin, 49 (2): 64–65.
Sandrea, R., 2010: U.S. Shale Gas – A Key to Energy Security. Available at (accessed 23 January, 2011).
,SESEM-CFT, 2005: A Review of the Power Sector in Latin America and the Caribbean, Evolution in the Market and Investment Opportunities for CFTs. Contract No. NNE5–2002–96, Securing Energy Supply and Enlarging Markets through Cleaner Fossil Technology (SESEM-CFT), Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH (DMT), Latin American Energy Organisation (OLADE) and the Spanish Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Essen, Germany; Quito, Equador and Madrid, Spain.
Shore, J. and J., Hackworth, 2003: EIA Petroleum Feature Articles. Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss, Energy Information Agency, (ed.) US Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
Soares de Oliveira, R., 2006: Context, Path Dependency and Oil-Based Development in the Gulf of Guinea. In Dead Ends of Transition: Rentier Economies and Protectorates. M., Dauderstädt and A., Schildberg, (eds.), Campus Verlag, Frankfurt.
Soares de Oliveira, R., 2007: Oil and Politics in the Gulf of Guinea. Columbia University Press, New York, NY.
Söderbergh, B., K., Jakobsson and K., Aleklett, 2009: European Energy Security: The Future of Norwegian Natural Gas Production. Energy Policy, 37 (12): 5037–5055.
Söderbergh, B., K., Jakobsson and K., Aleklett, 2010: European Energy Security: An Analysis of Future Russian Natural Gas Production and Exports. Energy Policy, 38 (12): 7827–7843.
Sovacool, B. and M., Brown, 2010: Competing Dimensions of Energy Security: An International Perspective. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 35 (1): 77–108.
Sovacool, B. and M. V., Khuong, 2011: Energy Security and Competition in Asia: Challenges and Prospects for China and Southeast Asia. In The Dragon and the Tiger Cubs: China, ASEAN, and Regional Integration. D. S. L., Jarvis and A., Welch, (eds.), Palgrave MacMillan, New York, NY.
Sovacool, B. K., 2009: Sound climate, energy, and transport policy for a carbon constrained world. Policy and Society, 27 (4): 273–283.
Sovacool, B.K., 2010: The political economy of oil and gas in Southeast Asia: heading towards the natural resource curse. Pacific Review, 23 (2): 225–259.
Stern, J. P., 2009: Continental European Long-Term Gas Contracts: Is a Transition Away from Oil Product-linked Pricing Inevitable and Imminent?, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Oxford.
Stevens, P., 2010: Chatham House Report. the Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, UK.
Stirling, A., 1994: Diversity and Ignorance in Electricity Supply Investment: Addressing the Solution Rather than the Problem. Energy Policy, 22 (3): 195–216.
Stirling, A., 1998: On the Economics and Analysis of Diversity. Paper No. 28, Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, Sussex, UK.
,US DOE, 2010: History of the Department of Energy. Available at (accessed 23 January, 2011).
,US EIA, 2008: Caribbean. Analysis Briefs, United States Energy Information Administration (US EIA), Washington, DC.
,US EIA, 2009: Ecuador. Country Analysis Brief, United States Energy Information Administration (US EIA), Washington, DC.
,US EIA, 2010: U.S. Crude Oil Imports by Country of Origin. Available at (accessed 23 January, 2011).
,US EIA, 2011a: International Energy Statistics. Available at (accessed 24 April, 2011).
,US EIA, 2011b: International Petroleum (Oil) Prices and Crude Oil Import Costs. Independent Statistics and Analysis, United States Energy Information Administration (US EIA), Washington, DC.
,US Government Accountability Office, 2006: Energy Security: Issues Related to Potential Reductions in Venezuelan Oil Production. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate., Washington, DC.
Vesely, M., 2004: The Vanishing Oil Tankers. African Business, November (303): 44.
von Hippel, D., T., Suzuki, J. H., Williams, T., Savage and P., Hayes, 2009: Energy Security and Sustainability in Northeast Asia. Energy Policy, In Press, Corrected Proof.
Wohlgemuth, N., 2008: Powering Industrial Growth – The Challenges of Energy Security for Africa. Working Paper, United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Vienna, Austria.
,World Bank, 2010: Infrastructure. Available at (accessed 1 August, 2010).
,World Nuclear Association, 2011a: Processing of used nuclear fuel. Available at (accessed 25 July, 2011).
,World Nuclear Association, 2011b: Uranium enrichment. Available at (accessed 25 July, 2011).
,World Nuclear Association, 2011c: World uranium mining. Available at (accessed 25 July, 2011).
Yergin, D., 1988: Energy Security in the 1990s.Foreign Affairs, 67 (1): 110–132.
Yergin, D., 2006: Ensuring Energy Security. Foreign Affairs, 85 (2): 69–82.
Yu, W. and M., Pollitt, 2009: Does Liberalisation cause more electricity blackouts? Evidence from a global study of newspaper reports. EPRG Working Paper 0827, Cambridge Working Paper in Economics 0911, Electricity Policy Research Group (EPRG), Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.