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The Forgotten Diaspora
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Book description

This book traces the history of early seventeenth-century Portuguese Sephardic traders who settled in two communities on Senegal's Petite Côte. There, they lived as public Jews, under the spiritual guidance of a rabbi sent by the newly established Portuguese Jewish community in Amsterdam and were protected from agents of the Inquisition by local Muslim rulers. The Petite Côte communities included several Jews of mixed Portuguese-African heritage as well as African wives, offspring, and servants. The blade weapons trade was an important part of their commercial activities. These merchants participated marginally in the slave trade but fully in the arms trade, illegally supplying West African markets with swords. This arms trade depended on artisans and merchants based in Morocco, Lisbon, and northern Europe and affected warfare in the Sahel and along the Upper Guinea Coast. The study discovers previously unknown Jewish communities and by doing so offers a reinterpretation of the dynamics and processes of identity construction throughout the Atlantic world.

Reviews

‘A fascinating and richly documented study of identity negotiation among Portuguese New Christian merchants who settled in seventeenth-century Senegambia. These men married or cohabited with women from African elites, maintained contacts with the Sephardim of Amsterdam, traded across multiple boundaries (behaving when necessary as Catholics), and lived openly as Jews.'

Miriam Bodian - University of Texas, Austin

‘In this richly textured study, Mark and Horta show how a forgotten diaspora of Sephardic Jews from Lisbon connected three continents and laid the foundation for the emergence of a dynamic Atlantic world. Theirs is a history of the intimacy of Jewish-Muslim relations, the flexible nature of Jewish identity and practice in an African setting, and the ways that Judaism influenced African spirituality. This is a story that had to be told.'

Walter Hawthorne - Michigan State University and author of From Africa to Brazil: Culture, Identity, and an Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600–1830

‘This is a superb piece of detective work. Mark and Horta trace the history of several Jewish communities in late sixteenth- and early seventeenth-century Senegambia and use it to cast light on the history of the Jewish Diaspora, on West African commerce, and on the construction of race in the early modern world.'

Martin Klein - University of Toronto

'… meticulously researched … this path-breaking book has persuasively demonstrated the importance of West African Jews for understanding the early modern Atlantic world.'

Daniel J. Schroeter Source: Journal of African History

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Contents

Bibliography
Archives
Lisbon
Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino [AHU]
Cabo Verde, caixa 1, docs. 84, 85, 93
caixa 2, doc. 15
caixa 3, doc. 64
Biblioteca da Ajuda
cód. 51-IX-25
cód. 51-VI-54, no. 38
Arquivos Nacionais/Torre do Tombo [ANTT]
Inquisição de Lisboa
Livro 25
Livro 59
Livro 194
Livro 202
Livro 203
Livro 204
Livro 205
Livro 206
Livro 208
Livro 209
Livro 210
Livro 217
Conselho Geral do S. Oficio
Livro 301
Livro 302
Livro 314
Mesa da Conciência e Ordens
Livro 24
Núcleo Antigo 799 (Customs Records)
Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal/ Lisbon [BNL]
Códices (Cód.)
297, fol. 1–109, André Álvares de Almada, Tratado breve dos Reinos de Guiné do Cabo Verde
454, Francisco de Lemos Coelho, Discripção da Costa de Guiné e situação de todos os portos, e rios della; e roteyro para se poderem navegar todos seus rios, 1684
525, fol. 1–56. André Álvares de Almada, untitled abridged version of the Tratado followed by anonymous additions
Reservado (Res.)
Cód. 319, Francisco de Lemos Coelho,Descripção da Costa da Guiné desde o cabo Verde athe Serra Lioa com Todas Ilhas e Rios que os Brancos Navegão, 1669
Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa
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Madrid
Real Academia de la Historia [RAHM]
Jesuitas, vol. 185, no. [16]
Fundo Velasquez, cod. 36, Estante 22, grade 4, no. 75
Munich
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Codex hispanicus 27 (Valentim Fernandes)
Oporto
Biblioteca Pública e Arquivo Municipal do Porto
Ms. 603: André Álvares de Almada, Tratado breve dos Rios de Guiné do Cabo Verde
Amsterdam
Gemeente Archief
334: Archief van de Portugees-Israëlietische Gemeente te Amsterdam/Portuguese Jewish Community Archives
Books 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 421, 422
5075: Archief van de Notarissen ter standplaats Amsterdam/Notarial Archives [NA]
NA 62 fol. 206 (January 22 and November 22, 1610)
NA 62 fol. 209 (December 8, 1610)
NA 62 fol. 217v (January 11, 1614)
NA 62 fol. 218v (January 19, 1611)
NA 62 fol. 345 (January 12, 1612)
NA 124 fol. 25v–26v (March 16, 1611)
NA 137 fol. 210–210v (January 22, 1615)
NA 160 fol. 28–29v (October 4, 1619)
NA 338 fol. 244 (June 21, 1617)
NA 400A fol. 172–172v (January 24, 1630)
NA 414B/528 (December 12, 1636).
NA 461, fol. 297–298 (October 17, 1619)
NA 625 fol. 541–542 (May 22, 1620)
NA 629 fol. 98v–100 (May 16, 1623)
NA 632 fol. 250 (December 4, 1626)
NA 645 blz 594 (November 6–7, 1619)
NA 645 fol. 596 (November 6, 1619)
NA, 645 / 887 (January 22, 1620)
NA 645 blz. 580 (November 1, 1619)
NA 645 blz 1150–1151 (November 13, 1620)
NA 792 blz. 846–847 (1636)
NA 1555A blz. 85–86 (April 1, 1638)
NA 2182/100–113 (April 27, 1677)
NA 3686/607 (June 17, 1681)
NA 3686/609 (June 17, 1681).
Lima
Archivo General de la Nación
Leg. 34; 1578–1624; Nueva signatura; SO-CO Ca 2; Do 8; Año 1573 F 1014v: “cargazones llevadas a Cacheu, en el Nuestra Señora del Vencimiento y San Juan Bautista, a cargo de Manoel Batista Peres; fecha August 15–November 26, 1616.”
Tribunal de la Inquisición, Concurso de Acreedores de Manuel Bautista Pérez, Leg 35, Nueva signatura, SO-CO, Ca 18, Do 197, p. 179 (fol. 490v–491); fol. 477v–478.
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Jewish Cemetery Beth Haim at Ouderkerk aan de Amstel, Database, http://www.stenenarchief.org.
Unpublished Dissertations and Conference Papers
Almeida, Carlos, “Uma Infelicidade Feliz. A imagem de África e dos Africanos na Literatura Missionária sobre o Kongo e a região mbundu (meados do séc. XVI – primeiro quartel do séc. XVIII,” Ph.D. dissertation, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2009.
Ba, Idrissa, “Présence juive au Sahara et au Soudan au Moyen Age: perceptions et réalités,” thèse de doctorat, Université de Paris I Panthéon – Sorbonne, 2006.
Doortmont, Michel, “Patterns of Contact and Interaction between Dutch and Gold Coast Communities: Agency and Brokerage in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade and Beyond,” paper presented to conference, “Brokers of Change, Atlantic Commerce and Cultures in the ‘Guinea of Cabo Verde’,” University of Birmingham, June 11, 2009.
Everts, Natalie, “Incorporating Euro-Africans in Akan Lineages and a Modest Development Towards a Euro-African Identity in Eighteenth-Century Elmina,” paper presented to conference, “Brokers of Change, Atlantic Commerce and Cultures in the ‘Guinea of Cabo Verde’,” University of Birmingham, June 11, 2009.
Frade, Florbela Veiga, “As Relações Económicas e Sociais das Comunidade Sefarditas Portuguesas: o Trato e a Família: 1532–1632,” doctoral dissertation in History, Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa, 2006.
Freire, Francisco, “Identitary discourse in Arabophone Mauritania and the pervasive ‘Jewish element’,” paper presented to the conference Knowledge and the Sciences in Africa, 20th International Conference of the African Studies Association in Germany (VAD), Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main, July 24, 2006.
Freire, Francisco, “Narrativas naçrani entre os bidan do sudoeste da Mauritânia: a viagem europeia e suas reconfigrações tribais,” doctoral dissertation in Anthropology, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2008.
Green, Tobias, “Masters of Difference. Creolization and the Jewish Presence in Cabo Verde: 1497–1672,” Ph.D. dissertation, Centre of West African Studies, University of Birmingham, 2005.
Horta, José da Silva, “A ‘Guiné do Cabo Verde’: Produção textual e representações (1578–1684),” doctoral dissertation in History, Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa, 2002 (Lisbon, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian/Fundação para Ciência e a Tecnologia, in press).
Lahon, Didier, “Esclavage et Confréries Noires au Portugal durant l'Ancien Régime (1441–1830),” Ph.D. dissertation, EHESS, Paris, 2001.
Lydon, Ghislaine, “Partners in Profit: The Legal and Practical Implications of Muslim-Jewish Collaborations in Trans-Saharan Trade,” paper presented to the meeting of the ESSHC, April 2010.
Marques, Joana, “A problemática do comércio ilegal de espadas em Angola (1590–1618): uma questão em aberto,” Seminar on Expansion History, Lisbon University, 2009.
Mendes, António de Almeida, “Aspects de l'Expansion Portugaise en Afrique Occidentale aux XVe–XVIIe siècles: organisation des échanges et actions des Lançados et Tangomaos entre cap Vert et Serra Leoa,” Mémoire de D.E.A., École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 2000, pp. 44–45.
Mendes, António de Almeida, “Child Slaves in the Early North Atlantic, Northern Senegambia to Portugal, 15th–16th Century,” paper presented to the conference “Brokers of Change, Atlantic Commerce and Cultures in the ‘Guinea of Cabo Verde’,” University of Birmingham, June 12, 2009.
Moraes, N.I., “Contribution à l'Histoire de la Petite Côte (Sénégal) au XVII siècle,” Thèse pour le Doctorat du 3e Cycle, Univ. de Paris-I, Paris, 1976.
Petenko, Jaime, “Transforming the Hood: Faith-Based Organizations in New Orleans and Community Development,” M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 2005.
Sackur, Amanda, “The Development of Creole Society and Culture in Saint-Louis and Gorée, 1719–1817,” Ph.D. thesis, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, 1999.
Silva, Filipa Ribeiro da, “A Inquisição em Cabo Verde, Guiné e S. Tomé e Príncipe (1536–1821): Contributo para o estudo da política do Santo Ofício nos territórios africanos,” Master's thesis, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2002.
Silva, Marco Antônio Nunes da, “O Brasil holandês nos Cadernos do Promotor: Inquisição de Lisboa, século XVII,” Ph.D. dissertation, History Department, Universidade de São Paulo, 2003.
Torrão, Maria Manuel Ferraz, “Tráfico de escravos entre a Costa da Guiné e a América Espanhola. Articulação dos impérios ultramarinos ibéricos num espaço atlântico (1466–1595),” Ph.D. dissertation Instituto Investigação Científica Tropical/University of Açores, 2 vols., Lisbon (in press).
Wheat, David, “The Afro-Portuguese Maritime World and the Foundations of Spanish Caribbean Society, 1570–1640,” Ph.D. dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 2009.

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