This chapter deals with ecology. It contains sections on (general comments on) ecological distribution, tolerances and preferences; on bathymetric distribution; on sedimentary environments; on (bio)geographic distribution; on oceanography; and on environmental interpretation technologies. The section on bathymetric distribution includes sub-sections on marginal marine or paralic environments; on shallow marine or neritic environments; and on deep marine, or bathyal and abyssal, environments. The section on sedimentary environments includes sub-sections on marginal marine, peri-deltaic; shallow marine, peri-reefal; and deep marine, submarine fan sub-environments. The section on oceanography includes a sub-section on the organic carbon cycle and oxygenation.
Foraminiferal ecology is the study of Foraminifera in relation to their environment, including their distribution, tolerances and preferences; their abundance, that is, the number of specimens per sample or unit volume; and their diversity, that is, the number of species per sample (Jones, 1994, 1996, 2006, 2011a; and additional references cited therein; see also the further reading list at the end of the chapter).