This chapter deals with applications and case studies in mineral geology. It contains sections on applications and case studies in mineral exploration and in mineral exploitation. The section on mineral exploration includes a case study from the La Troya mine in Spain. The section on mineral exploitation includes case studies from the Pitstone quarry in Hertfordshire, and from the East Grimstead quarry in Wiltshire, both in the United Kingdom.
Foraminifera and other microfossils have proved of use in mineral exploration and exploitation (see, for example, Jones, 1996, 2006, 2011a; and additional references cited therein; see also the further reading list at the end of the chapter). Applications and case studies are given below. The two case studies of applications in mineral exploitation are both concerned with Late Cretaceous chalk, which is used in the cement and paper-whitening manufacturing industries. This reflects the peculiar problems faced in the detailed stratigraphic subdivision and surface and subsurface correlation of macroscopically essentially featureless chalky lithotypes, especially the identification of lithological and associated rock property changes associated with unconformities, faults and facies changes.