1.Kenneson, A, Cannon, MJ. Review and meta-analysis of the epidemiology of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Rev Med Virol 2007; 17: 253–76.
2.Manicklal, S, Emery, VC, Lazzarotto, T, et al. The “silent” global burden of congenital cytomegalovirus. Clin Microbiol Rev 2013; 26: 86–102.
3.Dollard, SC, Grosse, SD, Ross, DS. New estimates of the prevalence of neurological and sensory sequelae and mortality associated with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Rev Med Virol 2007; 17: 355–63.
4.Stagno, S, Reynolds, DW, Huang, ES, et al. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection. N Engl J Med 1977; 296: 1254–8.
5.Saigal, S, Lunyk, O, Larke, RP, Chernesky, MA. The outcome in children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection: a longitudinal follow-up study. Am J Dis Child 1982; 136: 896–901.
6.Fowler, KB, McCollister, FP, Dahle, AJ, et al. Progressive and fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss in children with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. J Pediatr 1997; 130: 624–30.
7.Boppana, SB, Ross, SA, Fowler, KB. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: clinical outcome. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57(Suppl 4): S178–81.
8.Pass, RF, Stagno, S, Myers, GJ, Alford, CA. Outcome of symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection: results of long-term longitudinal follow-up. Pediatrics 1980; 66: 758–62.
9.Boppana, SB, Fowler, KB, Vaid, Y, et al. Neuroradiographic findings in the newborn period and long-term outcome in children with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatrics 1997; 99: 409–14.
10.Pass, RF, Anderson, B. Mother-to-child transmission of cytomegalovirus and prevention of congenital infection. J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc 2014; 3: S2–6.
11.Boppana, SB, Rivera, LB, Fowler, KB, et al. Intrauterine transmission of cytomegalovirus to infants of women with preconceptional immunity. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 1366–71.
12.Monif, GR, Egan, EA 2nd, Held, B, Eitzman, DV. The correlation of maternal cytomegalovirus infection during varying stages in gestation with neonatal involvement. J Pediatr 1972; 80: 17–20.
13.Reynolds, DW, Stagno, S, Stubbs, KG, et al. Inapparent congenital cytomegalovirus infection with elevated cord IgM levels: casual relation with auditory and mental deficiency. N Engl J Med 1974; 290: 291–6.
14.Hanshaw, JB, Scheiner, AP, Moxley, AW, et al. School failure and deafness after “silent” congenital cytomegalovirus infection. N Engl J Med 1976; 295: 468–70.
15.Conboy, TJ, Pass, RF, Stagno, S, et al. Intellectual development in school-aged children with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatrics 1986; 77: 801–6.
16.Williamson, WD, Demmler, GJ, Percy, AK, Catlin, FI. Progressive hearing loss in infants with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatrics 1992; 90: 862–6.
17.Dahle, AJ, Fowler, KB, Wright, JD, et al. Longitudinal investigation of hearing disorders in children with congenital cytomegalovirus. J Am Acad Audiol 2000; 11: 283–90.
18.Boppana, SB, Fowler, KB, Pass, RF, et al. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: association between virus burden in infancy and hearing loss. J Pediatr 2005; 146: 817–23.
19.Forner, G, Abate, D, Mengoli, C, et al. High cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAemia predicts CMV sequelae in asymptomatic congenitally infected newborns born to women with primary infection during pregnancy. J Infect Dis 2015; 212: 67–71.
20.Stagno, S, Pass, RF, Cloud, G, et al. Primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: incidence, transmission to fetus, and clinical outcome. JAMA 1986; 256: 1904–8.
21.Boppana, SB, Pass, RF, Britt, WJ, et al. Symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection: neonatal morbidity and mortality. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1992; 11: 93–9.
22.Stagno, S, Pass, RF, Alford, CA. Perinatal infections and maldevelopment. Birth Defects Original Article Series 1981; 17: 31–50.
23.McCracken, GH Jr, Shinefield, HM, Cobb, K, et al. Congenital cytomegalic inclusion disease: a longitudinal study of 20 patients. Am J Dis Child 1969; 117: 522–39.
24.Butt, W, Mackay, RJ, de Crespigny, LC, et al. Intracranial lesions of congenital cytomegalovirus infection detected by ultrasound scanning. Pediatrics 1984; 73: 611–4.
25.James, SH, Kimberlin, DW, Whitley, RJ. Antiviral therapy for herpesvirus central nervous system infections: neonatal herpes simplex virus infection, herpes simplex encephalitis, and congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Antiviral Res 2009; 83: 207–13.
26.Troendle Atkins, J, Demmler, GJ, Williamson, WD, et al. Polymerase chain reaction to detect cytomegalovirus DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid of neonates with congenital infection. J Infect Dis 1994; 169: 1334–7.
27.Noyola, DE, Demmler, GJ, Nelson, CT, et al. Early predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome in symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. J Pediatr 2001; 138: 325–31.
28.Williamson, WD, Desmond, MM, LaFevers, N, et al. Symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus: disorders of language, learning, and hearing. Am J Dis Child 1982; 136: 902–5.
29.Rivera, LB, Boppana, SB, Fowler, KB, et al. Predictors of hearing loss in children with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatrics 2002; 110: 762–7.
30.Kimberlin, DW, Lin, CY, Sanchez, PJ, et al. Effect of ganciclovir therapy on hearing in symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus disease involving the central nervous system: a randomized, controlled trial. J Pediatr 2003; 143: 16–25.
31.Kimberlin, DW, Jester, PM, Sanchez, PJ, et al. Valganciclovir for symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus disease. N Engl J Med 2015; 372: 933–43.
32.Wolf, A, Cowen, D, Paige, BH. Toxoplasmic encephalomyelitis. III. A new case of granulomatous encephalomyelitis due to a protozoon. Am J Pathol 1939; 15: 657–94.
33.McAuley, JB. Congenital toxoplasmosis. J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc 2014; 3: S30–5.
34.Lynfield, R, Guerina, NG. Toxoplasmosis. Pediatr Rev 1997; 18: 75–83.
35.American Academy of Pediatrics. Toxoplasma gondii Infections. In Kimberlin, DW, Brady, MT, Jackson, MA, Long, SS, eds., Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grive Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015: 787–96.
36.Vogel, N, Kirisits, M, Michael, E, et al. Congenital toxoplasmosis transmitted from an immunologically competent mother infected before conception. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 23: 1055–60.
37.Lindsay, DS, Dubey, JP. Toxoplasma gondii: the changing paradigm of congenital toxoplasmosis. Parasitology 2011; 138: 1829–31.
38.Hohlfeld, P, Daffos, F, Thulliez, P, et al. Fetal toxoplasmosis: outcome of pregnancy and infant follow-up after in utero treatment. J Pediatr 1989; 115: 765–9.
39.Foulon, W, Villena, I, Stray-Pedersen, B, et al. Treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy: a multicenter study of impact on fetal transmission and children’s sequelae at age 1 year. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 180: 410–5.
40.SYROCOT (Systematic Review on Congenital Toxoplasmosis) Study Group, Thiebaut, R, Leproust, S, et al. Effectiveness of prenatal treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis: a meta-analysis of individual patients’ data. Lancet 2007; 369: 115–22.
41.Prusa, AR, Kasper, DC, Pollak, A, et al. The Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register, 1992–2008. Clin Infect Dis 2015; 60: e4–10.
42.Hotop, A, Hlobil, H, Gross, U. Efficacy of rapid treatment initiation following primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 54: 1545–52.
43.Cortina-Borja, M, Tan, HK, Wallon, M, et al. Prenatal treatment for serious neurological sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis: an observational prospective cohort study. PLoS Med 2010; 7.
44.Wallon, M, Peyron, F, Cornu, C, et al. Congenital toxoplasma infection: monthly prenatal screening decreases transmission rate and improves clinical outcome at age 3 years. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 56: 1223–31.
45.Koppe, JG, Loewer-Sieger, DH, de Roever-Bonnet, H. Results of 20-year follow-up of congenital toxoplasmosis. Lancet 1986; 1: 254–6.
46.Stagno, S, Reynolds, DW, Amos, CS, et al. Auditory and visual defects resulting from symptomatic and subclinical congenital cytomegaloviral and Toxoplasma infections. Pediatrics 1977; 59: 669–78.
47.Wilson, CB, Remington, JS, Stagno, S, Reynolds, DW. Development of adverse sequelae in children born with subclinical congenital Toxoplasma infection. Pediatrics 1980; 66: 767–74.
48.Guerina, NG, Hsu, HW, Meissner, HC, et al. Neonatal serologic screening and early treatment for congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection. The New England Regional Toxoplasma Working Group. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 1858–63.
49.Stillwaggon, E, Carrier, CS, Sautter, M, McLeod, R. Maternal serologic screening to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis: a decision-analytic economic model. PLoS Neglect Trop Dis 2011; 5: e1333.
50.Wong, SY, Remington, JS. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 18: 853–61; quiz 62.
51.McLeod, R, Boyer, K, Karrison, T, et al. Outcome of treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis, 1981–2004: the National Collaborative Chicago-Based, Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42: 1383–94.
52.McAuley, J, Boyer, KM, Patel, D, et al. Early and longitudinal evaluations of treated infants and children and untreated historical patients with congenital toxoplasmosis: the Chicago Collaborative Treatment Trial. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 18: 38–72.
53.Roizen, N, Swisher, CN, Stein, MA, et al. Neurologic and developmental outcome in treated congenital toxoplasmosis. Pediatrics 1995; 95: 11–20.
54.Patel, DV, Holfels, EM, Vogel, NP, et al. Resolution of intracranial calcifications in infants with treated congenital toxoplasmosis. Radiology 1996; 199: 433–40.
55.Naessens, A, Jenum, PA, Pollak, A, et al. Diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in the neonatal period: a multicenter evaluation. J Pediatr 1999; 135: 714–9.
56.Gilbert, RE, Thalib, L, Tan, HK, et al. Screening for congenital toxoplasmosis: accuracy of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A tests after birth. J Med Screen 2007; 14: 8–13.
57.Olariu, TR, Remington, JS, McLeod, R, et al. Severe congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States: clinical and serologic findings in untreated infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011; 30: 1056–61.
58.Foulon, W, Pinon, JM, Stray-Pedersen, B, et al. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: a multicenter evaluation of different diagnostic parameters. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 181: 843–7.
59.Wallon, M, Franck, J, Thulliez, P, et al. Accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction for Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid. Obstet Gynecol 2010; 115: 727–33.
60.Dudgeon, JA. Congenital rubella. J Pediatr 1975; 87: 1078–86.
61.Reef, SE, Frey, TK, Theall, K, et al. The changing epidemiology of rubella in the 1990s: on the verge of elimination and new challenges for control and prevention. JAMA 2002; 287: 464–72.
62.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Increase in rubella and congenital rubella syndrome – United States, 1988–1990. MMWR Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep 1991; 40: 93–9.
63.Achievements in public health: elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome – United States, 1969–2004. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39: 1151–2.
64.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Three cases of congenital rubella syndrome in the postelimination era – Maryland, Alabama, and Illinois, 2012. MMWR Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep 2013; 62:226–9.
65.Lambert, N, Strebel, P, Orenstein, W, et al. Rubella. Lancet 2015; 385: 2297–307.
66.Ujiie, M, Nabae, K, Shobayashi, T. Rubella outbreak in Japan. Lancet 2014; 383: 1460–1.
67.Miller, E, Cradock-Watson, JE, Pollock, TM. Consequences of confirmed maternal rubella at successive stages of pregnancy. Lancet 1982; 2: 781–4.
68.Neu, N, Duchon, J, Zachariah, P. TORCH infections. Clin Perinatol 2015; 42: 77–103.
69.Meitsch, K, Enders, G, Wolinsky, JS, et al. The role of rubella-immunoblot and rubella-peptide-EIA for the diagnosis of the congenital rubella syndrome during the prenatal and newborn periods. J Med Virol 1997; 51: 280–3.
70.Mace, M, Cointe, D, Six, C, et al. Diagnostic value of RT-PCR of amniotic fluid for prenatal diagnosis of congenital rubella infection in pregnant women with confirmed primary rubella infection. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42: 4818–20.
71.Ueda, K, Nishida, Y, Oshima, K, Shepard, TH. Congenital rubella syndrome: correlation of gestational age at time of maternal rubella with type of defect. J Pediatr 1979; 94: 763–5.
72.Peckham, CS. Clinical and laboratory study of children exposed in utero to maternal rubella. Arch Dis Childhood 1972; 47: 571–7.
73.Frey, TK. Neurological aspects of rubella virus infection. Intervirology 1997; 40: 167–75.
74.Weil, ML, Itabashi, H, Cremer, NE, et al. Chronic progressive panencephalitis due to rubella virus simulating subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. N Engl J Med 1975; 292: 994–8.
75.Macfarlane, DW, Boyd, RD, Dodrill, CB, Tufts, E. Intrauterine rubella, head size, and intellect. Pediatrics 1975; 55: 797–801.
76.Chang, YC, Huang, CC, Liu, CC. Frequency of linear hyperechogenicity over the basal ganglia in young infants with congenital rubella syndrome. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 22: 569–71.
77.Lane, B, Sullivan, EV, Lim, KO, et al. White matter MR hyperintensities in adult patients with congenital rubella. Am J Neuroradiol 1996; 17: 99–103.
78.Townsend, JJ, Baringer, JR, Wolinsky, JS, et al. Progressive rubella panencephalitis: late onset after congenital rubella. N Engl J Med 1975; 292: 990–3.
79.Desmond, MM, Fisher, ES, Vorderman, AL, et al. The longitudinal course of congenital rubella encephalitis in nonretarded children. J Pediatr 1978; 93: 584–91.
80.McIntosh, ED, Menser, MA. A fifty-year follow-up of congenital rubella. Lancet 1992; 340: 414–5.
81.Chess, S, Fernandez, P, Korn, S. Behavioral consequences of congenital rubella. J Pediatr 1978; 93: 699–703.
82.Brown, AS, Cohen, P, Greenwald, S, Susser, E. Nonaffective psychosis after prenatal exposure to rubella. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157: 438–43.
83.Tanemura, M, Suzumori, K, Yagami, Y, Katow, S. Diagnosis of fetal rubella infection with reverse transcription and nested polymerase chain reaction: a study of 34 cases diagnosed in fetuses. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996; 174: 578–82.
84.Reef, SE, Redd, SB, Abernathy, E, et al. The epidemiological profile of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the United States, 1998–2004: the evidence for absence of endemic transmission. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43(Suppl 3): S126–32.
85.Papania, MJ, Wallace, GS, Rota, PA, et al. Elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome from the Western hemisphere: the US experience. JAMA Pediatr 2014; 168: 148–55.
86.McLean, HQ, Fiebelkorn, AP, Temte, JL, Wallace, GS. Prevention of measles, rubella, congenital rubella syndrome, and mumps, 2013: summary recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommend Rep 2013; 62: 1–34.
87.Klass, PE, Brown, ER, Pelton, SI. The incidence of prenatal syphilis at the Boston City Hospital: a comparison across four decades. Pediatrics 1994; 94: 24–8.
88.Wharton, M, Chorba, TL, Vogt, RL, et al. Case definitions for public health surveillance. MMWR Recommend Rep 1990; 39: 1–43.
89.Kwak, J, Lamprecht, C. A review of the guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of congenital syphilis. Pediatr Ann 2015; 44: e108–14.
90.Sung, L, MacDonald, NE. Syphilis: a pediatric perspective. Pediatr Rev 1998; 19: 17–22.
91.Sanchez, PJ. Laboratory tests for congenital syphilis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998; 17: 70–1.
92.American Academy of Pediatrics. Syphilis. In: Kimberlin, DW, Brady, MT, Jackson, MA, Long, SS, eds., Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015: 755–68.
93.Stoll, BJ. Congenital syphilis: evaluation and management of neonates born to mothers with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994; 13: 845–52; quiz 53.
94.Beeram, MR, Chopde, N, Dawood, Y, et al. Lumbar puncture in the evaluation of possible asymptomatic congenital syphilis in neonates. J Pediatr 1996; 128: 125–9.
95.Srinivasan, G, Ramamurthy, RS, Bharathi, A, et al. Congenital syphilis: a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Pediatr Infect Dis 1983; 2: 436–41.
96.Sanchez, PJ, Wendel, GD Jr, Grimprel, E, et al. Evaluation of molecular methodologies and rabbit infectivity testing for the diagnosis of congenital syphilis and neonatal central nervous system invasion by Treponema pallidum. J Infect Dis 1993; 167: 148–57.
97.Michelow, IC, Wendel, GD Jr, Norgard, MV, et al. Central nervous system infection in congenital syphilis. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 1792–8.
98.Fiumara, NJ, Lessell, S. Manifestations of late congenital syphilis: an analysis of 271 patients. Arch Dermatol 1970; 102: 78–83.
99.Workowski, KA, Bolan, GA, CDC. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recommend Rep 2015; 64: 1–137.
100.Bialas, KM, Swamy, GK, Permar, SR. Perinatal cytomegalovirus and varicella zoster virus infections: epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. Clin Perinatol 2015; 42: 61–75.
101.American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, varicella zoster, and toxoplasmosis in pregnancy (Practice Bulletin No. 151). Obstet Gynecol 2015; 125: 1510–25.
102.Laforet, EG, Lynch, CL Jr. Multiple congenital defects following maternal varicella: report of a case. N Engl J Med 1947; 236: 534–7.
103.Pastuszak, AL, Levy, M, Schick, B, et al. Outcome after maternal varicella infection in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 901–5.
104.Alkalay, AL, Pomerance, JJ, Rimoin, DL. Fetal varicella syndrome. J Pediatr 1987; 111: 320–3.
105.Enders, G, Miller, E, Cradock-Watson, J, et al. Consequences of varicella and herpes zoster in pregnancy: prospective study of 1739 cases. Lancet 1994; 343: 1548–51.
106.Jones, KL, Johnson, KA, Chambers, CD. Offspring of women infected with varicella during pregnancy: a prospective study. Teratology 1994; 49: 29–32.
107.Scharf, A, Scherr, O, Enders, G, Helftenbein, E. Virus detection in the fetal tissue of a premature delivery with a congenital varicella syndrome: a case report. J Perinatal Med 1990; 18: 317–22.
108.Brunell, PA. Fetal and neonatal varicella-zoster infections. Semin Perinatol 1983; 7: 47–56.
109.Wilson, E, Goss, MA, Marin, M, et al. Varicella vaccine exposure during pregnancy: data from 10 years of the pregnancy registry. J Infect Dis 2008; 197(Suppl 2): S178–84.
110.Ogilvie, MM. Antiviral prophylaxis and treatment in chickenpox: a review prepared for the UK Advisory Group on Chickenpox on behalf of the British Society for the Study of Infection. J Infect 1998; 36(Suppl 1): 31–8.
110a.Smith, CK, Arvin, AM. Varicella in the fetus and newborn. Semin Fetal Neonat Med 2009; 14: 209–17.
110b.Meyers, JD. Congenital varicella in term infants: risk reconsidered. J Infect Dis 1974; 129: 215–7.
111.Meyberg-Solomayer, GC, Fehm, T, Muller-Hansen, I, et al. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis, follow-up, and outcome of congenital varicella syndrome. Fetal Diagn Ther 2006; 21: 296–301.
112.Mouly, F, Mirlesse, V, Meritet, JF, et al. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal varicella-zoster virus infection with polymerase chain reaction of amniotic fluid in 107 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997; 177: 894–8.
113.Brown, ZA, Wald, A, Morrow, RA, et al. Effect of serologic status and cesarean delivery on transmission rates of herpes simplex virus from mother to infant. JAMA 2003; 289: 203–9.
114.Kimberlin, DW. Herpes simplex virus infections of the newborn. Semin Perinatol 2007; 31: 19–25.
115.James, SH, Kimberlin, DW. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment. Clin Perinatol 2015; 42: 47–59.
116.Jones, CA, Raynes-Greenow, C, Issacs, D. Population-based surveillance of neonatal HSV infection in Australia (1997–2011). Clin Infect Dis 2014; 59(4): 525–31.
117.James, SH, Sheffield, JS, Kimberlin, DW. Mother-to-child transmission of herpes simplex virus. J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc 2014; 3: S19–23.
118.Brown, ZA, Benedetti, J, Ashley, R, et al. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection in relation to asymptomatic maternal infection at the time of labor. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1247–52.
119.Hutto, C, Arvin, A, Jacobs, R, et al. Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infections. J Pediatr 1987; 110: 97–101.
120.Vasileiadis, GT, Roukema, HW, Romano, W, et al. Intrauterine herpes simplex infection. Am J Perinatol 2003; 20: 55–8.
121.Kimberlin, DW, Lin, CY, Jacobs, RF, et al. Natural history of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections in the acyclovir era. Pediatrics 2001; 108: 223–9.
122.Kimberlin, DW. Management of HSV encephalitis in adults and neonates: diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Herpes 2007; 14: 11–6.
123.Whitley, R, Arvin, A, Prober, C, et al. A controlled trial comparing vidarabine with acyclovir in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 444–9.
124.Whitley, R, Arvin, A, Prober, C, et al. Predictors of morbidity and mortality in neonates with herpes simplex virus infections. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 450–4.
125.Kimberlin, D. Herpes simplex virus, meningitis and encephalitis in neonates. Herpes 2004; 11(Suppl 2): 65A–76A.
126.Lakeman, FD, Whitley, RJ, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. Diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis: application of polymerase chain reaction to cerebrospinal fluid from brain-biopsied patients and correlation with disease. J Infect Dis 1995; 171: 857–63.
127.Kimberlin, DW, Lakeman, FD, Arvin, AM, et al. Application of the polymerase chain reaction to the diagnosis and management of neonatal herpes simplex virus disease. J Infect Dis 1996; 174: 1162–7.
128.Kimberlin, DW, Whitley, RJ, Wan, W, et al. Oral acyclovir suppression and neurodevelopment after neonatal herpes. N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 1284–92.
129.Whitley, RJ, Nahmias, AJ, Soong, SJ, et al. Vidarabine therapy of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. Pediatrics 1980; 66: 495–501.
130.Kimberlin, DW, Lin, CY, Jacobs, RF, et al. Safety and efficacy of high-dose intravenous acyclovir in the management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections. Pediatrics 2001; 108: 230–8.
131.James, SH, Kimberlin, DW. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2015; 29(3): 391–400.
132.American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists: management of herpes in pregnancy (Practice Bulletin No. 82). Obstet Gynecol 2007; 109: 1489–98.
133.Arvin, AM, Hensleigh, PA, Prober, CG, et al. Failure of antepartum maternal cultures to predict the infant’s risk of exposure to herpes simplex virus at delivery. N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 796–800.
134.American Academy of Pediatrics. Herpes Simplex. In Kimberlin, DW, Brady, MT, Jackson, MA, Long, SS, eds., Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Oak Grove, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015: 432–45.