Abrams, P. A. (1993). Does increased mortality favor the evolution of more rapid senescence? Evolution, 47, 877–87.
Adams, L. G. & Dale, B. W. (1998). Reproductive performance of female Alaskan caribou. Journal of Wildlife Management, 62, 1184–95.
Albon, S. D., Stien, A., Irvine, R. J., et al. (2002). The role of parasites in the dynamics of a reindeer population. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 269, 1625–32.
Aumaître, A., Morvan, C., Quéré, J. P., et al. (1982). Productivité potentielle et reproduction hivernale chez la laie (Sus scrofa scrofa) en milieu sauvage. Journée de la Recherche Porcine, 14, 109–24.
Austad, S. N. (1993). Retarded senescence in an insular population of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Journal of Zoology, 229, 695–708.
Baker, J. D. & Thompson, P. M. (2007). Temporal and spatial variation in age-specific survival rates of a long-lived mammal, the Hawaiian monk seal. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 274, 407–15.
Bailey, J. A. (1991). Reproductive success in female mountain goats. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 69, 2956–61.
Beauplet, G., Barbraud, C., Dabin, W., Kussener, C. & Guinet, C. (2006). Age-specific survival and reproductive performances in fur seals: evidence of senescence and individual quality. Oikos, 112, 430–41.
Bebbington, M., Lai, C. & Zitikis, R. (2007). Modeling human mortality using mixtures of bathtub shaped failure distributions. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 245, 528–38.
Beirne, C., Delahay, R. & Young, A. (2015). Sex differences in senescence: the role of intra-sexual competition in early adulthood. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 282, 20151086.
Berger, V., Lemaître, J. F., Gaillard, J.-M. & Cohas, A. (2015). How do animals optimize the size-number trade-off when aging? Insights from reproductive senescence patterns in marmots. Ecology, 96, 46–53.
Berger, V., Lemaître, J. F., Gaillard, J.-M. & Cohas, A. (2016). Age-specific survival in the socially monogamous alpine marmot (Marmota marmota): evidence of senescence. Journal of Mammalogy 97, 992–1000.
Bergeron, P., Careau, V., Humphries, M. M., et al. (2011). The energetic and oxidative costs of reproduction in a free-ranging rodent. Functional Ecology, 25, 1063–71.
Bérubé, C. H., Festa-Bianchet, M. & Jorgenson, J. T. (1999). Individual differences, longevity, and reproductive senescence in bighorn ewes. Ecology, 80, 2555–65.
Bishop, C. J., White, G. C., Freddy, D. J., et al. (2009). Effect of enhanced nutrition on mule deer population rate of change. Wildlife Monographs, 172, 1–28.
Blomquist, G. E. (2009). Trade-off between age of first reproduction and survival in a female primate. Biology Letters, 5, 339–42.
Bouwhuis, S., Choquet, R., Sheldon, B. C. & Verhulst, S. (2012). The forms and fitness cost of senescence: age-specific recapture, survival, reproduction, and reproductive value in a wild bird population. American Naturalist, 179, E15–27.
Bowen, W. D., Iverson, S. J., McMillan, J. I. & Boness, D. J. (2006). Reproductive performance in grey seals: age-related improvement and senescence in a capital breeder. Journal of Animal Ecology, 75, 1340–51.
Bradley, A. J. (1997). Reproduction and life history in the red-tailed phascogale, Phascogale calura (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae): the adaptive-stress senescence hypothesis. Journal of Zoology, 241, 739–55.
Bronikowski, A. M., Altmann, J., Brockman, D. K., et al. (2011). Aging in the natural world: comparative data reveal similar mortality patterns across primates. Science, 331, 1325–8.
Broussard, D. R., Michener, G. R., Risch, T. S. & Dobson, F. S. (2005). Somatic senescence: evidence from female Richardson’s ground squirrels. Oikos, 108, 591–601.
Broussard, D. R., Risch, T. S., Dobson, F. S. & Murie, J. O. (2003). Senescence and age-related reproduction of female Columbian ground squirrels. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72, 212–19.
Byers, J. A. (1997). American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past (University of Chicago Press).
Cagnacci, F., Boitani, L., Powell, R. A. & Boyce, M. S. (2010). Animal ecology meets GPS-based radiotelemetry: a perfect storm of opportunities and challenges. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 365, 2157–62.
Carey, J. R. & Judge, D. S. (2000). Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish (Odense Monographs on Population Aging) (Odense University Press).
Catchpole, E. A., Morgan, B. J. T., Coulson, T. N., et al. (2000). Factors influencing Soay sheep survival. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C: Applied Statistics, 49, 453–72.
Caughley, G. (1966). Mortality patterns in mammals. Ecology, 47, 906–18.
Caughley, G. (1976). Wildlife management and the dynamics of ungulate populations. In Applied Biology, Vol. 1 (pp. 183–246), ed. Coaker, T. H. (London: Academic Press).
Chen, H. Y. & Maklakov, A. A. (2012). Longer life span evolves under high rates of condition-dependent mortality. Current Biology, 22, 2140–3.
Childerhouse, S. J., Dawson, S. M., Fletcher, D. J., et al. (2010). Growth and reproduction of female New Zealand sea lions. Journal of Mammalogy, 91, 165–76.
Chilvers, B. L., Wilkinson, I. S. & Mackenzie, D. I. (2010). Predicting life-history traits for female New Zealand sea lions, Phocarctos hookeri: integrating short-term mark-recapture data and population modeling. Journal of Agricultural Biological and Environmental Statistics, 15, 259–78.
Choquet, R., Viallefont, A., Rouan, L., et al. (2011). A semi-Markov model to assess reliably survival patterns from birth to death in free-ranging populations. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 2, 383–9.
Christensen, L. L., Selman, C., Blount, J. D., et al. (2015). Plasma markers of oxidative stress are uncorrelated in a wild mammal. Ecology and Evolution, 5, 5096–5108.
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Guinness, F. E. & Albon, S. D. (1982). Red Deer: Ecology and Behaviour of Both Sexes (University of Chicago Press).
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1984). Reproductive effort and terminal investment in iteroparous animals. American Naturalist, 123, 212–29.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1988). Reproductive Success: Studies of Individual Variation in Contrasting Breeding Systems (University of Chicago Press).
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Albon, S. D. & Guinness, F. E. (1988). Reproductive success in male and female red deer. In Reproductive Success: Studies of Individual Variation in Contrasting Breeding Systems (pp. 325–43), ed. Clutton-Brock, T. H. (University of Chicago Press).
Clutton-Brock, T. H. & Isvaran, K. (2007). Sex differences in ageing in natural populations of vertebrates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 274, 3097–3310.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. & Sheldon, B. C. (2010). Individuals and populations: the role of long-term, individual-based studies of animals in ecology and evolutionary biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25, 562–73.
Cohen, A. A. (2004). Female post-reproductive lifespan: a general mammalian trait. Biological Reviews, 79, 733–50.
Cohen, A. A. (2015). Complex systems dynamics in aging: new evidence, continuing questions. Biogerontology, 17, 1–16.
Colchero, F., Jones, O. R. & Rebke, M. (2012). BaSTA: an R package for Bayesian estimation of age-specific survival from incomplete mark-recapture/recovery data with covariates. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 3, 466–70.
Comfort, A. (1979). The Biology of Senescence (London: Churchill Livingston).
Crampe, J. P., Loison, A., Gaillard, J.-M., et al. (2006). Monitoring of the reproduction in isard females (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in a non-hunted population and demographic consequences. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 84, 1263–8.
Crosier, A. E., Marker, L., Howard, J., et al. (2007). Ejaculate traits in the Namibian cheetah (Acinomyx jubatus): influence of age, season and captivity. Reproduction Fertility and Development, 19, 370–82.
Curren, L. J., Weldele, M. L. & Holekamp, K. E. (2013). Ejaculate quality in spotted hyenas: intraspecific variation in relation to life-history traits. Journal of Mammalogy, 94, 90–9.
Davis, W. H. (1966). Population dynamics of bat Pipistrellus subflavus. Journal of Mammalogy, 47, 383.
Deevey, E. S. (1947). Life tables for natural populations of animals. Quarterly Review of Biology, 22, 283–314.
Delean, J. S. C. (2007). Longitudinal Population Demography of the Allied Rock Wallaby, Petrogale assimilis. Unpublished PhD dissertation, James Cook University, Australia.
de Magalhaes, J. P. & Costa, J. (2009). A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 22, 1770–4.
de Magalhaes, J. P., Costa, J. & Church, G. M. (2007). Analysis of the relationship between metabolism, developmental schedules, and longevity using phylogenetic independent contrasts. Journals of Gerontology Series A, 62, 149–60.
Delgiudice, G. D., Fieberg, J., Riggs, M. R., et al. (2006). A long-term age-specific survival analysis of female white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management, 70, 1556–68.
DelGiudice, G. D., Lenarz, M. S. & Powell, M. C. (2007). Age-specific fertility and fecundity in northern free-ranging white-tailed deer: evidence for reproductive senescence? Journal of Mammalogy, 88, 427–35.
Derocher, A. E. & Stirling, I. (1994). Age-specific reproductive performance of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Journal of Zoology, 234, 527–36.
Descamps, S., Boutin, S., Berteaux, D. & Gaillard, J.-M. (2007). Female red squirrels fit Williams’ hypothesis of increasing reproductive effort with increasing age. Journal of Animal Ecology, 76, 1192–1201.
Dinerstein, E. (1991). Demography and habitat use by greater one-horned rhinoceros in Nepal. Journal of Wildlife Management, 55, 401–11.
Dobson, F. S. (1992). Body mass, structural size, and life-history patterns of the Columbian ground squirrel. American Naturalist, 140, 109–25.
Dugdale, H. L., Pope, L. C., Newman, C., et al. (2011). Age-specific breeding success in a wild mammalian population: selection, constraint, restraint and senescence. Molecular Ecology, 20, 3261–74.
Dunbar, R. I. M. (1980). Demographic and life-history variables of a population of Gelada baboons (Theropithecus, gelada). Journal of Animal Ecology, 49, 485–506.
Eberhardt, L. L. (1985). Assessing the dynamics of wild populations. Journal of Wildlife Management, 49, 997–1012.
Emlen, J. M. (1970). Age specificity and ecological theory. Ecology, 51, 588–601.
Ericsson, G. & Wallin, K. (2001). Age-specific moose (Alces alces) mortality in a predator-free environment: evidence for senescence in females. Ecoscience, 8, 157–63.
Ericsson, G., Wallin, K., Ball, J. P. & Broberg, M. (2001). Age-related reproductive effort and senescence in free-ranging moose, Alces alces. Ecology, 82, 1613–20.
Evans, K. & Hindell, M. A. (2004). The age structure and growth of female sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in southern Australian waters. Journal of Zoology, 263, 237–50.
Festa-Bianchet, M., Gaillard, J.-M. & Côté, S. D. (2003). Variable age structure and apparent density dependence in survival of adult ungulates. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72, 640.
Festa-Bianchet, M. & Côté, S. D. (2008). Mountain Goats: Ecology, Behavior, and Conservation of an Alpine Ungulate (Washington, DC: Island Press).
Fisher, R. A. (1930). The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
Flook, D. R. (1970). Causes and implications of an observed sex differential in the survival of wapiti. Canadian Wildlife Service Report, 11, 1–70.
Focardi, S., Gaillard, J.-M., Ronchi, F. & Rossi, S. (2008). Survival of wild boars in variable environments: unexpected life-history variation in an unusual ungulate. Journal of Mammalogy, 89, 1113–23.
Foote, A. D. (2008). Mortality rate acceleration and post-reproductive lifespan in matrilineal whale species. Biology Letters, 4, 189–91.
Fraga, C. G., Shigenaga, M. K., Park, J. W., et al. (1990). Oxidative damage to DNA during aging: 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine in rat organ DNA and urine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 87, 4533–7.
Gaillard, J.-M., Pontier, D., Allainé, D., et al. (1989). An analysis of demographic tactics in birds and mammals. Oikos, 56, 59–76.
Gaillard, J.-M., Liberg, O., Andersen, R., et al. (1998). Population dynamics of roe deer. In European Roe Deer: The Biology of Success (pp. 309–35), ed. Andersen, R., Duncan, P. & Linnell, J. D. C. (Oslo: Scandinavian University Press).
Gaillard, J.-M., Festa-Bianchet, M., Yoccoz, N. G., et al. (2000). Temporal variation in fitness components and population dynamics of large herbivores. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31, 367–93.
Gaillard, J.-M., Duncan, P., Delorme, D., et al. (2003). Effects of hurricane Lothar on the population dynamics of European roe deer. Journal of Wildlife Management, 67, 767–73.
Gaillard, J.-M., Loison, A., Festa-Bianchet, M., et al. (2003). Ecological correlates of life span in populations of large herbivorous mammals. Population & Development Review, 29, 39–56.
Gaillard, J.-M., Viallefont, A., Loison, A. & Festa-Bianchet, M. (2004). Assessing senescence patterns in populations of large mammals. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 27, 47–58.
Gaillard, J.-M., Yoccoz, N. G., Lebreton, J.-D., et al. (2005). Generation time: a reliable metric to measure life‐history variation among mammalian populations. American Naturalist, 166, 119–23.
Gaillard, J.-M., Hewison, A. J. M., Klein, F., et al. (2013). How does climate change influence demographic processes of widespread species? Lessons from the comparative analysis of contrasted populations of roe deer. Ecology Letters, 16, 48–57.
Gamelon, M., Focardi, S., Gaillard, J.-M., et al. (2014). Do age-specific survival patterns of wild boar fit current evolutionary theories of senescence? Evolution, 68, 3636–43.
Garratt, M., Gaillard, J.-M., Brooks, R. C. & Lemaître, J. F. (2013). Diversification of the eutherian placenta is associated with changes in the pace of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 110, 7760–5.
Garrott, R. A. & Taylor, L. (1990). Dynamics of a feral horse population in Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management, 54, 603–12.
Garrott, R. A., Eagle, T. C. & Plotka, E. D. (1991). Age-specific reproduction in feral horses. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 69, 738–43.
Garrott, R. A., Eberhardt, L. L., White, P. J. & Rotella, J. (2003). Climate-induced variation in vital rates of an unharvested large-herbivore population. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 81, 33–45.
Gimenez, O., Viallefont, A., Charmantier, A., et al. (2008). The risk of flawed inference in evolutionary studies when detectability is less than one. American Naturalist, 172, 441–8.
Gompertz, B. (1825). On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality and on a new model of determining life contingencies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 115, 513–85.
Graham, A. L., Hayward, A. D., Watt, K. A., et al. (2010). Fitness correlates of heritable variation in antibody responsiveness in a wild mammal. Science, 330, 662–5.
Green, W. C. H. (1990). Reproductive effort and associated costs in bison (Bison bison): do older mothers try harder? Behavioral Ecology, 1, 148–60.
Hadley, G. L., Rotella, J. J. & Garrott, R. A. (2007). Evaluation of reproductive costs for Weddell seals in Erebus Bay, Antarctica. Journal of Animal Ecology, 76, 448–58.
Hämäläinen, A., Dammhahn, M., Aujard, F., et al. (2015). Senescence or selective disappearance? Age trajectories of body mass in wild and captive populations of a small-bodied primate. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 281, 20140830.
Hamel, S., Craine, J. M. & Towne, E. G. (2012). Maternal allocation in bison: co-occurrence of senescence, cost of reproduction, and individual quality. Ecological Applications, 22, 1628–39.
Hamilton, W. D. (1966). Moulding of senescence by natural selection. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 12, 12–45.
Hanks, J. (1972). Reproduction of elephant, Loxodonta africana, in Luangwa Valley, Zambia. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 30, 13–26.
Harting, A. L., Baker, J. D. & Johanos, T. C. (2007). Reproductive patterns of the Hawaiian monk seal. Marine Mammal Science, 23, 553–73.
Hayward, A. D., Wilson, A. J., Pilkington, J. G., et al. (2009). Ageing in a variable habitat: environmental stress affects senescence in parasite resistance in St Kilda Soay sheep. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 276, 3477–85.
Hayward, A. D., Wilson, A. J., Pilkington, J. G., et al. (2013). Reproductive senescence in female Soay sheep: variation across traits and contributions of individual ageing and selective disappearance. Functional Ecology, 27, 184–95.
Hayward, A. D., Mar, K. U., Lahdenperä, M. & Lummaa, V. (2014). Early reproductive investment, senescence and lifetime reproductive success in female Asian elephants. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 27, 772–83.
Hayward, A. D., Moorad, J., Regan, C. E., et al. (2015). Asynchrony of senescence among phenotypic traits in a wild mammal population. Experimental Gerontology, 71, 56–68.
Heard, D., Barry, S., Watts, G. & Child, K. (1997). Fertility of female moose (Alces alces) in relation to age and body composition. Alces, 33, 165–76.
Hernandez-Camacho, C. J., Aurioles-Gamboa, D. & Gerber, L. R. (2008a). Age-specific birth rates of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Marine Mammal Science, 24, 664–76.
Hernandez-Camacho, C. J., Aurioles-Gamboa, D., Laake, J. & Gerber, L. R. (2008b). Survival rates of the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, in Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy, 89, 1059–66.
Hewison, A. J. M. & Gaillard, J.-M. (2001). Phenotypic quality and senescence affect different components of reproductive output in roe deer. Journal of Animal Ecology, 70, 600–8.
Hibly, A. R. & Mullen, A. J. (1980). Simultaneous determination of fluctuating age structure and mortality from field data. Theoretical Population Biology, 18, 192–203.
Hindle, A. G., Horning, M., Mellish, J.-A. E. & Lawler, J. M. (2009a). Diving into old age: muscular senescence in a large-bodied, long-lived mammal, the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii). Journal of Experimental Biology, 212, 790–6.
Hindle, A. G., Lawler, J. M., Campbell, K. L. & Horning, M. (2009b). Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology, 311A, 358–67.
Hindle, A. G., Lawler, J. M., Campbell, K. L. & Horning, M. (2010). Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 155, 427–34.
Hoffman, C. L., Higham, J. P., Mas-Rivera, A., et al. (2010). Terminal investment and senescence in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago. Behavioral Ecology, 21, 972–8.
Holmes, E. E., Fritz, L. W., York, A. E. & Sweeney, K. (2007). Age-structured modeling reveals long-term declines in the natality of western Steller sea lions. Ecological Applications, 17, 2214–32.
Isaac, J. L. & Johnson, C. N. (2005). Terminal reproductive effort in a marsupial. Biology Letters, 1, 271–5.
Jégo, M., Lemaître, J. F., Bourgoin, G., et al. (2014). Haematological parameters do senesce in the wild: evidence from different populations of a long-lived mammal. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 27, 2745–52.
Jones, O. R., Gaillard, J.-M., Tuljapurkar, S., et al. (2008). Senescence rates are determined by ranking on the fast-slow life-history continuum. Ecology Letters, 11, 664–73.
Jorgenson, J. T., Festa-Bianchet, M., Gaillard, J.-M. & Wishart, W. D. (1997). Effects of age, sex, disease, and density on survival of bighorn sheep. Ecology, 78, 1019–32.
Juškaitis, R. (2008). The Common Dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius: Ecology, Population Structure and Dynamics (Institute of Ecology of Vilnius University).
Kirkwood, T. B. L. (1977). Evolution of ageing. Nature, 270, 301–4.
Kirkwood, T. B. L. & Austad, S. N. (2000). Why do we age? Nature, 408, 233–8.
Koons, D. N., Gamelon, M., Gaillard, J.-M., et al. (2014). Methods for studying cause-specific senescence in the wild. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 5, 924–33.
Koyama, N., Takahata, Y., Huffman, M. A., et al. (1992). Reproductive parameters of female Japanese macaques: 30 years data from the Arashyiama troops, Japan. Primates, 33, 33–47.
Lander, R. H. (1981). A life table and biomass estimate for Alaskan fur seals. Fisheries Research, 1, 55–70.
Lawrence, R. K., Demarais, S., Relyea, R. A., et al. (2004). Desert mule deer survival in southwest Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management, 68, 561–9.
Leader-Williams, N. (1988). Reindeer on South Georgia (Cambridge University Press).
Lebreton, J.-D., Burnham, K. P., Clobert, J. & Anderson, D. R. (1992). Modeling survival and testing biological hypotheses using marked animals: a unified approach with case studies. Ecological Monographs, 62, 67–118.
Lee, D. E. & Tietje, W. D. (2005). Dusky-footed woodrat demography and prescribed fire in a California oak woodland. Journal of Wildlife Management, 69, 1211–20.
Leigh, S. R., Setchell, J.-M., Charpentier, M., et al. (2008). Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). Journal of Human Evolution, 55, 75–85.
Lemaître, J. F. & Gaillard, J.-M. (2013a). Polyandry has no detectable mortality cost in female mammals. PloS ONE, 8, e66670.
Lemaître, J. F. & Gaillard, J.-M (2013b). Male survival patterns do not depend on male allocation to sexual competition in large herbivores. Behavioral Ecology, 24, 421–8.
Lemaître, J. F., Gaillard, J.-M., Lackey, L. B., et al. (2013). Comparing free-ranging and captive populations reveals intra-specific variation in aging rates in large herbivores. Experimental Gerontology, 48, 162–7.
Lemaître, J. F., Gaillard, J.-M., Pemberton, J. M., et al. (2014). Early life expenditure in sexual competition is associated with increased reproductive senescence in male red deer. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 281, 20140792.
Lemaître, J. F., Berger, V., Bonenfant, C., Douhard, M., Gamelon, M., et al. (2015). Early-late life trade-offs and the evolution of ageing in the wild. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 282, 20150209.
Lima, M. & Paez, E. (1997). Demography and population dynamics of South American fur seals. Journal of Mammalogy, 78, 914–20.
Lindstedt, S. L. & Calder, W. A. (1981). Body size, physiological time, and longevity of homeothermic animals. Quarterly Review of Biology, 56, 1–16.
Loison, A., Festa-Bianchet, M., Gaillard, J.-M., et al. (1999). Age-specific survival in five populations of ungulates: evidence of senescence. Ecology, 80, 2539–54.
Lunn, N. J., Boyd, I. L. & Croxall, J. P. (1994). Reproductive performance of female Antarctic fur seals: the influence of age, breeding experience, environmental variation and individual quality. Journal of Animal Ecology, 63, 827–40.
Lynch, H. J. & Fagan, W. F. (2009). Survivorship curves and their impact on the estimation of maximum population growth rates. Ecology, 90, 1116–24.
Maizels, R. M. & Nussey, D. H. (2013). Into the wild: digging at immunology’s evolutionary roots. Nature Immunology, 14, 879–83.
McAdam, A. G., Boutin, S., Sykes, A. K. & Humphries, M. M. (2007). Life histories of female red squirrels and their contributions to population growth and lifetime fitness. Ecoscience, 14, 362–9.
McCullough, D. R. (1979). The George Reserve Deer Herd: Population Ecology of a K-Selected Species (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press).
McDonald, J. L., Smith, G. C., McDonald, R. A., et al. (2014). Mortality trajectory analysis reveals the drivers of sex-specific epidemiology in natural wildlife-disease interactions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 281, 20140526.
Medawar, P. B. (1952). An Unsolved Problem of Biology (London: Lewis).
Menkens, G. E. & Boyce, M. S. (1993). Comments on the use of time-specific and cohort life tables. Ecology, 74, 2164–8.
Millar, J. S. (1994). Senescense in a population of small mammals? Ecoscience, 1, 317–21.
Milner, J. M., Stien, A., Irvine, R. J., et al. (2003). Body condition in Svalbard reindeer and the use of blood parameters as indicators of condition and fitness. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 81, 1566–78.
Milot, E., Cohen, A. A., Vézina, F., et al. (2014). A novel integrative method for measuring body condition in ecological studies based on physiological dysregulation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 5, 146–55.
Monteith, K. L., Bleich, V. C., Stephenson, T. R., et al. (2014). Life-history characteristics of mule deer: effects of nutrition in a variable environment. Wildlife Monographs, 186, 1–62.
Moore, J. E. & Read, A. J. (2008). A Bayesian uncertainty analysis of cetacean demography and bycatch mortality using age-at-death data. Ecological Applications, 18, 1914–31.
Morris, D. W. (1996). State-dependent life history and senescence of white-footed mice. Ecoscience, 3, 1–6.
Müller, D. W. H., Gaillard, J.-M., Lackey, L. B., et al. (2010). Comparing life expectancy of three deer species between captive and wild populations. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 56, 205–8.
Murie, A. (1944). The Wolves of Mount McKinley (Washington, DC: US Department Interior, National Park Service).
Mysterud, A., Yoccoz, N. G., Stenseth, N. C. & Langvatn, R. (2001). Effects of age, sex and density on body weight of Norwegian red deer: evidence of density-dependence. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 268, 911–19.
Mysterud, A., Meisingset, E., Langvatn, R., et al. (2005). Climate-dependent allocation of resources to secondary sexual traits in red deer. Oikos, 111, 245–52.
Neuhaus, P. & Pelletier, N. (2001). Mortality in relation to season, age, sex, and reproduction in Columbian ground squirrels (Spermophilus columbianus). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 79, 465–70.
Nichols, J. D. (1992). Capture-recapture models. Bioscience, 42, 94–102.
Nishida, T., Corp, N., Hamai, M., et al. (2003). Demography, female life history, and reproductive profiles among the chimpanzees of Mahale. American Journal of Primatology, 59, 99–121.
Nussey, D. H., Kruuk, L. E. B., Morris, A. & Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2007). Environmental conditions in early life influence ageing rates in a wild population of red deer. Current Biology, 17, R1000–1.
Nussey, D. H., Kruuk, L. E. B., Morris, A., et al. (2009a). Inter- and intrasexual variation in aging patterns across reproductive traits in a wild red deer population. American Naturalist, 174, 342–57.
Nussey, D. H., Pemberton, J. M., Pilkington, J. G. & Blount, J. D. (2009b). Life history correlates of oxidative damage in a free-living mammal population. Functional Ecology, 23, 809–17.
Nussey, D. H., Coulson, T., Delorme, D., et al. (2011). Patterns of body mass senescence and selective disappearance differ among three species of free-living ungulates. Ecology, 92, 1936–47.
Nussey, D. H., Watt, K., Pilkington, J. G., et al. (2012). Age-related variation in immunity in a wild mammal population. Aging Cell, 11, 178–80.
Nussey, D. H., Froy, H., Lemaitre, J. F., et al. (2013). Senescence in natural populations of animals: widespread evidence and its implications for bio-gerontology. Ageing Research Reviews, 12, 214–25.
Oleziuk, P. F., Bigg, M. A. & Ellis, G. M. (1990). Life history and population dynamics of resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the coastal waters of British Columbia and Washington State. Report of the International Whaling Commission, 12, 209–43.
Owen-Smith, N. (1990). Demography of a large herbivore, the greater kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, in relation to rainfall. Journal of Animal Ecology, 59, 893–913.
Packer, C., Tatar, M. & Collins, A. (1998). Reproductive cessation in female mammals. Nature, 392, 807–11.
Paul, A., Kuester, J. & Podzuweit, D. (1993). Reproductive senescence and terminal investment in female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Salem. International Journal of Primatology, 14, 105–24.
Péron, G., Gimenez, O., Charmantier, A., et al. (2010). Age at the onset of senescence in birds and mammals is predicted by early-life performance. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 277, 2849–3285.
Péron, G., Gaillard, J.-M., Barbraud, C., Bonenfant, C., Charmantier, A., et al. (2016). Evidence of reduced heterogeneity in adult survival of long-lived species. Evolution 70, 2909–2914.
Pielowski, Z. (1984). Some aspects of population structure and longevity of field roe deer. Acta Theriologica, 29, 17–33.
Proffitt, K. M., Garrott, R. A., Rotella, J. J. & Wheatley, K. E. (2007). Environmental and senescent related variations in Weddell seal body mass: implications for age-specific reproductive performance. Oikos, 116, 1683–90.
Promislow, D. E. L. (1991). Senescence in natural populations of mammals: a comparative study. Evolution, 45, 1869–87.
Promislow, D. E. L. & Harvey, P. H. (1990). Living fast and dying young: a comparative analysis of life-history variation among mammals. Journal of Zoology, 220, 417–37.
Promislow, D. E. L., Fedorka, K. M. & Burger, J. M. S. (2006). Evolutionary biology of aging: future directions. In Handbook of the Biology of Aging, eds. Masoro, E. J. & Austad, S. N (pp. 217–42). (Burlington, MA: Academic Press).
Pyne, M. I., Byrne, K. M., Holfelder, K. A., et al. (2010). Survival and breeding transitions for a reintroduced bison population: a multistate approach. Journal of Wildlife Management, 74, 1463–71.
Richard, A. F., Dewar, R. E., Schwartz, M. & Ratsirarson, J. (2002). Life in the slow lane? Demography and life histories of male and female sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi). Journal of Zoology, 256, 421–36.
Ricklefs, R. E. (2010). Life-history connections to rates of aging in terrestrial vertebrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 10314–19.
Robbins, A. M., Robbins, M. M., Gerald-Steklis, N. & Steklis, H.D. (2006). Age-related patterns of reproductive success among female mountain gorillas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 131, 511–21.
Robinson, M. R., Pilkington, J. G., Clutton-Brock, T. H., et al. (2006). Live fast, die young: trade-offs between fitness components and sexually antagonistic selection on weaponry in Soay sheep. Evolution, 60, 2168–81.
Robinson, M. R., Mar, K. U. & Lummaa, V. (2012). Senescence and age-specific trade-offs between reproduction and survival in female Asian elephants. Ecology Letters, 15, 260–6.
Rotella, J. J., Link, W. A., Chambert, T., et al. (2012). Evaluating the demographic buffering hypothesis with vital rates estimated for Weddell seals from 30 years of mark-recapture data. Journal of Animal Ecology, 81, 162–73.
Rodgers, W. A. (1984). Warthog ecology in South East Tanzania. Mammalia, 48, 327–50.
Sacher, G. A. (1959). Relation of life span to brain weight and body weight in mammals. In The Lifespan of Animals (CIBA Foundation: Colloquia on Aging, Vol. 5, pp. 115–33) (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley).
Sadleir, R. M. F. S. (1969). The Ecology of Reproduction in Wild and Domestic Animals (London: Methuen).
Saltz, D. (1996). Minimizing extinction probability due to demographic stochasticity in a reintroduced herd of Persian fallow deer Dama dama mesopotamica. Biological Conservation, 75, 27–33.
Schwartz, C. C., Keating, K. A., Reynolds, H. V., et al. (2003). Reproductive maturation and senescence in the female brown bear. Ursus, 14, 109–19.
Seber, G. A. F. (1973). The Estimation of Animal Abundance and Related Parameters (London: Griffin).
Selman, C., Blount, J. D., Nussey, D. H. & Speakman, J. R. (2012). Oxidative damage, ageing, and life-history evolution: where now? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 27, 570–7.
Sharp, S. P. & Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2010). Reproductive senescence in a cooperatively breeding mammal. Journal of Animal Ecology, 79, 176–83.
Sibly, R. M., Collett, D., Promislow, D. E. L., et al. (1997). Mortality rates of mammals. Journal of Zoology, 243, 1–12.
Sierra, E., Fernandez, A., de los Monteros, A. E., et al. (2013). Muscular senescence in cetaceans: adaptation towards a slow muscle fibre phenotype. Scientific Reports, 3, 1795.
Siler, W. (1979). Competing-risk model for animal mortality. Ecology, 60, 750–7.
Sinclair, A. R. E. (1977). The Africa Buffalo: A Study of Resource Limitation of Populations (University of Chicago Press).
Slade, N. A. (1995). Failure to detect senescence in persistence of some grassland rodents. Ecology, 76, 863–70.
Slade, N. A. & Balph, D. F. (1974). Population ecology of Uinta ground squirrels. Ecology, 55, 989–1003.
Smith, C. C. & Fretwell, S. D. (1974). Optimal balance between size and number of offspring. American Naturalist, 108, 499–506.
Sohal, R. S., Agarwal, S. & Sohal, B. H. (1995). Oxidative stress and aging in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 81, 15–25.
Spinage, C. A. (1972). African ungulates life tables. Ecology, 53, 645–52.
Stadtman, E. R. (1992). Protein oxidation and aging. Science, 257, 1220–4.
Stearns, S. C. (1983). The influence of size and phylogeny on patterns of covariation among life-history traits in the mammals. Oikos, 41, 173–87.
Stearns, S. C. (1992). The Evolution of Life Histories (Oxford University Press).
Sugiyama, Y. (1994). Age-specific birth rate and lifetime reproductive success of chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea. American Journal of Primatology, 32, 311–18.
Sussman, R. W. (1991). Demography and social organization of free-ranging Lemur catta in the Beza-Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 84, 43–58.
Sydeman, W. J., Huber, H. R., Emslie, S. D., et al. (1991). Age-specific weaning success of Northern elephant seals in relation to previous breeding experience. Ecology, 72, 2204–17.
Tafani, M., Cohas, A., Bonenfant, C., et al. (2013). Decreasing litter size of marmots over time: a life history response to climate change? Ecology, 94, 580–6.
Tettamanti, F., Grignolio, S., Filli, F., et al. (2015). Senescence in breeding success of Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra): the role of female quality and age. Oecologia, 178, 187–95.
Thomas, D. C. & Barry, S. J. (1990). A life table for female barren-ground caribou in North Central Canada. Rangifer, 3, 177–84.
Thongtip, N., Saikhun, J., Mahasawangkul, S., et al. (2008). Potential factors affecting semen quality in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 6, 9.
Tidière, M., Gaillard, J.-M., Muller, D. W. H., et al. (2014). Males do not senesce faster in large herbivores with highly seasonal rut. Experimental Gerontology, 60, 167–72.
Tinker, M. T., Doak, D. F., Estes, J. A., et al. (2006). Incorporating diverse data and realistic complexity into demographic estimation procedures for sea otters. Ecological Applications, 16, 2293–2312.
Toïgo, C., Gaillard, J.-M., Gauthier, D., et al. (2002). Female reproductive success and costs in a temperate capital breeder: the effect of contrasting environmental conditions. Ecoscience, 9, 427–33.
Toïgo, C. & Gaillard, J.-M. (2003). Causes of sex-biased adult survival in ungulates: sexual size dimorphism, mating tactic or environmental harshness? Oikos, 101, 376–84.
Toïgo, C., Gaillard, J.-M., van Laere, G., et al. (2006). How does environmental variation influence body mass, body size, and body condition? Roe deer as a case study. Ecography, 29, 301–8.
Toïgo, C., Gaillard, J.-M., Festa-Bianchet, M., et al. (2007). Sex- and age-specific survival of the highly dimorphic alpine ibex: evidence for a conservative life-history tactic. Journal of Animal Ecology, 76, 679–86.
Valcu, M., Dale, J., Griesser, M., Nakagawa, S. & Kempenaers, B. (2014). Global gradients of avian longevity support the classic evolutionary theory of ageing. Ecography, 37, 930–8.
Van Noordwijk, A. J. & de Jong, G. (1986). Acquisition and allocation of resources: their influence on variation in life history tactics. American Naturalist, 128, 137–42.
van de Pol, M. & Verhulst, S. (2006). Age-dependent traits: a new statistical model to separate within- and between-individual effects. American Naturalist, 167, 766–73.
van de Pol, M. & Wright, J. (2009). A simple method for distinguishing within- versus between-subject effects using mixed models. Animal Behaviour, 77, 753–8.
Vanpé, C., Gaillard, J.-M., Kjellander, P., et al. (2007). Antler size provides an honest signal of male phenotypic quality in roe deer. American Naturalist, 169, 481–93.
Vanpé, C., Gaillard, J.-M., Kjellander, P., et al. (2010). Assessing the intensity of sexual selection on male body mass and antler length in roe deer Capreolus capreolus: is bigger better in a weakly dimorphic species? Oikos, 119, 1484–92.
Vasilaki, A., McArdle, F., Iwanejko, L. M. & McArdle, A. (2006). Adaptive responses of mouse skeletal muscle to contractile activity: the effect of age. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 127, 830–9.
Vaupel, J. W. & Yashin, A. I. (1985). Heterogeneity’s ruses: some surprising effects of selection on population dynamics. American Statistician, 39, 176–85.
Vincent, J. P., Angibault, J. M., Bideau, E. & Gaillard, J.-M. (1994). Problem of age determination: overlooked source of error in vertical life table calculations [in French]. Mammalia, 58, 293–9.
Walker, M. L., & Herndon, J. G. (2010). Mosaic aging. Medical Hypotheses, 74, 1048–51.
Weladji, R. B., Loison, A., Gaillard, J.-M., et al. (2008). Heterogeneity in individual quality overrides costs of reproduction in female reindeer. Oecologia, 156, 237–47.
Weladji, R. B., Holand, O., Gaillard, J.-M., et al. (2010). Age-specific changes in different components of reproductive output in female reindeer: terminal allocation or senescence? Oecologia, 162, 261–71.
Whitehouse, A. M. & Hall-Martin, A. J. (2000). Elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa: reconstruction of the population’s history. Oryx, 34, 46–55.
Wilder, S. M., Le Couteur, D. G. & Simpson, S. J. (2013). Diet mediates the relationship between longevity and reproduction in mammals. Age, 35, 921–7.
Williams, G. C. (1957). Pleiotropy, natural selection and the evolution of senescence. Evolution, 11, 398–411.
Williams, P. D., Day, T., Fletcher, Q. & Rowe, L. (2006). The shaping of senescence in the wild. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 458–63.
Wilson, A. J. & Nussey, D. N. (2010). What is individual quality? An evolutionary perspective. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25, 207–14.
Wilson, G. A., Olson, W. & Strobeck, C. (2002). Reproductive success in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) established using molecular techniques. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80, 1537–48.
Wolfe, L. D. & Noyes, M. J. S. (1981). Reproductive senescence among female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata). Journal of Mammalogy, 62, 698–705.
Woolley, P. A. (1991). Reproduction in Dasykaluta rosamondae (Marsupiala, Dasyuridae): field and laboratory observations. Australian Journal of Zoology, 39, 549–68.