Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 15
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: May 2011

19 - Nitrogen as a threat to the European greenhouse balance

from Part IV - Managing nitrogen in relation to key societal threats

Summary

Executive summary

Nature of the problem

Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is of fundamental importance in biological and chemical processes in the atmosphere–biosphere system, altering the Earth's climate balance in many ways. These include the direct and indirect emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), atmospheric Nr deposition and tropospheric ozone formation (O3), both of which alter the biospheric CO2 sink, Nr supply effects on CH4 emissions, and the formation of secondary atmospheric aerosols resulting from the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia (NH3).

Human production and release of Nr into the environment is thus expected to have been an important driver of European greenhouse balance. Until now, no assessment has been made of how much of an effect European Nr emissions are having on net warming or cooling.

Approaches

This chapter summarizes current knowledge of the role of Nr for global warming. Particular attention is given to the consequences of atmospheric Nr emissions. The chapter draws on inventory data and review of the literature to assess the contribution of anthropogenic atmospheric Nr emissons to the overall change in radiative forcing (between 1750 and 2005) that can be attributed to activities in Europe.

The use of Nr fertilizers has major additional effects on climate balance by allowing increased crop and feed production and larger populations of livestock and humans, but these indirect effects are not assessed here.

References
Aber, J. D., Magill, A., Boone, R.et al. (1993). Plant and soil responses to chronic nitrogen additions at the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts. Ecological Applications, 3, 156–166.
Aber, J., McDowell, W., Nadelhoffer, K.et al. (1998). Nitrogen saturation in temperate forest ecosystems: hypotheses revisitedBioscience, 48, 921–934.
Adams, P. J., Seinfeld, J. H. andKoch, D. M. (1999). Global concentrations of tropospheric sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosol simulated in a general circulation model. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 104, 13 791–13 823.
Agren, G. I., Bosatta, E. and Alison, H. M. (2001). Combining theory and experiment to understand effects of inorganic nitrogen on litter decomposition. Oecologia, 128, 94–98.
Bange, H. W. (2006). Nitrous oxide and methane in European coastal waters. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 70, 361–374.
Barnes, J. and Owens, N. J. P. (1999). Denitrification and nitrous oxide concentrations in the Humber estuary, UK, and adjacent coastal zones. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 37, 247–260.
Bauer, G. A., Bazzaz, F. A., Minocha, R.et al. (2004). Effects of chronic N additions on tissue chemistry, photosynthetic capacity, and carbon sequestration potential of a red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) stand in the NE United States. Forest Ecology and Management, 196, 173–186.
Bauer, S. E., Kouch, D., Unger, N.et al. (2009). Nitrate aerosols today and in 2030: a global simulation including aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 5043–5059.
Beauchemin, K., Kreuzer, M., O'Mara, F. and McAllister, T. (2008). Nutritional management for enteric methane abatement: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 21−27.
Berendse, F., Breemen, N., Rydin, H.et al. (2001). Raised atmospheric CO2 levels and increased N deposition cause shifts in plant species composition and production in Sphagnum bogs. Global Change Biology, 7, 591–598.
Bergh, J., Linder, S., Lundmark, T., and Elfving, B. (1999). The effect of water and nutrient availability on the productivity of Norway spruce in northern and southern Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management, 119, 51–62.
Berntsen, T. K., Fuglestvedt, J. S., Joshi, M. M.et al. (2005). Response of climate to regional emissions of ozone precursors: sensitivities and warming potentials. Tellus, 57B, 283–304.
Berounsky, V. M. and Nixon, S. W. (1990). Temperature and the annual cycle of nitrification in waters of Narrragansett Bay. Limnology and Oceanography, 35, 1610–1617.
Betts, R. A., Goldewijk, K. K. and Rmankutty, N. (2006). Radiative forcing by anthropogenic surface albedo change before and since 1750. Hadley Centre Technical Note 70. The Met Office, Brackwell, UK.
Billen, G., Somville, M., DeBecker, E. and Servais, P. (1985). A nitrogen budget of the Scheldt hydrographical basin. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 19, 223–230.
Billen, G., Garnier, J., Ficht, A. and Cun, C. (2001). Modeling the response of water quality in the Seine river estuary to human activity in its watershed over the last 50 years. Estuaries, 24, 977–983.
Billen, G., Garnier, J., Nemery, J.et al. (2007). A long-term view of nutrient transfers through the Seine river continuum. Science of the Total Environment, 375, 80–97.
Billen, G., Thieu, V., Garnier, J. and Silvestre, M. (2009). Modelling the N cascade in regional watersheds: the case study of the Seine, Somme and Scheldt rivers. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 133, 234–246.
Bodelier, P. L. E. and Laanbroek, H. J. (2004). Nitrogen as a regulatory factor of methane oxidation in soils and sediments. FEMS Microbiology and Ecology, 47, 265–277.
Boden, T., Marland, G. and Andres, R. J. (2009). Global CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Manufacture, and Gas Flaring: 1751–2006. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
Boeckx, P. and Cleemput, O. (2001). Estimates of N2O and CH4 fluxes from agricultural land in various regions of Europe. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 60, 35–47.
Bond, T. C., Streets, D. G., Yarber, K. F.et al. (2004). A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, D14203.
Borken, W. and Matzner, E. (2004). Nitrate leaching in forest soils: an analysis of long-term monitoring sites in Germany. Journal Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 167, 189–196.
Bouchard, V., Frey, S. D., Gilbert, J. M. and Reed, S. E. (2007). Effects of macrophyte functional group richness on emergent freshwater wetland functions. Ecology, 11, 2903–2914.
Bouwman, A. F., Lee, D. S., Asman, W. A. H.et al. (1997). A global high-resolution emission inventory for ammonia. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 11, 561–587.
Bower, K. N., Choularton, T. W., Gallagher, M. W.et al. (1997). Observations and modelling of the processing of aerosol by a hill cap cloud. Atmospheric Environment, 31, 2527–2544.
Boynton, W. R., Garber, J. H., Summers, R. and Kemp, W. M. (1995). Inputs, transformations and transport of nitrogen and phosphorus in Chesapeake Bay and selected tributaries. Estuaries, 8, 285–314.
Bradford, M. A., Ineson, P., Wookey, P. A. and Lappin-Scott, H. M. (2001). The effects of acid nitrogen and acid sulphur deposition on CH4 oxidation in a forest soil: a laboratory study. Soil Biology and Biochemistry., 33, 1695–1702.
Bragazza, L., Freeman, C., Jones, T.et al. (2006). Atmospheric nitrogen deposition promotes carbon loss from peat bogs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103, 19386–19389.
Brink, C., Grinsven, H., Jacobsen, B. H.et al. (2011). Costs and benefits of nitrogen in the environment. In: The European Nitrogen Assessment, ed. Sutton, M. A., Howard, C. M., Erisman, J. W.et al., Cambridge University Press.
Brumme, R. and Beese, F. (1992). Effects of liming and nitrogen fertilization on emissions of CO2 and N2O from a temperate forest. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 851–858.
Brumme, R. and Khanna, P. K. (2008). Ecological and site historical aspects of N dynamics and current N status in temperate forests. Global Change Biology, 14, 125–141.
Brumme, R., Borken, W. and Finke, S. (1999). Hierarchical control on nitrous oxide emission in forest ecosystems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 1137–1148.
Bubier, J. L., Moore, T. R. and Bledzki, L. A. (2007). Effects of nutrient addition on vegetation and carbon cycling in an ombrotrophic bog. Global Change Biology, 13, 1168–1186.
Butterbach-Bahl, K. (2002). Exchange of trace gases at the forest floor atmosphere interface: CH4. In: Trace Gas Exchange in Forest Ecosystems, Gasche, R., Papen, H., and Rennenberg, H., (eds.) Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 141–156.
Butterbach-Bahl, K., Gasche, R., Breuer, L. and Papen, H. (1997). Fluxes of NO and N2O from temperate forest soils impact of forest type, N deposition and of liming on the NO and N2O emissions. Nutrition Cycles and Agroecosystems, 48, 79–90.
Butterbach-Bahl, K., Gasche, R., Huber, C., Kreutzer, K. and Papen, H. (1998). Impact of nitrogen input by wet deposition on N-trace gas fluxes and CH4-oxidation in spruce forest ecosystems of the temperate zone in Europe. Atmospheric Environment, 32, 559–564.
Butterbach-Bahl, K., Gundersen, P., Ambus, P.et al. (2011). Nitrogen processes in terrestrial ecosystems. In: The European Nitrogen Assessment, ed. Sutton, M. A., Howard, C. M., Erisman, J. W.et al., Cambridge University Press.
Chen, Z., Wang, X., Feng, Z., Xiao, Q. and Duan, X. (2009). Impact of elevated O3 on soil microbial community function under wheat crop. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 198, 189–198.
Christopher, S. F. and Lal, R. (2007). Nitrogen management affects carbon sequestration in North American cropland soils. Critical Reviews in Plant Science, 26, 45–64.
Cole, J. J. and Caraco, N. F. (1998). Atmospheric exchange of carbon dioxide in a low-wind oligotrophic lake measured by the addition of SF6. Limnology and Oceanography, 43, 647–656.
Cole, J. J., Peierls, B. L., Caraco, N. F. and Pace, M. L. (1993). Nitrogen loading of rivers as a human-driven process. In: McDonnell, M. J., and Pickett, S. T. A. (eds.), Humans as Components of Ecosystems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin pp. 141–157.
Conen, F. and Neftel, A. (2007). Do increasingly depleted δ15N values of atmospheric N2O indicate a decline in soil N2O reduction?Biogeochemistry, 82, 321–326.
Corré, M. D., Pennock, D. J., Kessel, C. and Elliott, D. K. (1999). Estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions from a transitional grassland-forest region in Saskatchewan, Canada. Biogeochemistry, 44, 29–49.
Crutzen, P. J., Mosier, A. R., Smith, K. A. and Winiwarter, W. (2008). N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 385–389.
Davidson, E. A. (2009). The contribution of manure and fertilizer nitrogen to atmospheric nitrous oxide since 1860. Nature Geoscience, 2, 659–662.
Vries, W., Reinds, G. J., Gundersen, P. and Sterba, H. (2006). The impact of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration in European forests and forest soils. Global Change Biology, 12, 1151–1173.
Vries, W., Oenema, O., Butterbach-Bahl, K. and Denier van der Gon, H. (2007). The impact of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the exchange of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane from European forests. In: Greenhouse Gas Sinks, ed. Reay, D., Hewitt, N., Grace, J., and Smith, K., CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 249–283
Vries, W., Solberg, S., Dobbertin, M.et al. (2008). Ecologically implausible carbon response?Nature, 451, E1–E3.
Vries, W., Solberg, S., Dobbertin, M.et al. (2009). The impact of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration by European forests and heathlands, Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 1814–1823.
Vries, W., Leip, A., Reinds, G. J.et al. (2011). Geographic variation in terrestrial nitrogen budgets across Europe. In: The European Nitrogen Assessment, ed. Sutton, M. A., Howard, C. M., Erisman, J. W.et al., Cambridge University Press.
Denier van der Gon, H. A. C. and Bleeker, A. (2005). Indirect N2O emission due to atmospheric N deposition for the Netherlands. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 5827–5838.
Dentener, F., Drevet, J., Lamarque, J. F.et al. (2006). Nitrogen and sulfur deposition on regional and global scales: a multimodel evaluation, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20.
Derwent, R. G., Stevenson, D. S., Doherty, R. M.et al. (2008). Radiative forcing from surface NOx emissions: spatial and seasonal variations, Climatic Change, doi: 10.1007/s10584–007–9383–8.
Dise, N. B. and Verry, E. S. (2001). Suppression of peatland methane emission by cumulative sulfate deposition in simulated acid rain. Biogeochemistry, 53, 143–160.
Dise, N. B., Matzner, E. and Gundersen, P. (1998). Synthesis of nitrogen pools and fluxes from European forest ecosystems. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 105, 143–154.
Dutaur, L. and Verchot, L. V. (2007). A global inventory of the soil CH4 sink. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, GB4013.
,EDGAR (2009). Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), release version 4.0, European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu (site accessed January 2010).
,EEA European Environment Agency (2009). http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu (Site accessed, January 2010.)
Eggleston, H. S., Buendia, L., Miwa, K., Ngara, T. and Tanabe, K. (2006). IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, IGES, Hayama, Japan.
Erisman, J. W., Sutton, M. A., Galloway, J., Klimont, Z. and Winiwarter, W. (2008). How a century of ammonia synthesis changed the world. Nature Geoscience, 1, 636–639.
,European Environment Agency (2006). Land accounts for Europe 1990–2000. Towards integrated land and ecosystem accounting, EEA Technical Report No. 11/2006, EEA, Copenhagen.
,European Environmental Agency (2008). Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2006 and inventory report 2008, EEA Technical Report No 6/2008, EEA, Copenhagen.
Evans, C. D., Caporn, S. J. M., Carroll, J. A.et al. (2006). Modelling nitrogen saturation and carbon accumulation in heathland soils under elevated nitrogen deposition. Environmental Pollution, 143, 468–478.
,FAO (2006). FAOSTAT. http://apps.fao.org (site accessed January 2010).
Fog, K. (1988). The effect of added nitrogen on the rate of decomposition of organic-matter. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 63, 433–462.
Foley, J. A., Defries, R., Asner, G. P.et al. (2005). Global consequences of land use. Science, 309, 570–574.
Forster, P., Ramaswamy, V. and Artaxo, P. (2007). Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. Solomon, S.et al., Cambridge University Press.
Franklin, O., Hogberg, P., Ekblad, A. and Agren, G. I. (2003). Pine forest floor carbon accumulation in response to N and PK additions: Bomb C-14 modelling and respiration studies. Ecosystems, 6, 644–658.
Freibauer, A. (2003). Regionalised inventory of biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from European agriculture. European Journal of Agronomy, 19, 135–160.
Fuhrer, J. (2009). Ozone risk for crops and pastures in present and future climates. Naturwissenschaften, 96, 173–194.
Fumoto, T., Kobayashi, K., Li, C., Yagi, K. and Hasegawa, T. (2008). Revising a process-based biogeochemistry model (DNDC) to simulate methane emission from rice paddy fields under various residue management and fertilizer regimes. Global Change Biology, 14, 382–402.
Galloway, J. N., Dentener, F. J., Capone, D. G.et al. (2004). Nitrogen cycles: past, present and future. Biogeochemistry, 70, 153–226.
Garcia-Ruiz, R., Pattinson, S. N. and Whitton, B. A. (1998). Kinetic parameters of denitrification in a river continuum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64, 2533–2538.
Garland, J. A. (2001). On the size dependence of particle deposition. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Focus, 1, 323–332.
Garnier, J., Billen, G., Vilain, G.et al. (2009). Nitrous oxide (N2O) in the Seine river and basin: Observations and budgets. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 133, 223–233.
Groffman, P. M., Gold, A. J. and Addy, K. (2000). Nitrous oxide production in riparian zones and its importance to national emission inventories. Global Change Science, 2, 291–299.
Gulledge, J. and Schimel, J. P. (1998). Moisture control over atmospheric CH4 consumption and CO2 production in diverse Alaskan soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 8/9, 1127–1132.
Gunnarsson, U., Bronge, L. B., Rydin, H. and Ohlson, M. (2008). Near-zero recent carbon accumulation in a bog with high nitrogen deposition in SW Sweden, Global Change Biology, 14, 2152–2165.
Hagedorn, F., Spinnler, D. and Siegwolf, R. (2003). Increased N deposition retards mineralization of old soil organic matter, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35, 1683–1692.
Hanaki, K., Hong, Z. and Matsuo, T. (1992). Production of nitrous oxide gas during denitrification of wastewater. Water Science and Technology, 26, 1027–1036.
Hansen, J., Sato, M. and Ruedy, R. (1997). Radiative forcing and climate response. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 6831–6864.
Hansen, J. E., Sato, M., Lacis, A.et al. (1998). Climate forcings in the Industrial era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of theUSA, 95, 12753–12758.
Helder, W. and Vries, R. T. P. (1983). Estuarine nitrite maxima and nitrifying bacteria (EMS-Dollard estuary). Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 17, 1–18.
Hindrichsen, I. K., Wettstein, H. R., Machmüller, A. and Kreuzer, M. (2006). Methane emission, nutrient degradation and nitrogen turnover in dairy cows and their slurry at different milk production scenarios with and without concentrate supplementation. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 113, 150−161.
Hogberg, P. (2007). Nitrogen impacts on forest carbon. Nature, 447, 781–782.
Högberg, P,. Fan, H., Quist, M., Binkley, D. and Tamm, C. O. (2006). Tree growth and soil acidification in response to 30 years of experimental nitrogen loading on boreal forestGlobal Change Biology, 12, 489–499.
Howarth, R. W., Billen, G., Swaney, D.et al. (1996). Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N and P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences. Biogeochemistry, 35, 75–139.
Hyvonen, R., Agren, G. I., Linder, S.et al. (2007). The likely impact of elevated [CO2], nitrogen deposition, increased temperature and management on carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems: a literature review. New Phytologist, 173, 463–480.
Hyvönen, R., Persson, T., Andersson, S.et al. (2008). Impact of long-term nitrogen addition on carbon stocks in trees and soils in northern Europe. Biogeochemistry, 89, 121–137.
,IPCC (2002). Climate Change 2001 Synthesis Report. Cambridge University Press.
,IPCC (2006). IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, IGES, Hayama, Japan.
,IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the International Panel on Climate ChangeCambridge University Press.
Islam, K. R., Mulchi, C. L. and Ali, A. A. (1999). Tropospheric carbon dioxide or ozone enrichments and moisture effects on soil organic carbon quality. Journal of Environmental Quality, 28, 1629–1636.
Islam, M. R. and Begum, J. (1997). Short review of global methane situation and of facilities to reduce in ruminants in third world countries. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 10, 157–163.
Jacobson, M. Z. (2001). Global direct radiative forcing due to multicomponent anthropogenic and natural aerosols. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 1551–1568.
Jarvis, P. and Linder, S. (2000). Botany: constraints to growth of boreal forests. Nature, 405, 904–905.
Jaworski, N. A., Groffman, P. M., Keller, A. A. and Prager, J. C. (1992). A watershed nitrogen and phosphorus balance: the upper Potomac River Basin. Estuaries, 15, 83–95.
Jensen, L. S., Schjoerring, J. K., Hoek, K.et al. (2011). Benefits of nitrogen for food fibre and industrial production. In: The European Nitrogen Assessment, ed. Sutton, M. A., Howard, C. M., Erisman, J. W.et al., Cambridge University Press.
Joshi, M., Shine, K., Ponater, M.et al. (2003). Comparison of climate response of different radiative forcings in three general circulation models towards an improved metric climate change. Climate Dynamics, 20, 843–854.
Kampschreur, M. J., Temmink, H., Kleerebezem, R., Jetten, M. S. M. and MarkLoosdrecht, C. M. Loosdrecht, C. M. (2009). Nitrous oxide emission during wastewater treatment. Water Research (in press).
Kanerva, T., Palojärvi, A., Rämö, K. and Manninen, S. (2008). Changes in soil microbial community structure under elevated tropospheric O3 and CO2. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40, 2502–2510.
Karnosky, D. F., Skelly, J. M., Percy, K. E. and Chappelka, A. H. (2007). Perspectives regarding 50 years of research on effects of tropospheric ozone air pollution on US forests. Environmental Pollution, 147, 489–506.
Kasimir-Klemedtsson, A., Klemedtsson, L., Berglund, K.et al. (1997). Greenhouse gas emissions from farmed organic soils: a review. Soil Use and Management, 13, 245–250.
Kesik, M., Ambus, P., Baritz, R.et al. (2005). Inventories of N2O and NO emissions from European forest soils. Biogeosciences, 2, 353–375.
Khan, S. A., Mulvaney, R. L., Ellsworth, T. R. and Boast, C. W., (2007). The myth of nitrogen fertilization for soil carbon sequestration. Journal of Environmental Quality, 36, 1821–1832.
Knorr, M., Frey, S. D. and Curtis, P. S. (2005). Nitrogen additions and litter decomposition a meta-analysis. Ecology, 86, 3252–3257.
Kristensen, H. L., Gundersen, P., Callesen, I. and Reinds, G. J. (2004). Throughfall nitrogen deposition has different impacts on soil solution nitrate concentration in European coniferous and deciduous forests. Ecosystems, 7, 180–192.
Kröber, T. F., Külling, D. R., Menzi, H., Sutter, F. and Kreuzer, M. (2000). Quantitative effects of feed protein reduction and methionine on nitrogen use by cows and nitrogen emission from slurry. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 2941–2951.
Külling, D. R., Menzi, H., Kröber, T. F.et al. (2001). Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from different diet types of dairy manure during storage as affected by dietary protein content. Journal of Agricultural Science, 137, 235−250.
Külling, D. R., Menzi, H., Sutter, F., Lischer, P. and Kreuzer, M. (2003). Ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from differently stored dairy manure derived from grass- and hay-based rations. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 65, 13−22.
Larsson, U., Elmgren, R. and Wulff, F. (1985). Eutrophication and the Baltic Sea: –causes and consequences. Ambio, 14, 9–14.
Laubhann, D., Sterba, H., Reinds, G. J. and Vries, W. (2009). The impact of atmospheric deposition and climate on forest growth in European monitoring plots: an individual tree growth model. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 1751–1761.
LeBauer, D. S. and Treseder, K. K. (2008). Nitrogen limitation of net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems is globally distributed. Ecology, 89, 371–379.
Leip, A., Achermann, B., Billen, G.et al. (2011). Integrating nitrogen fluxes at the European scale. In: The European Nitrogen Assessment, ed. Sutton, M. A., Howard, C. M., Erisman, J. W.et al., Cambridge University Press.
Quere, C., Raupach, M. R., Canadell, J. G.et al. (2009). Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. Nature Geoscience, 2, 831–836.
Levy, P. E., Wendler, R., Oijen, M., Cannell, M. G. R. and Millard, P. (2004). The effect of nitrogen enrichment on the carbon sink in coniferous forests: uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of three ecosystem models, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Focus, 4, 67–74.
Li, S., Wang, T., Zhuang, B., and Han, Y. (2009). Indirect radiative forcing and climatic effect of the anthropogenic nitrate aerosol on regional climate of China. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 26, 354–362.
Liao, H. and Seinfeld, J., (2005). Global impacts of gas-phase chemistry aerosol interactions on direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols and ozone. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, D18208.
Limpens, J., Berendse, F. and Klees, H. (2004). How phosphorous availability affects the impact of nitrogen deposition on Sphagnum and vascular plants in bogs. Ecosystems, 7, 793–804.
Liu, L. and Greaver, T. L. (2009). Nitrogen addition stimulates emissions of biogenic greenhouse gases in terrestrial and wetland ecosystems. Ecology Letters, 12, 1103–1117.
Loya, W. M., Pregitzer, K. S., Karberg, N. J., King, J. S. and Giardina, C. P. (2003). Reduction of soil carbon formation by tropospheric ozone under increased carbon dioxide levels. Nature, 425, 705–707.
Magill, A. H., Aber, J. D., Currie, W. S.et al. (2004). Ecosystem response to 15 years of chronic nitrogen additions at the Harvard Forest LTER, Massachusetts, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 196, 7–28.
Magnani, F., Mencuccini, M.et al. (2007). The human footprint in the carbon cycle of temperate and boreal forests. Nature, 447, 849–851.
Mannig, P., Saunders, M., Bardgett, R. D.et al. (2008). Direct and indirect effects of nitrogen deposition on litter decomposition. Soil Biology Biochemistry, 40, 688–698.
Martin, S. T., Hung, H.-M., Park, R. J.et al. (2004). Effects of the physical state of tropospheric ammonium-sulfate-nitrate particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 4, 183–214.
Melin, J., Nommik, H., Lohm, U. and Flower-Ellis, J. (1983), Fertilizer nitrogen budget in a Scots pine ecosystem attained by using root-isolated plots and 15N tracer technique,. Plant and Soil, 74, 249–263.
Mercado, L. M., Bellouin, N., Sitch, S.et al. (2009). Impact of changes in diffuse radiation on the global land carbon sink. Nature, 458, 1014–1017.
Myhre, G., Stordal, F., Berglen, T. F., Sundet, J. K. and Isaksen, I. S. A. (2004). Uncertainties in the radiative forcing due to sulphate aerosols. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 61(5), 485–498.
Mhyre, G., Kvalevag, M. M. and Schaaf, C. B. (2005). Radiative forcing due to anthropogenic vegetation change based on MODIS surface albedo data. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L21410.
Milne, R. and Oijen, M. (2005). A comparison of two modelling studies of environmental effects on forest carbon stocks across Europe. Annals of Forest Science, 62, 911–923.
Mosier, A., Kroeze, C., Nevison, C.et al. (1998). Closing the global N2O budget: Nitrous oxide emissions through the agricultural nitrogen cycle, OECD/IPCC/IEA Phase II: development of IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventory methodology. Nutrition Cycles Agroecosystems, 52, 225–248.
Moss, A. R., Givens, D. I. and Garnsworthy, P. C. (1994). The effect of alkali treatment of cereal straws on digestibility and methane production by sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 49, 245−259.
Nadelhoffer, K., Giblin, A., Shaver, G. and Linkins, A. (1991). Microbial processes and plant nutrient availabilities in arctic soils. In: Arctic Ecosystems in a Changing Climate, ed. Chapin, F. C., Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 281–300.
Nadelhoffer, K., Emmet, B., Gunderson, P.et al. (1999). Nitrogen deposition make a minor contribution to carbon sequestration in temperate forests. Nature, 398, 145–148.
Nadelhoffer, K. J., Colman, B. P., Currie, W. S., Magill, A. and Aber, J. D. (2004). Decadal-scale fates of N-15 tracers added to oak and pine stands under ambient and elevated N inputs at the Harvard Forest (USA). Forest Ecology and Management, 196, 89–107.
Naik, V., Mauzerall, D., Horowitz, L.et al. (2005). Net radiative forcing due to changes in regional emissions of tropospheric ozone precursors. Journal of Geophysical research - Atmospheres, 110, D24306.
Naylor, R., Steinfeld, H., Falcon, W.et al. (2005). Losing the links between livestock and land. Science, 310, 1621–1622.
Nemitz, E., Dorsey, J. R., Flynn, M. J.et al. (2009). Aerosol fluxes and particle growth above managed grassland. Biogeosciences, 6, 1627–1645.
Nevison, C. D. and Holland, E. (1997). A reexamination of the impact of anthropogenically fixed nitrogen on atmospheric N2O and the stratospheric O3 layer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 25519–25536.
Nixon, S. W., Granger, S. L. and Nowicki, B. L. (1995). An assessment of the annual mass balance of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in Narragansett Bay. Biogeochemistry, 31, 15–61.
Oenema, O. and Tamminga, S. (2005). Nitrogen in global animal production and management options from improving nitrogen use efficiency. Science in China, Series C, 48, 871–887.
Oenema, O., Oudendag, D. and Velthof, G. L. (2007). Nutrient losses from manure management in the European Union. Livestock Science, 112, 261–272.
Oenema, O., Witzke, H. P., Klimont, Z., Lesschen, J. P. and Velthof, G. L. (2009). Integrated assessment of promising measures to decrease nitrogen losses from agriculture in EU-27. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 133, 280–288.
Oenema, O., Salomez, J., Branquisho, C.et al. (2011). Developing integrated approaches to nitrogen management. In: European Nitrogen Assessment, ed. Sutton, M. A., Howard, C. M., Erisman, J. W.et al., Cambridge University Press.
Ollinger, S. V., Richardson, A. D., Martin, M. E.et al. (2008). Canopy nitrogen, carbon assimilation, and albedo in temperate and boreal forests: functional relations and potential climate feedbacks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105, 19336–19341.
Olsson, P., Linder, S., Giesler, R. and Hogberg, P. (2005). Fertilization of boreal forest reduces both autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration, Global Change Biology, 11, 1745–1753.
Oren, R., Ellsworth, D. S., Johnsen, K. H.et al. (2001). Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. Nature, 411, 469–472.
Owens, N. J. P. (1986). Estuarine nitrification: a naturally occuring fludized bed reaction?Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 38, 31–44.
Papen, H. and Butterbach-Bahl, K. (1999). A 3-year continuous record of nitrogen trace gas fluxes from untreated and limed soil of a N-saturated spruce and beech forest ecosystem in Germany, 1. N2O emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 18487–18503.
Pilegaard, K., Skiba, U., Ambus, P.et al. (2006). Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O). Biogeosciences, 3, 615–661.
Poorter, H. and Nagel, O. (2000). The role of biomass allocation in the growth response of plants to different levels of light, CO2, nutrients and water: a quantitative review. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 27.
Pregitzer, K. S., Burton, A. J., Zak, D. R. and Talhelm, A. F. (2008). Simulated chronic nitrogen deposition increases carbon storage in Northern Temperate forests. Global Change Biology, 14, 142–153.
Reay, D. S. and Nedwell, D. B. (2004). Methane oxidation in temperate soils. Effects of inorganic N. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36, 2059–2065.
Rehfuess, K. E., Agren, G. I., Andersson, F.et al. (1999). Relationships between recent changes of growth and nutrition of Norway spruce, Scots pine and European beech forests in Europe In: RECOGNITION – Working Paper 19, European Forest Institute, Joensuu, Finland.
Reis, S., Pinder, R. W., Zhan, M., Lijie, G. and Sutton, M. (2009). Reactive nitrogen in atmospheric emission inventories. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 7657–7677.
Ren, W., Tian, H., Liu, M.et al. (2007). Effects of tropospheric ozone pollution on net primary productivity and carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of China. Journal of Geophysical Research D., Atmospheres, 112, D22S09.
Rennenberg, H., Kreutzer, K., Papen, H. and Weber, P. (1998). Consequences of high loads of nitrogen for spruce (Picea abies) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests. New Phytologist, 139, 71–86.
Rich, J. J. and Myrold, D. D. (2004). Community composition and activities of denitrifying bacteria from adjacent agricultural soil, riparian soil, and creek sediment in Oregon, USA. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36, 1431–1441.
Rodrigues, P. P. G. W., Barnes, J. and Upstill-Goddard, , R. (2007). Simulating estuarine nitrous oxide production by means of a dynamic model. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54, 164–172.
Saarnio, S., Winiwarter, W. and Leitão, J. (2009). Methane release from wetlands and watercourses in Europe. Atmosph. Environm., 43, 1421–1429.
Scarascia-Mugnozza, G., Bauer, G. A., Persson, H., Matteucci, G. and Masci, A. (2000). Tree biomass, growth and nutrient pools. In: (ed.) Schulze, E. D., Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in European Forest Ecosystems, Springer, Berlin, pp. 49–60.
Schaap, M., Loon, M., Ten Brink, H., Dentener, F. J. and Bultjes, P. J. H. (2004). Second inorganic aerosol simulations for Europe with special attention to nitrate. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 4, 857–874.
Schimel, D. S., Braswell, B. H., McKeown, R.et al. (1996). Climate and nitrogen controls on the geography and timescales of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 677–692.
Schnell, S. and King, G. M. (1996). Responses of methanotrophic activity in soils and cultures to water stress. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 62, 3203–3209.
Schulze, E. D., Högberg, L., Oene, H.et al. (2000). Interactions between the carbon and nitrogen cycle and the role of biodiversity: a synopsis of a study along a north–south transect through Europe. In: Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in European Forest Ecosystems, (ed.) Schulze, E. D., Springer, Berlin, pp. 468–492.
Schulze, E. D., Luyssaert, S., Ciais, P.et al. (2009). Importance of methane and nitrous oxide for Europe's terrestrial greenhouse-gas balance. Nature Geoscience 2, 842–850.
Seitzinger, S. P. and Kroeze, C. (1998). Global distribution of nitrous oxide production and N inputs in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 93–113.
Seitzinger, S. P., Kroeze, C. and Styles, R. V. (2000). Global distribution of N2O emissions from aquatic systems: natural emissions and anthropogenic effects. Global Change Science, 2, 267–279.
Sheldrick, W., Syers, J. K. and Lingard, J. (2003). Contribution of livestock excreta to nutrient balances. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 66, 119–131.
Shindell, D. T., Faluvegi, G., Koch, D. M.et al. (2009). Improved attribution of climate forcing to emissions. Science, 326, 716–718.
Simpson, D., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Fagerli, H., Kesik, M. and Skiba, U. (2006). Deposition and emissions of reactive nitrogen over European forests: a modelling study. Atmospheric Environment, 40, 5712–5726.
Simpson, D., Aas, W., Bartnicki, J.et al. (2011). Atmospheric transport and deposition of nitrogen in Europe. In: The European Nitrogen Assessment, ed. Sutton, M. A., Howard, C. M., Erisman, J. W.et al., Cambridge University Press.
Sinsabaugh, R. L., Carreiro, M. M. and Repert, D. A. (2002). Allocation of extracellular enzymatic activity in relation to litter composition, N deposition, and mass loss. Biogeochemistry, 60, 1–24.
Sinsabaugh, R. L., Gallo, M. E., Lauber, C., Waldrop, M. P. and Zak, D. R. (2005). Extracellular enzyme activities and soil organic matter dynamics for northern hardwood forests receiving simulated nitrogen deposition. Biogeochemistry, 75, 201–215.
Sitch, S., Cox, P. M, Collins, W. J. and Huntingford, C. (2007). Indirect radiative forcing of climate change through ozone effects on the landcarbon sink. Nature, 448, 791–794.
Skiba, U., Dick, J., Storeton-West, R.et al. (2006). The relationship between NH3 emissions from a poultry farm and soil NO and N2O fluxes from a downwind forest. Biogeosciences, 3, 375–382.
Smil, V. (2002). The Earth's Biosphere: Evolution, Dynamics and Change. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Smith, J. S., Pitcher, H. and Wigley, T. M. L. (2001). Global and regional anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions. Global Planetary Change, 29, 99–119.
Solberg, S., Dobbertin, M., Reinds, G. J.et al. (2009). The impact of changes in atmospheric deposition and climate on forest growth in European monitoring plots: an empirical stand growth model. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 1735–1750.
Stehfest, L. and Bouwman, L. (2006). N2O and NO emission from agricultural fields and soils under natural vegetation: summarizing avialable measurement data and modelling of global annual emissions. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 74, 207–228.
Steinfeld, H., Gerber, P., Wassenaar, T.et al. (2006). Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options, FAO, Rome, Italy.
Steudler, P. A., Bowden, R. D., Melillo, J. M. and Aber, J. D. (1989). Influence of nitrogen fertilization on methane uptake in temperate forest soils. Nature, 341, 314–316.
Sutton, M. A., Nemitz, E., Erisman, J. W. et al. (2007). Challenges in quantifying biosphere–atmosphere exchange of nitrogen species. Environmental Pollution, 150, 125–139.
Sutton, M. A., Simpson, D., Levy, P. E.et al. (2008). Uncertainties in the relationship between atmospheric nitrogen deposition and forest carbon sequestration. Global Change Biology, 14, 2057–2063.
Tallec, G., Garnier, J., Billen, G. and Gousailles, M. (2006). Nitrous oxide emissions from secondary activated sludge in nitrifying conditions of urban wastewater treatment plants: effect of oxygenation level. Water Research, 40, 2972–2980.
Tallec, G., Garnier, J., Billen, G. and Gousailles, M. (2008). Nitrous oxide emissions from denitrifying activated sludge of urban wastewater treatment plants, under anoxia and low oxygenation. Bioresource Technology, 99, 2200–2209.
Tamminga, S. (2003). Pollution due to nutrient losses and its control in European animal production. Livestock Production Science, 84, 101–111.
Tietema, A., Emmett, B., Gundersen, P., Kjnaas, O. and Koopmans, C. (1998). The fate of 15N-labelled nitrogen deposition in coniferous forest ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management, 101, 19–28.
,USEIA (2009). US Energy Information Administration. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.cfm
Dijk, S. M. and Duyzer, J. H. (1999). Nitric oxide emissions from forest soils. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 15955–15961.
Velthof, G. L., Oudendag, D., Witzke, H. P.et al. (2009). Integrated assessment of nitrogen losses from agriculture in EU-27 using MITERRA-EUROPE. Journal of Environmental Quality, 38, 402–417.
Vitousek, P. M. and Howarth, R. W. (1991). Nitrogen limitation on land and in the sea: how it can occur. Biogeochemistry, 13, 87–115.
Wamelink, G. W. W., Dobben, H. F., Mol-Dijkstra, J. P.et al. (2009a). Effect of nitrogen deposition reduction on biodiversity and carbon sequestration. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 1774–1779.
Wamelink, G. W. W., Wieggers, R., Reinds, G. J.et al. (2009b). Modelling impacts of changes in carbon dioxide concentration, climate and nitrogen deposition on growth and carbon sequestration of Intensive Forest Monitoring plots in Europe. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 1794–1805.
Winiwarter, W., Hettelingh, J. P., Bouwman, L.et al. (2011). Future scenarios of nitrogen in Europe. In: The European Nitrogen Assessment, ed. Sutton, M. A., Howard, C. M., Erisman, J. W.et al., Cambridge University Press.
Wittig, V. E., Ainsworth, E. A., Naidu, S. L., Karnosky, D. F. and Long, S. P. (2009). Quantifying the impact of current and future tropospheric ozone on tree biomass, growth, physiology and biochemistry: a quantitative meta-analysis. Global Change Biology, 15, 396–424.
Zaehle, S. and Friend, A. D. (2010). Carbon and nitrogen cycle dynamics in the O-CN land surface model: 1. Model description, site-scale evaluation and sensitivity to parameter estimates, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, GB 1005.
Zaehle, S., Friend, A. D., Dentener, F.et al. (2010). Carbon and nitrogen cycle dynamics in the O-CN land surface model: 2 The role of the nitrogen cycle in the historical terrestrial carbon balance, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, GB 1006.