Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: August 2009

30 - Psychodynamic psychotherapy

from Section 5 - Treatments in Psychiatry


This chapter focuses on the evidence regarding the social and cultural determinants of mental health. It examines the role of culture in psychiatry, and the historical evolution of research on the cultural influences on psychiatric concepts and classification. The study of culture on mental health has been profoundly influential in guiding the clinician in managing psychiatric disorders in persons of different culture. The chapter considers four major social determinants of mental disorders: poverty, gender, conflict and the marginalisation experienced by indigenous communities across the world. From a public health perspective, an understanding of mechanisms of the relationship between social adversity and mental health can inform primary and secondary preventive strategies. The chapter ends with a critical evaluation of the contemporary understanding of the role of cultural influences on the aetiology, clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of mental disorders.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


Ainsworth, M. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., et al. (1978). Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Anderson, E. M., & Lambert, M. J. (1995). Short-term dynamically oriented psychotherapy: a review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychol Rev 15:503–14.
Bateman, A., & Fonagy, P. (1999). Effectiveness of partial hospitalization in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry 156:1563–9.
Bateman, A., & Fonagy, P. (2001). Treatment of borderline personality disorder with psychoanalytically oriented partial hospitalization: an 18-month follow-up. Am J Psychiatry 158:36–42.
Blatt, S. (2004). Experiences of Depression: Theoretical, Clinical, and Research Perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Book, H. E. (1998). How to Practice Brief Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: The Core Conflictual Relationship Theme Method. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Carpy, D. V. (1989). Tolerating the countertransference: a mutative process. Int J Psychoanal 70:287–94.
Crits-Cristoph, P. (1992). The efficacy of brief dynamic psychotherapy: a meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry 149:151–8.
Dare, C. (2001). Psychodynamic psychotherapy for eating disorders. In G. O. Gabbard, ed. Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 3rd edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, pp. 2169–92.
Davanloo, H., ed. (1980). Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy. New York: Jason Aronson.
Friedman, L. (1991). A reading of Freud's papers on technique. Psychoanal Q 60:564–95.
Gabbard, G. O. (2004). Long-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Basic Text. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Press.
Gabbard, G. O. (2005). Psychodynamic Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 4th edn. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Press.
Gabbard, G. O., & Lester, E. P. (2003). Boundaries and Boundary Violations in Psychoanalysis. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Gabbard, G. O., & Wilkinson, S. (1994). Management of Countertransference with Borderline Patients. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Gunderson, J. G., & Gabbard, G. O. (1999). Making the case for psychoanalytic therapies in the current psychiatric environment. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 47:679–704.
Gutheil, T. G., & Gabbard, G. O. (1993). The concept of boundaries in clinical practice: theoretical and risk management dimensions. Am J Psychiatry 150:188–96.
Gutheil, T. G., & Gabbard, G. O. (1998). Misuses and misunderstandings of boundary theory in clinical and regulatory settings. Am J Psychiatry 155:409–14.
Heinicke, C. M. & Ramsey-Klee, D. M. (1986). Outcome of child psychotherapy as a function of frequency of sessions. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 25:247–53.
Hoglend, P. (2003). Long-term effects of brief dynamic therapy. Psychother Res 13:271–90.
Horvath, A. D., & Symonds, B. D. (1991). Relation between working alliance and outcome in psychotherapy: a meta-analysis. J Counsel Psychol 38:139–49.
Leichsenring, F., Rabung, S., & Leibing, E. (2004). The efficacy of short-term psychodynamic therapy in specific psychiatric disorders: a meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:1208–16.
Luborsky, L. (1984). Principles of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy: A Manual for Supportive-Expressive Treatment. New York: Basic Books.
Mann, J. (1973). Time-Limited Psychotherapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Martin, D. J., Garske, J. P., & Davis, K. K. (2000). Relation of the therapeutic alliance with outcome and other variables: a meta-analytic review. J Consult Clin Psychol 68:438–50.
Menninger, K. A. (1958). Theory of Psychoanalytic Technique. New York: Basic Books.
Monsen, J., Odland, T., Faugli, A., Daae, E., & Eilertsen, D.E. (1995a). Personality disorders and psychosocial changes after intensive psychotherapy: a prospective follow-up study of an outpatient psychotherapy project, 5 years after end of treatment. Scand Psychol 36:256–68.
Monsen, J., Odland, T., Faugli, A., Daae, E., & Eilertsen, D.E. (1995b). Personality disorders: changes and stability after intensive psychotherapy focusing on affect-consciousness. A prospective follow-up study of an outpatient psychotherapy project, 5 years after end of treatment. Psychother Res 5:33–48.
Sandell, R., Blomberg, J., Lazar, A., Carlsson, J., Broberg, J. & Schubert, J. (2000). Varieties of long-term outcome among patients in psychoanalysis and long-term psychotherapy: a review of findings in the Stockholm Outcome of Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy Project (STOPP). Int J Psychoanal 81:921–42.
Sifneos, P. E. (1972). Short-Term Psychotherapy and Emotional Crisis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Stevenson, J. & Meares, R. (1992). An outcome study of psychotherapy for patients with borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiat 149:358–62.
Svartberg, M., & Stiles, T. C. (1991). Comparative effects of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy: a meta-analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol 59:704–14.
Svartberg, M., Stiles, T. C., & Seltzer, M. H. (2004). Randomized, controlled trial of the effectiveness of short-term dynamic psychotherapy and cognitive therapy for Cluster C personality disorders. Am J Psychiatry 161:810–17.
Target, M., & Fonagy, P. (1994a). The efficacy of psychoanalysis for children: prediction of outcome in a developmental context. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 33:1134–44.
Target, M., & Fonagy, P. (1994b). The efficacy of psychoanalysis for children with emotional disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 33:361–71.
Thomä, H., & Kächele, H. (1987). Psychoanalytic Practice, Vol 1: Principles. Translated by M. Wilson & D. Roseveare. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Wallerstein, R. S. (1986). Forty-Two Lives in Treatment: A Study of Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy. New York: Guilford.
Westen, D., & Gabbard, G. O. (2002). Developments in cognitive neuroscience. II. Implications for theories of transference. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 50:99–134.