Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: August 2009

19 - Psychiatric disorders of menses, pregnancy, postpartum and menopause

from Section 3 - Special Topics


The anxiety disorders are conventionally subdivided into: generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), social phobia (social anxiety disorder (SAD)), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the (DSM)-IV-TR lists 12 anxiety disorders, with broadly similar categories listed in the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps, 10th revision (ICD-10). Neurochemistry and brain imaging studies have influenced the development of theoretical models of GAD. Current neuroanatomical models of panic disorder draw on the understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of fear conditioning in animals. SAD is second only to specific phobia as the most common anxiety disorder in population-based community studies; onset is in the mid-teenage years and extends into the middle of the third decade. There are a wide range of medical conditions that can cause and perpetuate symptoms of anxiety.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Essential Psychiatry
  • Online ISBN: 9780511544125
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *


Altshuler, L., Cohen, L., Moline, M., et al. (2001). Treatment of Depression in Women 2001. McGraw-Hill.
Alvir, J., & Thys-Jacobs, S. (1991). Premenstrual and menstrual symptom clusters and response to calcium treatment. Psychopharmacol Bull 27:145–8.
American Psychiatric Association (1996). Violence and the Family. Report of the American Psychological Presidential Task Force in Violence and the Family. 10. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Andersen, K., Nielsen, H., Lolk, A., et al. (1999). Incidence of very mild to severe Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease in Denmark: the Odense Study. Neurology 52:85–90.
Appleby, L. (1991). Suicide during pregnancy and in the first postnatal year. BMJ 302:137–40.
Appleby, L., Warner, R., Whitton, A., et al. (1997). A controlled study of fluoxetine and cognitive-behavioural counselling in the treatment of postnatal depression. BMJ 314:932–6.
Ashman, S. B., Dawson, G., Panagiotides, H., et al. (2002). Stress hormone levels of children of depressed mothers. Dev Psychopathol 14:333–49.
Asthana, S., Baker, L., Craft, S., et al. (2001). High-dose estradiol improves cognition for women with AD: results of a randomized study. Neurology 57:605–12.
Avis, N., Brambilla, D., McKinlay, S., et al. (1994). A longitudinal analysis of the association between menopause and depression. Results from the Massachusetts Women's Health Study. Ann Epidemiol 4:214–20.
Bancroft, J., Cook, A., Davidson, D., et al. (1991). Blunting of neuroendocrine responses to infusion of L-tryptophan in women with perimenstrual mood change. Psychol Med 21:305–12.
Beck, C. T. (1998). The effects of postpartum depression on child development: a meta-analysis. Arch Psychiatr Nurs 1:12–20.
Bennett, H. A., Einarson, A., Taddio, A., et al. (2004). Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review. Obstetr Gynecol 103:698–709.
Bicikova, M., Dibbelt, L., Hill, M., et al. (1998). Allopregnanolone in women with premenstrual syndrome. Horm Metab Res 30:227–30.
Bloch, M., Daly, R. C., & Rubinow, D. R. (2003). Endocrine factors in the etiology of postpartum depression. Compr Psychiatry 44:234–46.
Bloch, M., Schmidt, P. J., Danaceau, M., et al. (2000). Effects of gonadal steroids in women with a history of postpartum depression. Am J Psychiatry 157:924–30.
Borenstein, J., Dean, B., Endicott, J., et al. (2003). Health and economic impact of the premenstrual syndrome. J Reprod Med 48:515–24.
Bouman, W., & Pinner, G. (2002). Use of atypical antipsychotic drugs in old age psychiatry. Adv Psychiatr Treat 8:49–58.
Boyce, P., Parker, G., Barnett, B., et al. (1991). Personality as a vulnerability factor to depression. Br J Psychiatry 159:106–14.
Brookmeyer, R., Gray, S., & Kawas, C. (1998). Projections of Alzheimer's disease in the United States and the public health impact of delaying disease onset. Am J Public Health 88:1337–42.
Buist, A. (1998). Childhood sexual abuse, postpartum depression and parenting difficulties. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 32:479–87.
Buist, A. (2004). The use of antidepressants in pregnant and breastfeeding women. In preparation.
Buist, A., Barnett, B., Milgrom, J., et al. (2002). To screen or not to screen – that is the question in perinatal depression. Med J Aust 177(Suppl):S101–S105.
Buist, A., Minto, B., Szego, K., et al. (2004). Mother-baby psychiatric units in Australia – the Victorian experience. Arch Women Health 7:81–7.
Burnet, R., Radden, H., Easterbrook, E., et al. (1991). Premenstrual syndrome and spironolactone. Aust N Z J Obstetr Gynaecol 31:366–8.
Campbell, S., & Whitehead, M. (1977). Oestrogen therapy and the menopause syndrome. Clin Obstetr Gynecol 4:31–47.
Castle, D., & Murray, R. M. (1993). The epidemiology of late-onset schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 19:691–700.
Chambers, C. D., Hernandez-Diaz, S., Van Marter, L. J., et al. (2006). Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. N Engl J Med 354:579–87.
Cohen, L., Miner, C., Brown, E., et al. (2002). Premenstrual daily fluoxetine for premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a placebo-controlled, clinical trial using computerized diaries. Obstetr Gynecol 100:435–44.
Cohen, L. S., Viguera, A. C., Bouffard, S. M., et al. (2001). Venlafaxine in the treatment of postpartum depression. J Clin Psychiatry 62:592–6.
Cole, J., Ephross, S., Cosmatos, I., … Walker, A. (2007). Paroxetine in the first trimester and the prevalence of congenital malformations. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 16:1075–85.
Cooper, J. (1981). Is oestrogen therapy effective in the treatment of menopausal depression. J Royal Coll Gen Practit 31:134–40.
Craig, M. (2004). Perinatal risk factors for neonaticide and infant homicide: can we identify those at risk? J Royal Soc Med 97:57–61.
Craig, M., Cutter, W., Wickham, H., et al. (2004). Effect of long-term estrogen therapy on dopaminergic responsivity in postmenopausal women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29:1309–16.
Dayan, J., Creveuil, C., Herlicoviez, M., et al. (2002). Role of anxiety and depression in the onset of spontaneous preterm labour. Am J Epidemiol 155:292–301.
Dennerstein, L. (2001). Factors contributing to positive mood during the menopausal transition. J Nerv Ment Dis 189:84–9.
Dennerstein, L., Guthrie, J., Clark, M., et al. (2004). A population based study of depressed mood in middle-aged, Australian-born women. Menopause 11:563–8.
Dennerstein, L., Lehert, P., Burger, H., et al. (1999). Mood and the menopausal transition. J Nerv Ment Dis 187:685–91.
Dennerstein, L., Lehert, P., & Riphagen, F. (1989). Postpartum depression – risk factors. J Psychosom Obstetr Gynaecol (Suppl 10):53–65.
Dennerstein, L., Smith, A., Morse, C., et al. (1993). Menopausal symptoms in Australian Women. Med J Aust 159:232.
Dennerstein, L., & Spencer-Gardner, C. (1983). The menstrual cycle and mood changes. In D. Burrows, ed. Handbook of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Melbourne: Elsevier Biomedical Press, pp. 149–70.
Deuster, P., Adera, T., South-Paul, J., et al. (1999). Biological, social and behavioural factors associated with premenstrual syndrome. Arch Fam Med 8:122–8.
Di Paolo, T. (1994). Modulation of brain dopamine transmission by sex steroids. Rev Neurosci 5:27–41.
Dimmock, P., Wyatt, K., Jones, P., et al. (2000). Efficacy of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors in premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review. Lancet 356:1131–6.
Einarson, A., Pistellis, A., DeSantis, M., et al. (2008). Evaluation of the risk of congenital cardiovascular defects associated with use of Paroxetine during pregnancy. Am J Psychiatry (Adv AiA) (online: 1–5.
Epperson, N., Haga, K., Mason, G., et al. (2002). Cortical GABA levels across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and those with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:851–85.
Eriksson, E., Hedberg, M. A., Andersch, B., et al. (1995). The serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine is superior to the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor maprotiline in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Neuropsychopharmacology 12:167–76.
Fitzgerald, M., Malone, K., Li, S., et al. (1997). Blunted serotonin response to fenfluramine challenge in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Am J Psychiatry 154: 556–8.
Freeman, E., Kroll, R., Rapkin, A., et al. (2001). Evaluation of a unique oral contraceptive in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Women Health Gender Based Med 10:561–9.
Freeman, E., Rickels, K., Sondheimer, S., et al. (1995). A double-blind trial of oral progesterone, alprazolam, and placebo in treatment of severe premenstrual syndrome. JAMA 274:51–7.
Freeman, E., Rickels, K., Sondheimer, S., et al. (1999). Differential response to antidepressants in women with premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56:932–9.
Freeman, E., Rickels, K., Sondheimer, S., et al. (2004). Continuous or intermittent dosing with sertraline for patients with severe premenstrual syndrome or premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Am J Psychiatry 161:343–51.
Freeman, E., Stout, A., Endicott J, et al. (2002). Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with a carbohydrate-rich beverage. Int J Gynecol Obstetr 77:253–4.
Freeman, E. W., Sondheimer, S. J., Polansky, M., et al. (2000). Predictors of response to sertraline treatment of severe premenstrual syndromes. J Clin Psychiatry 61:579–84.
Gath, D., Osborn, M., Bungay, G., et al. (1987). Psychiatric disorder and gynaecological symptoms in middle aged women: a community survey. BMJ 294:213–18.
Girdler, S., Straneva, P., Light, K., et al. (2001). Allopregnanolone levels and reactivity to mental stress in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Biol Psychiatry 49:788–97.
Glover, V., & O'Connor, T. G. (2002). Effects of antenatal stress and anxiety. Br J Psychiatry 180:389–91.
Grace, S. L., Evindar, A., & Stewart, D. E. (2003). The effect of postpartum depression on child cognitive development and behaviour: a review and critical analysis of the literature. Arch Women Ment Health 6:263–74.
Graham, C., & Sherwin, B. (1992). A prospective treatment study of premenstrual symptoms using a triphasic oral contraceptive. J Psychosom Res 36:257–66.
Halbreich, U., & Smoller, J. W. (1997). Intermittent luteal phase sertraline treatment of dysphoric premenstrual syndrome. J Clin Psychol 58:399–402.
Halbreich, U., Bergeron, R., Yonkers, K., et al. (2002). Efficacy of intermittent, luteal phase sertraline treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Obstetr Gynecol 100:1219–29.
Halbreich, U., Petty, F., Yonkers, K., et al. (1996). Low plasma y-aminobutyric acid levels during the late luteal phase of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Am J Psychiatry 153:718–20.
Halbreich, U., & Tworek, H. (1993). Altered serotonergic activity in women with dysphoric premenstrual syndromes. Int J Psychiatry Med 23:1–27.
Hallstrom, T., & Samuelson, S. (1985). Mental health in the climacteric. The longitudinal study of women in Gothenburg. Acta Obstetr Gynaecol Scand Suppl 130:13–18.
Hargrove, J., & Abraham, G. (1982). The incidence of premenstrual tension in gynecologic clinic. J Reprod Med 27:721–4.
Harrison, W., Endicott, J., Rabkin, J., et al. (1987). Treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoria with Alprazolam and Placebo. Paper presented at the Psychopharmacology Bulletin.
Hay, A., Bancroft J., & Johnstone, E. (1994). Affective symptoms in women attending a menopause clinic. Br J Psychiatry 164:513–16.
Heath, A., Yonkers, K., Orsulak, P., et al. (1998). Tryptophan Depletion in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Paper presented at the Society of Biological Psychiatry 1998 Annual Meeting and Scientific Program.
Hellberg, D., Claesson, B., & Nilsson, S. (1991). Premenstrual tension: a placebo-controlled efficacy study with spironolactone and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Int J Gynaecol Obstetr 34:243–8.
Henderson, V., Paganini-Hill, A., Miller, B., et al. (2000). Estrogen for Alzheimer's disease in women. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 54:295–301.
Hendrick, V., Altshuler, L., Strouse, T., et al. (2000). Postpartum and nonpostpartum depression: differences in presentation and response to pharmacological treatment. Depress Anxiety 11:66–72.
Hendrick, V., Stowe, Z. N., Altshuler, L. L., et al. (2003). Placental passage of antidepressant medications. Am J Psychiatry 160:993–6.
Holte, A. (1992). Influences of natural menopause on health complaints: a prospective study of Norwegian women. Maturitas 14:127–41.
Hunter, M. (1992). The South East England longitudinal study of the climacteric and postmenopause. Maturitas 14:17–26.
Ilett, K. F., Hackett, L. P., Dusci, L. J., et al. (1998). Distribution and excretion of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine in human milk. Br J Clin Pharmacol 45:459–62.
Jablensky, A., Sartorius, N., & Ernberg, G. (1992). Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures. A World Health Organisation Ten-Country Study. Psychol Med Monogr 20.
Jermain, D., Preece, C., Sykes, R., et al. (1999). Luteal phase sertraline treatment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Arch Fam Med 8:328–32.
Johnson, S., McChesner, C., & Bean, J. (1988). Epidemiology of premenstrual symptoms in a nonclinical sample. I. Prevalence, natural history and help-seeking behaviour. J Reprod Med 33:340–6.
Kendall, R. E., Chalmers, J. C., & Platz, C. (1987). Epidemiology of puerperal psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 150:662–73.
Kendler, K., Kessler, R., Neale, M., et al. (1993). The prediction of major depression in women: toward an integrated etiopic model. Am J Psychiatry 150:1139–48.
Kendler, K., Neale, M., Kessler, R., et al. (1992a). A population based twin study of major depression in women. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49:257–66.
Kendler, K., Silberg, J., Neale, M., et al. (1992b). Genetic and environmental factors in the eitiology of menstrual, premenstrual and neurotic symptoms: a population based twin study. Pscyhol Med 22:85–100.
Kessel, N., & Cantab, M. (1963). The prevalence of common menstrual symptoms. Lancet 61–4.
Landen, M., Sorvik, K., Ysander, C., et al. (2002). A Placebo-Controlled Trial Exploring the Efficacy of Paroxetine for the Treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoria. Paper presented at the American Psychiatric Association meeting, Philadelphia, PA.
Le Blanc, E., Janowsky, J., Chan, B., et al. (2001). Hormone Replacement Therapy and cognition: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 285:1489–99.
Leon, J., Cheng, C., & Neumann, P. (1998). Alzheimer's disease care: costs and potential savings. Health Affairs 17:206–16.
Leonard, B. (2004). Pharmacotherapy in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: an update. World Psychiatry 3:84–8.
Leung, A., & Chue, P. (2000). Sex differences in schizophrenia: a review of the literature. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 401:3–38.
Lindamer, L., Buse, D., Lohr, J., et al. (2001). Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia: positive effect on negative symptoms. Biol Psychiatry 49:47–51.
McKinlay, J., McKinlay, S., & Brambilla, D. (1987). The relative contributions of endocrine changes and social circumstances to depression in mid-aged women. J Health Soc Behav 28:345–63.
Menkes, D., Coates, D., & Fawsett, J. (1994). Acute tryptophan depletion aggravates premenstrual syndrome. J Affect Disord 32:37–44.
Menkes, D., Taghavi, E., Mason, P., et al. (1992). Fluoxetine treatment of severe premenstrual syndrome. BMJ 305:346–7.
Miner, C., Brown, E., McCray, S., et al. (2002). Weekly luteal phase dosing with enteric-coated fluoxetine 90 mg in premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin Ther 24:417–33.
Montelone, P., Luisi, S., Tonetti, A., et al. (2000). Allopregnanolone concentrations and premenstrual syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol 142:269–73.
Morse, C., Buist, A., & Durkin, S. (2000). First time parenthood: influences on pre and postnatal adjustment in fathers and mothers. J Psychosom Gynechol 21:109–20.
Morse, C., Dennerstein, L., Farrell, E., et al. (1991). A comparison of hormone therapy, coping skills training and relaxation for the relief of premenstrual syndrome. J Behav Med 14:469–89.
Mowbray, C. T., Oyserman, D., Zemencuk, J. K., et al. (1995). Motherhood for women with serious mental illness: pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. Am J Orthopsychiatry 65:21–38.
Mulnard, R., Cotman, C., Kawas, C., et al. (2000). Estrogen replacement therapy for treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 283:1007–15.
Murray, L., & Cooper, P. J. (1997). Effects of postnatal depression on infant development. Arch Dis Child 77:99–101.
Murray, L., Fiori, C., Hooper, R., et al. (1996). The impact of postnatal depression and associated adversity on early infant interactions and later infant outcome. Child Dev 67:2512–16.
Murray, L., Hipwell, A., Hooper, R., et al. (1996). The cognitive development of five year old children of postnatally depressed mothers. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 37:927–36.
Newport, D. J., Stowe, Z. N., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2002). Parental depression: animal models of an adverse life event. Am J Psychiatry 159:1265–83.
Novaes, C., Almeida, O., & de Melo, N. (1998). Mental health among perimenopausal women attending a menopause clinic: possible association with premenstrual syndrome? Climacteric 1:264–70.
O'Brien, P., Craven, D., Selby, C., et al. (1979). Treatment of premenstrual syndrome by spironolactone. Br J Obstetr Gynaecol 86:142–7.
O'Connor, T., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Heron, J., et al. (2005). Prenatal anxiety predicts individual differences in cortisol in pre-adolescent children. Biol Psychiatry 58:211–17.
O'Connor, T., Heron, J., Golding, J., et al. (2002). Antenatal anxiety predicts child behavioural/emotional problems independently of postnatal depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:1470–7.
O'Connor, T. G., Heron, J., Golding, J., et al. (2002). Maternal prenatal anxiety and children's behavioural/ emotional problems at 4 years. Br J Psychiatry 180:502–8.
O'Hara, M. W., & Swain, A. M. (1996). Rates and risk of postpartum depression – a meta-analysis. Int Rev Psychiatry 8:37–54.
Oldenhave, A., Jaszmann, L., Haspels, A., et al. (1993). Impact of climacteric on well-being. Am J Obstetr Gynecol 168:772–90.
Ozeren, S., Corakci, A., Yucesoy, I., et al. (1997). Fluoxetine in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Eur J Obstetr Gynecol Reprod Biol 73:167–70.
Pastuszak, A., Schick-Boshotto, B., Zuber, C., et al. (1993). Pregnancy outcome following first-trimester exposure to Fluoxetine (Prozac). JAMA 269:2246–8.
Patel, P., Wheatcroft, R., Park, R. J., et al. (2002). The children of mothers with eating disorders. Clin Child Fam Rev Psychol Rev 5:1–18.
Pearce, J., Hawton, K., Blake, F., et al. (1997). Psychological effects of continuation versus discontinuation of hormone replacement therapy by estrogen implants: a placebo-controlled study. J Psychosom Res 42:177–86.
Pearlstein, T., Stone, A., Lund, S., et al. (1997). Comparison of fluoxetine, bupropion and placebo in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 17:261–6.
Petanceska, S., Nagy, V., Frail, D., et al. (2000). Ovariectomy and 17B-estradiol modulate the levels of Alzheimer's amyloid B peptides in brain. Neurology 54: 2212–17.
Pfuhlmann, B., Stoeber, G., & Beckmann, H. (2002). Postpartum psychoses: prognosis, risk factors and treatment. Curr Psychiatry Reports 4:185–90.
Ramacharan, S., Love, E., Fick, G., et al. (1992). The epidemiology of premenstrual symptoms in a population-based sample of 2650 urban women: attributable risk and risk factors. J Clin Epidemiol 45:377–92.
Rapkin, A., Morgan, M., Goldman, L., et al. (1997). Progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone in women with premenstrual syndrome. Obstetr Gynecol 90:709–14.
Rasgon, N., McGuire, M., Tanavoli, S., et al. (2000). Neuroendocrine response to an intravenous L-tryptophan challenge in women with premenstrual syndrome. Fertil Steril 73:144–9.
Reed, P., Sermin, N., Appleby, L., et al. (1999). A comparison of clinical response to electroconvulsive therapy in puerperal and non-puerperal psychoses. J Affect Disord 54:255–60.
Rickels, K., Freeman, E., & Sondheimer, S. (1989). Buspirone in treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Lancet 4:777.
Rivera-Tovar, A., & Frank, E. (1990). Late luteal phase dysphoric disorder in young women. Am J Psychiatry 147:1634–6.
Roca, C., Schmidt, P., Smith, M., et al. (2002). Effects of methergoline on symptoms in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Am J Psychiatry 159:1876–81.
Rojansky, N., Halbreich, U., Zander, K., et al. (1991). Imipramine receptor binding and serotonin uptake in platelets of women with premenstrual changes. Gynecol Obstetr Invest 31:146–52.
Sadoft, R. (1995). Mothers who kill their children. Psychiatr Ann 25:601–5.
Salokangas, R. (1995). Gender and the use of neuroleptics in schizophrenia. Further testing of the oestrogen hypothesis. Schizophr Res 16:7–16.
Sayegh, R., Schiff, I., Wurtman, J., et al. (1995). The effect of a carbohydrate-rich beverage on mood, appetite and cognitive function in women with premenstrual syndrome. J Am Coll Obstetr Gynecol 86:520–8.
Schmidt, P., & Rubinow, D. (1991). Menopause-related affective disorders: a justification for further study. Am J Psychiatry 148:844–52.
Seeman, M. (1983). Interaction of sex, age and neuroleptic dose. Compr Psychiatry 24:125–8.
Shumaker, S., Legault, C., Kuller, L., et al. (2004). Conjugated equine estrogens and incidence of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women: Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. JAMA 291:2947–58.
Shumaker, S., Legault, C., Rapp, S., et al. (2003). Estrogen plus progestin and the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 289:2651–62.
Smith, S., Rinehart, J., Ruddock, V., et al. (1987). Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with alprazolam: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover clinical trial. Obstetr Gynecol 70:37–43.
Soares, C., Almeida, O., Joffe, H., et al. (2001). Efficacy of estradiol for the treatment of depressive disorders in perimenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:529–34.
Steege, J., Stout, A., Knight, B., et al. (1992). Reduced platelet tritium-labelled imipramine binding sites in women with premenstrual syndrome. Am J Obstetr Gynecol 167:168–72.
Steiner, M., Korzekwa, M., Lamont, J., et al. (1997). Intermittent fluoxetine dosing in the treatment of women with premenstrual dysphoria. Psychiatry Res 87:107–15.
Steiner, M., & Pearlstein, T. (2000). Premenstrual dysphoria and the serotonin system: pathophysiology and treatment. J Clin Psychiatry 61(Suppl 12):17–21.
Steiner, M., Steinberg, S., Stewart, D., et al. (1995). Fluoxetine in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria. New Engl J Med 332:1529–34.
Steiner, M., Yatham, L. N., Coote, M., et al. (1999). Serotonergic dysfunction in women with pure premenstrual dysphoric disorder: is the fenfluramine challenge test still relevant? Psychiatry Res 87:107–15.
Sternfeld, B., Swindle, R., Chawla, A., et al. (2002). Severity of premenstrual symptoms in a health maintenance organization population. Obstetr Gynecol 99:1014–24.
Stewart, D., Boydell, K., Derzko, C., et al. (1992). Psychological distress during the menopausal years in women attending a menopause clinic. Int J Psychiatry Med 22:213–20.
Stone, A., Pearlstein, T., & Brown, W. (1991). Fluoxetine in the treatment of late luteal phase dysphoric disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 52:290–3.
Stowe, A., & Nemeroff, C. (1995). Women at risk of postpartum-onset major depression. Am J Obstetr Gynecol 173:639–45.
Su, T.-P., Schmidt, P., Danaceau, M., et al. (1997). Effect of menstrual cycle phase on neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to the serotonin agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine in women with premenstrual syndrome and controls. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 82:1220–8.
Sundblad, C., Hedberg, M., & Erikson, E. (1993). Clomipramine administered during the luteal phase reduces the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome: a placebo-controlled trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 9:133–45.
Sundblad, C., Modigh, K., Andersch, B., et al. (1992). Clomipramine effectively reduces premenstrual irritability and dysphoria: a placebo-controlled trial. Acta Psychiatr Scand 85:39–47.
Sundstrom, I., Ashbrook, D., & Backstrom, T. (1997). Reduced benzodiazepine sensitivity in patients with premenstrual syndrome: a pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 22:25–38.
Sundstrom, I., & Backstrom, T. (1998). Citalopram increases pregnanolone sensitivity in patients with premenstrual syndrome: an open trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 23:73–88.
Sundstrom, I., Nyberg, S., & Backstrom, T. (1997). Patients with premenstrual syndrome have reduced sensitivity to midazolam compared to control subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology, 17:370–81.
Thys-Jacobs, S., & Alvir, M. (1995). Calcium-regulating hormones across the menstrual cycle: evidence of a secondary hyperparathyroidism in women with PMS. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80:2227–32.
Thys-Jacobs, S., Ceccarelli, S., Bierman, A., et al. (1989). Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. J Gen Int Med 4:183–9.
Thys-Jacobs, S., Starkey, P., Bernstein, D., et al. (1998). Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Premenstrual Syndrome Study Group. Am J Obstetr Gynecol 179:444–52.
Uzunova, V., Sheline, Y., Davis, J., et al. (1998). Increase in the cerebrospinal fluid content of neurosteroids in patients with unipolar major depression receiving fluoxetine or fluvoxamine. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 95:3239–44.
Wadhwa, P. D., Sandman, C. A., & Garite, T. J. (2001). The neurobiology of stress in human pregnancy: implications for prematurity and development of the fetal central nervous system. Prog Brain Res 133:131–42.
Weller, A., & Weller, L. (1998). Assessment of menstrual regularity and irregularity using self reports and objective criteria. J Psychosom Obstetr Gynaecol 19:111–16.
Wikander, I., Sundlad, C., Andersch, B., et al. (1998). Citalopram in premenstrual dysphoria: is intermittent treatment during luteal phases more effective than continuous medication throughout the menstrual cycle? J Clin Psychopharmacol 18:390–8.
Wittchen, H., Becker, E., Lieb, R., et al. (2002). Prevalence, incidence and stability of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the community. Psychol Med 18:390–8.
Wood, S., Mortola, J., Chan, Y.-F., et al. (1992). Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with fluoxetine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Obstetr Gynecol 80:339–44.
Woods, N., Most, A., & Dery, G. (1982). Prevalence of perimenstrual symptoms. Am J Public Health 72:1257–64.
Wyatt, K., Dimmock, P., Jones, P., et al. (1999). Efficacy of vitamin B6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. BMJ Clin Res Ed 318:1375–81.
Wyatt, K., Dimmock, P., Jones, P., et al. (2001). Efficacy of progesterone and progestogens in management of premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review. BMJ 323:776–81.
Wyatt, K., Dimmock, P., & O'Brien, P. (2003). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3: CD001396.
Yatham, L., Barry, S., & Dinan, T. (1989). Serotonin receptors, buspirone and premenstrual syndrome. Lancet 1:1447–8.
Yonkers, K., Clark, R., & Trivedi, M. (1997). The psychopharmacological treatment of nonmajor mood disorders. In A. Rush, ed. Mood Disorders. Systematic Medication Management. Modern Problems of Pharmacopsychiatry, Vol. 25. Basel: Karger, pp. 146–66.
Yonkers, K., Halbreich, U., Freeman, E., et al. (1996). Sertraline in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Psychoparmacol Bull 32:41–6.
Yonkers, K. A., Wisner, K. L., Stowe, Z., et al. (2004). Management of bipolar disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Am J Psychiatry 161:608–20.
Young, S., Hurt, P., Benedek, D., et al. (1998). Treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder with sertraline during the luteal phase: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. J Clin Psychiatry 59:76–80.
Zandi, P., Carlson, M., Plassman, B., et al. (2002). Hormone replacement therapy and incidence of Alzheimer's disease in older women: the Cache County Study (comment). JAMA 288:2123–9.
Zeskind, P. S., & Stephens, L. E. (2004). Maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use during pregnancy and newborn neurobehaviour. Pediatrics 113:365–73.