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  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: January 2012

Part 4 - Patient Monitoring

Suggested readings

ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation and Care for Noncardiac Surgery: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007 50: e159–242.
AllsagerCM, SwanevelderJ. Measuring cardiac output. Br J Anaesth CEPD Rev 2003; 3(1):15–19.
American College of Surgeons. [ST-60] Statement on recommendations for uniform use of real-time ultrasound guidance for placement of central venous catheters. Available at: http://www.facs.org/fellows_info/statements/st-60.html.
American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Pulmonary Artery Catheterization. Practice guidelines for pulmonary artery catheterization: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Pulmonary Artery Catheterization. Anesthesiology 2003, 99(4):988–1014.
BlaivasM, AdhikariS. An unseen danger: frequency of posterior vessel wall penetration by needles during attempts to place internal jugular vein central catheters using ultrasound guidance. Crit Care Med 2009; 37(8):2345–2349.
Clutton-BrockTH, HuttonP. Monitoring in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 1st ed. Edited by Hutton P. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders; 1994; 145–155.
DinardoJA. Anesthesia for Cardiac Surgery. 2nd ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange; 1998:62–70.
FunkDJ, MorettiEW, GanTJ. Minimally invasive cardiac output monitoring in the perioperative setting. Anesth Analg 2009; 108:887–897.
GallowayS, BodenhamA. Ultrasound imaging of the axillary vein – anatomical basis for central venous access. Br J Anaesth 2003; 90(5):589–595.
GaneshA, KayeR, CahillAM, et al. Evaluation of ultrasound-guided radial artery cannulation in children. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2009; 10(1):45–48.
HatfieldA, BodenhamA. Ultrasound for central venous access: continuing education in anaesthesia. Crit Care Pain 2005; 5(6):187–190.
HarveyS, HarrisonDA, SingerM, AshcroftJ, JonesCM, ElbourneD, BramptonW, WilliamsD, YoungD, RowanK: Assessment of the clinical effectiveness of pulmonary artery catheters in management of patients in intensive care (PAC-Man): a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 366:472–477.
HindD, CalvertN, McWilliamsR, et al. Ultrasonic locating devices for central venous cannulation: meta-analysis. BMJ 2003; 327:361.
LangtonJA, StokerM. Principles of pressure transducers, resonance, damping & frequency response. Anaesth Intensive Care Med 2001; 2:186–190.
LevinPD, SheininO, GozalY. Use of ultrasound guidance in the insertion of radial artery catheters. Crit Care Med 2003, 31(2):481–484.
LevitovAB, AzizS, SlonimAD. Before we go too far: ultrasound-guided central catheter placement. Crit Care Med 2009; 37(8):2473–2474.
MarkJB. Atlas of Cardiovascular Monitoring. 1st ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1998.
MarkJB, SlaughterTF. Miller's Anesthesia. 6th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2004; 1265–1362.
National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Guidance on the Use of Ultrasound Locating Devices for Placing Central Venous Catheters. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE); 2002. Technology appraisal guidance no. 49.
OttoCW. Monitoring in Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine. 3rd ed. Edited by Blitt CD et al. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1994; 173–212.
PhillipsR, LichtenthalP, SlonigerJ, BurstowD, WestM, CopelandJ. Noninvasive cardiac output measurement in heart failure subjects on circulatory support. Anesth Analg 2009; 108:881–886.
RandolphAG, CookDJ, GonzalesCA, PribbleCG. Ultrasound guidance for placement of central venous catheters: a meta-analysis of the literature. Crit Care Med 1996; 24:2053–2058.
RothschildJM. Ultrasound guidance of central vein catheterization. In: On Making Health Care Safer: A Critical Analysis of Patient Safety Practices. Rockville, MD: AHRQPublications; 2001;245–255. Also available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/ptsafety/chap21.htm.
SpiessBD, GomezMN. Principles and Practice of Anesthesiology. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Longnecker; 1998; 802–828.
WardW, LangtonJA. Blood pressure measurement. Br J Anaesth CEPD Rev 2007; 7(4):122–126.

Suggested readings

BraatSH, BrugadaP, den DulkE, et al. Value of lead V4R for recognition of the infarct related artery in acute inferior myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1984, 53:1538–1541.
BraunwaldE, MorrowAG. Sequence of ventricular contraction in human bundle branch block; a study based on simultaneous catheterization of both ventricles. Am J Med 1957; 23(2):205–211.
DelacretazE. Clinical practice. Supraventricular tachycardia. N Eng J Med 2006; 354(10):1039–1051.
de LemosJA, BraunwaldE. ST segment resolution as a tool for assessing efficacy of reperfusion therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 38:1283–1294.
EinthovenW. The different forms of the human electrocardiogram and their signification. Lancet 1912; (1):853–861.
EpsteinAE, DeMarcoJ, EllenbogenKA, et al. ACC/AHA/HRS 2008 Guidelines for Device-Based Therapy of Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2008; 117(21):e350–e408.
JosephsonME, KastorJA, MorganrothJ. Electrocardiographic left atrial enlargement. Electrophysiologic, echocardiographic and hemodynamic correlates. Am J Cardiol 1977; 39(7):967–971.
SokolowM, LyonTP. The ventricular complex in left ventricular hypertrophy as obtained by unipolar precordial and limb leads. Am Heart J 1949; 37:161.
SurawiczB. Electrocardiographic diagnosis of chamber enlargement. J Am Coll Cardiol 1986; 61:1089–1101.

Suggested readings

BarashPG, CullenBF, StoeltingRK, eds. Clinical Anesthesia. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.
D'MelloJ, ButaniM. Capnography. Indian J Anaesth 2002; 46(4):269–278.
KodaliBS. Capnography.com Web site. Available at: www.capnography.com. Accessed May 2010.
KodaliBS, KumarAY, MoselyH, HallsworthRA. Terminology and the current limitations of time capnography. J Clin Monit 1995; 11:175–182.
MendelsonY. Pulse oximetry: theory and applications for noninvasive monitoring. Clin Chem 1992; 38(9):1601–1607.
MillerRD. Miller's Anesthesia. Vol. 1, 5th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2000.

Suggested readings

BaillardC, Clec'hC, CatineauJ, et al. Postoperative residual neuromuscular block: a survey of management. Br J Anaesth 2005; 95:622–626.
BaurainMJ, HennartDA, GodschalxA, et al. Visual evaluation of residual curarization in anesthetized patients using one hundred-hertz, five-second tetanic stimulation at the adductor pollicis muscle. Anesth Analg 1998; 87:185–189.
BergH, RoedJ, Viby-MogensenJ, et al. Residual neuromuscular block is a risk factor for postoperative pulmonary complications. A prospective, randomised, and blinded study of postoperative pulmonary complications after atracurium, vecuronium and pancuronium. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997; 41:1095–1103.
DebaeneB, BeaussierM, MeistelmanC, et al. Monitoring the onset of neuromuscular block at the orbicularis oculi can predict good intubating conditions during atracurium-induced neuromuscular block. Anesth Analg 1995; 80:360–363.
DhonneurG, KirovK, MotamedC, et al. Post-tetanic count at adductor pollicis is a better indicator of early diaphragmatic recovery than train-of-four count at corrugator supercilii. Br J Anaesth 2007; 99:376–379.
DonatiF, PlaudB, MeistelmanC. A method to measure elicited contraction of laryngeal adductor muscles during anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1991; 74:827–832.
DrenckNE, UedaN, OlsenNV, et al. Manual evaluation of residual curarization using double burst stimulation: a comparison with train-of-four. Anesthesiology 1989; 70:578–581.
DupuisJY, MartinR, TessonnierJM, TetraultJP. Clinical assessment of the muscular response to tetanic nerve stimulation. Can J Anaesth 1990; 37:397–400.
ErikssonLI, LennmarkenC, StaunP, Viby-MogensenJ. Use of post-tetanic count in assessment of a repetitive vecuronium- induced neuromuscular block. Br J Anaesth 1990; 65:487–493.
ErikssonLI, SundmanE, OlssonR, et al. Functional assessment of the pharynx at rest and during swallowing in partially paralyzed humans: simultaneous videomanometry and mechanomyography of awake human volunteers. Anesthesiology 1997; 87:1035–1043.
HemmerlingTM, DonatiF. Neuromuscular blockade at the larynx, the diaphragm and the corrugator supercilii muscle: a review. Can J Anaesth 2003; 50:779–794.
KatzRL. Clinical neuromuscular pharmacology of pancuronium. Anesthesiology 1971; 34:550–556.
KopmanAF, YeePS, NeumanGG. Relationship of the train-of-four fade ratio to clinical signs and symptoms of residual paralysis in awake volunteers. Anesthesiology 1997; 86:765–771.
LeeC, KatzRL. Fade of neurally evoked compound electromyogram during neuromuscular block by d-tubocurarine. Anesth Analg 1977; 56:271–275.
LieutaudT, BillardV, KhalafH, DebaeneB. Muscle relaxation and increasing doses of propofol improve intubating conditions. Can J Anaesth 2003; 50:121–126.
MenckeT, EchternachM, KleinschmidtS, et al. Laryngeal morbidity and quality of tracheal intubation: a randomized controlled trial. Anesthesiology 2003; 98:1049–1056.
MoorthySS, HilgenbergJC. Resistance to non-depolarizing muscle relaxants in paretic upper extremities of patients with residual hemiplegia. Anesth Analg 1980; 59:624–627.
NaguibM, KopmanAF, EnsorJE. Neuromuscular monitoring and postoperative residual curarisation: a meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth 2007; 98:302–316.
WilliamsMT, RiceI, EwenSP, ElliottSM. A comparison of the effect of two anaesthetic techniques on surgical conditions during gynaecological laparoscopy. Anaesthesia 2003; 58:574–578.

Suggested readings

FaustRJ, CucchiaraRF, RoseSH, SpackmanTN, WedelDJ, WassCT, eds. Anesthesiology Review, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2001: 91–93.
InslerSR, SesslerDI. Perioperative thermoregulation and temperature monitoring. Anesthesiol Clin 2006; 24:823–837.
LakeCL, HinesRL, BlittCD. Clinical Monitoring: Practical Applications for Anesthesia and Critical Care. Philadelphia, 2001.
RyanJF, VacantiFX. Temperature regulation. In: RyanJF, TodresID, CoteCJ, GoudsouzianNG, eds. A Practice of Anesthesia for Infants and Children. New York and Orlando FL: Grune & Stratton; 1986:19–23.
SesslerDI. Mild perioperative hypothermia. N Engl J Med 1997; 336(24):1730–1737.
StoeltingRK, HillierSC. Pharmacology & Physiology in Anesthetic Practice, 4th ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.
WilsonWC, GrandeCM, HoytDB. Trauma: Emergency Resuscitation, Perioperative Anesthesia, Surgical Management. New York: Informa; 2007.

Suggested readings

BanoubM, TetzlaffJE, SchubertA. Pharmacologic and physiologic influences affecting sensory evoked potentials: implications for perioperative monitoring. Anesthesiology 2003; 99:716–737.
BotesK, Le Roux DA, Van MarleJ. Cerebral monitoring during carotid endarterectomy – a comparison between electroencephalography, transcranial cerebral oximetry and carotid stump pressure. S Afr J Surg 2007; 45:43–46.
ChengMA, TheardMA, TempelhoffR. Anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy: a survey. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1997; 9:211–216.
CortinezLI, DelfinoAE, FuentesR, MunozHR. Performance of the cerebral state index during increasing levels of propofol anesthesia: a comparison with the bispectral index. Anesth Analg 2007; 104:605–610.
CuadraSA, ZwerlingJS, FeuermanM, et al. Cerebral oximetry monitoring during carotid endarterectomy: effect of carotid clamping and shunting. Vasc Endovasc Surg 2003; 37:407–413.
DebatisseD, PralongE, DehdashtiAR, RegliL. Simultaneous multilobar electrocorticography (mEcoG) and scalp electroencephalography (scalp EEG) during intracranial vascular surgery: a new approach in neuromonitoring. Clin Neurophysiol 2005; 116:2734–2740.
EdmondsHL Jr, GanzelBL, AustinEH 3rd. Cerebral oximetry for cardiac and vascular surgery. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2004; 8:147–166.
EdmondsHL Jr, PaloheimoM. Computerized monitoring of the EMG and EEG during anesthesia. An evaluation of the anesthesia and brain activity monitor (ABM). Int J Clin Monit Comput 1985; 1:201–210.
EdmondsHL Jr, RodriguezRA, AudenaertSM, AustinEH 3rd, et al. The role of neuromonitoring in cardiovascular surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1996; 10:15–23.
FlorenceG, GueritJM, GueguenB. Electroencephalography (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) to prevent cerebral ischaemia in the operating room. Neurophysiol Clin 2004; 34:17–32.
GopinathSP, ValadkaAB, UzuraM, RobertsonCS. Comparison of jugular venous oxygen saturation and brain tissue Po2 as monitors of cerebral ischemia after head injury. Crit Care Med 1999; 27:2337–2345.
LottoML, BanoubM, SchubertA. Effects of anesthetic agents and physiologic changes on intraoperative motor evoked potentials. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2004; 16:32–42.
McGrathBJ, MatjaskoMJ. Anesthesia and head trauma. New Horiz 1995; 3:523–533.
MoehleDA. Neuromonitoring in the cardiopulmonary bypass surgical patient: clinical applications. J Extra Corpor Technol 2001; 33:126–134.
MurkinJM. Perioperative detection of brain oxygenation and clinical outcomes in cardiac surgery. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2004; 8:13–14.
NiparkoJK, KilenyPR, KeminkJL, et al. Neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring: II. Facial nerve function. Am J Otol 1989; 10:55–61.
PetersonDO, DrummondJC, ToddMM. Effects of halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide on somatosensory evoked potentials in humans. Anesthesiology 1986; 65:35–40.
RosenthalG, HemphillJC, SoraniM, et al. The role of lung function in brain tissue oxygenation following traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg 2008; 108:59–65.
SamraSK, DyEA, WelchK, et al. Evaluation of a cerebral oximeter as a monitor of cerebral ischemia during carotid endarterectomy. Anesthesiology 2000; 93:964–970.
SchaffranietzL, HeinkeW. The effect of different ventilation regimes on jugular venous oxygen saturation in elective neurosurgical patients. Neurol Res 1998; 20(Suppl 1):S66–S70.
SmithMJ, StiefelMF, MaggeS, et al. Packed red blood cell transfusion increases local cerebral oxygenation. Crit Care Med 2005; 33:1104–1108.
SorianoSG, McCannME, LaussenPC. Neuroanesthesia. Innovative techniques and monitoring. Anesthesiol Clin North Am 2002; 20:137–151.
VetsP, ten BroeckeP, AdriaensenH, et al. Cerebral oximetry in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy: preliminary results. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 2004; 55:215–220.
WilliamsIM, VohraR, FarrellA, et al. Cerebral oxygen saturation, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography and stump pressure in carotid surgery. Br J Surg 1994; 81:960–964.

Suggested readings

AvidanMS, ZhangL, BurnsideBA, et al. Anesthesia awareness and the bispectral index. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:1097–1108.
EkmanA, LindholmM, LennmarkenC, SandinR. Reduction in the incidence of awareness using BIS monitoring. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48:20–26.
GhoneimMM. Awareness during anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2000; 92:597–602.
KentC, DominoK. Awareness: practice, standards, and the law. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2007; 21:369–383.
LennmarkenC, BildforsK, EnlundG, et al. Victims of awareness. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2002; 46:229–231.
MylesP, LeslieK, McNeilJ, et al. Bispectral index monitoring to prevent awareness during anaesthesia: the B-Aware randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 363:1757–1763.
MylesPS, WilliamsDL, HendrataM, et al. Patient satisfaction after anaesthesia and surgery: results of a prospective survey of 10,811 patients. Brit J Anaesth 2000; 84:6–10.
Practice advisory for intraoperative awareness and brain function monitoring: a report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Intraoperative Awareness. Anesthesiology 2006; 104:847–864.
Preventing, and managing the impact of, anesthesia awareness. Sentinel Event Alert 2004; 1–3.
SandinRH, EnlundG, SamuelssonP, LennmarkenC. Awareness during anaesthesia: a prospective case study. Lancet 2000; 355:707–711.
SebelP, BowdleT, GhoneimM, et al. The incidence of awareness during anesthesia: a multicenter United States study. Anesth Analg 2004; 99:833–839.