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  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: May 2013


Théberge, Paul (2007) Any Sound You Can Imagine: Making Music/Consuming Technology (Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press)
Ryan, Joel (1991) “Some remarks on musical instrument design at STEIM,” Contemporary Music Review, 6(1): 3–17
Toffler, Alvin (1970) Future Shock (London: Pan Books Ltd.).
Taylor, Timothy D. (2001) Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, and Culture (New York: Routledge).
Rubin, Mike (2000) “Techno: Days of future past” in Shapiro, Peter (ed.), Modulations. A History of Electronic Music: Throbbing Words on Sound (New York: Distributed Art Publishers Inc.), pp. 108–27
Bowker, Geoffrey C. and Star, Susan Leigh (2000) Sorting Things Out: Classification and its Consequences (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
Shuker, Roy (2008) Understanding Popular Music Culture, 3rd edn. (Abingdon: Routledge), pp. 5–7.
Johnson, Scott (2000) “The counterpoint of species” in Zorn, John (ed.), Arcana: Musicians on Music (New York: Granary Books, Inc.), pp. 18–58.
Wishart, Trevor (1996) On Sonic Art, revised edn., edited by Simon Emmerson (New York: Routledge).
Licata, Thomas (ed.) (2002) Electroacoustic Music: Analytical Perspectives (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press)
Simoni, Mary (ed.) (2006) Analytical Methods of Electroacoustic Music (New York: Routledge)
Reynolds, Simon (2005) Rip It Up and Start Again (London: Faber & Faber).
Nieber, Louis (2010) Special Sound: The Creation and Legacy of the BBC Radiophonic Workshop (New York: Oxford University Press), p. 73.
Rodgers, Tara (ed.) (2010) Pink Noises: Women on Electronic Music and Sound (Durham, NC: Duke University Press)
Hinkle-Turner, Elizabeth (2006) Women Composers and Music Technology in the United States (Aldershot: Ashgate)
A more open scene for women in Berlin is discussed in Tony Naylor (2008) “The female techno takeover,” The Guardian, May 24,
Henderson, Dave (2010) Journey to a Plugged In State of Mind (London: Cherry Red Books)
Cox, Christoph and Warner, Daniel (eds.) (2004) Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music (London; New York: Continuum)
Davies, Hugh (1996) “A history of sampling,” Organised Sound, 1(1): 3–11
Angliss, Sarah (2011) The Bird Fancyer's Delight. BBC Radio 4, July 5
Hugill, Andrew (2007) “The origins of electronic music” in Collins, Nick and d’Escriván, Julio (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music (Cambridge University Press), pp. 7–23, at p. 14
Brock-Nannestad, George (2009) “The development of recording technologies” in Cook, Nicholas, Clarke, Eric, Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel, and Rink, John (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Recorded Music (Cambridge University Press), pp. 149–76.
An art interest in the player piano continued as an early acoustic sequencer; the music of Conlon Nancarrow is worth exploring here. George Antheil's Ballet Mécanique (1926) uses the player piano as a central agent of mechanization
Eargle, John (2005) The Microphone Book (Oxford: Focal Press).
Milner, Greg (2009) Perfecting Sound Forever: The Story of Recorded Music (London: Granta Publications).
Holmes, Thom (2012) Electronic and Experimental Music, 4th edn. (New York: Routledge), pp. 48–9.
d’Escriván, Julio (2009) “Sound art (?) on/in film,” Organised Sound, 14(1): 65–73.
Katz, Mark (2004) Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press), p. 104.
Lerner, Neil (2010) “The strange case of Rouben Mamoulian's sound stew: The uncanny soundtrack in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1931)” in Lerner, Neil (ed.), Music in the Horror Film: Listening to Fear (New York: Routledge), pp. 55–79.
Levin, Thomas Y. (2003) “‘Tones from out of nowhere’: Rudolph Pfenninger and the archaeology of synthetic sound,” Grey Room, 12: 32–79.
Moritz, William (2004) Optical Poetry: The Life and Work of Oskar Fischinger (Bloomington: Indiana University Press).
Manning, Peter (2005) “The influence of recording technologies on the early development of electroacoustic music,” Leonardo Music Journal, 13: 5–10
Moholy-Nagy, László (2004, originally 1922/3) “Production-reproduction: potentialities of the phonograph” in Cox and Warner (eds.), Audio Culture, pp. 331–3.
Kane, Brian (2011) “Acousmatic fabrications: Les Paul and the ‘Les Paulverizer’,” Journal of Visual Culture, 10(2): 212–31.
Dack, John (2009) “From sound to music, from recording to theory,” in Bayley, Amanda (ed.), Recorded Music: Performance, Culture and Technology (Cambridge University Press), pp. 271–90.
Palombini, Carlos (1993) “Machine songs V: Pierre Schaeffer. From research into noises to experimental music,” Computer Music Journal, 17(3): 14–19.
In some cases, ostensible remixes turn out as covers, as when the KLF remixed the Pet Shop Boys’ So Hard (1990), re-made all parts and got Neil Tennant to sing the vocal again! There are also remixes which are entirely new tracks, as in the urban myth of the courier turning up at Aphex Twin's residence to collect a remix on deadline day and Richard James handing over a randomly selected DAT; the record company loved the work
Grobelny, Joseph (2008) “Mashups, sampling, and authorship: A mashupsampliography,” Music Reference Services Quarterly, 11(3–4): 229–39.
A mania shown to good dramatic effect in Woody Allen's imaginary jazz guitarist biopic Sweet and Lowdown (1999)
Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel (2009) The Changing Sound of Music: Approaches to Studying Recorded Musical Performance (London: CHARM)
Chanan, Michael (1995) Repeated Takes: A Short History of Recording and its Effects on Music (London: Verso).
Moorefield, Virgil (2005) The Producer as Composer: Shaping the Sounds of Popular Music (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), p. 3
Harrower, Andy (2005) “Copyright issues in digital music,” Contemporary Music Review, 24(6): 483–8.
Miller, Paul D. (ed.) (2008) Sound Unbound: Sampling Digital Music and Culture (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
Murphy, John P. (1990) “Jazz improvisation: The joy of influence,” The Black Perspective in Music, 18(1–2): 7–19.
Scratch (2001), directed by Doug Pray
Beadle, Jeremy J. (1993) Will Pop Eat Itself? Pop Music in the Soundbite Era (London: Faber & Faber).
Hugh Davies (2012) “Denis d'or,” Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,
Schiffer, Michael B., Hollenback, Kacy L., and Bell, Carrie L. (2003) Draw the Lightning Down: Benjamin Franklin and Electrical Technology in the Age of Enlightenment (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press), p. 172.
Labaree, Leonard W. (ed.) (1962) The Papers of Benjamin Franklin (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press), vol. 5, p. 69.
Herbermann, Charles (ed.) (1913) “Andrew Gordon” in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: Robert Appleton Company), p. 649.
Page, C. G. (1837) “The production of galvanic music,” American Journal of Science, 32: 396–7
Evenson, Edward (2000) The Telephone Patent Conspiracy of 1876: The Elisha Gray–Alexander Bell Controversy (Jefferson, NC: McFarland)
Fessenden, Helen M. (1940) Fessenden: Builder of Tomorrows (New York: Coward-McCann, Inc.), p. 153.
Chadabe, Joel (1997) Electric Sound (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall), p. 6.
de Forest, Lee (1950) Father of Radio: The Autobiography of Lee de Forest (Chicago: Wilcox & Follett), pp. 306–7.
Winston, Brian (1998) Media Technology and Society: A History: From the Telegraph to the Internet (London: Routledge), p. 44.
Anonymous (1900) “December 20, 1900: Nature reports on William Duddell's ‘musical arcs’,” APS News, 19(11): 2.
Weidenaar, Reynold (1995) Magic Music from the Telharmonium (London: Scarecrow Press, Inc.).
Pierce, Edwin Hall (1924) “A colossal experiment in ‘just intonation’,” Musical Quarterly, 10(3): 326–32.
Anonymous (1906) “Twain and the telephone,” New York Times, December 23
Baker, Ray Stannard (1906) “New music for an old world,” McClure's Magazine, 27(3): 291–301.
Busoni, Ferruccio (1907) Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music. Translated by Dr. Th. Baker (New York: Schirmer)
Anonymous (1907) “Music on wires,” New York Globe and Commercial Adverstiser, January 31, p. 4. Quoted in Weidenaar, Magic Music from the Telharmonium, p. 136
Borroff, Edith (1982) “The Choralcelo: One uniquely American instrument,” College Music Symposium, 22(1): 46–54.
Khazam, Rahma (2009) “Nikolay Obukhov and the Croix Sonore,” Leonardo Music Journal, 19: 11–12.
Glinsky, Albert (2000). Theremin: Ether Music and Espionage (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press).
Anonymous (1934) “TITTERS GREET MUSIC OF OBOUHOFF IN PARIS; singers’ strange performance, accompanied by electrical instrument, causes stir,” New York Times, May 16
Stange-Elbe, Joachim (1994) “Elektrische Musikinstrumente: Ein historischer Rückblick mit zeitgenössischen Dokumenten. 5.Teil: Sphärenklänge,” ZeM Mitteilungsheft, 14: 6–10
Stange-Elbe, Joachim (1994) “Elektrische Musikinstrumente: Ein historischer Rückblick mit zeitgenössischen Dokumenten. 6.Teil: Saitenspiele (1),” ZeM Mitteilungsheft, 15: 6–10
Holzer, Derek (2010) “A brief history of optical synthesis,” Tonewheels: Audiovisual Performance,
Davies, Hugh and Donhauser, Peter (2011) “Superpiano,” Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,
Miessner, Benjamin F. (1936) “Electronic music and instruments,” Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, 24(11)
Heřman, Jiři (2006) “Sons & lumières” in Disk II/2006 – Selections from the Czech Journal for the Study of Dramatic Art (Prague: Nakladatelstvi), pp. 138–52
For full technical detail of the original design, see Laurens Hammond (1934) “Electrical musical instrument,” US Patent 1956350
Anonymous (1938) “ORGAN COMPANY CITED: FTC orders Hammond makers to cease representations,” New York Times, July 12. See also the discussion at
The Clavioline had true vibrato, i.e., variation in pitch rather than amplitude. See Gordon Reid (2007) “The story of the Clavioline,” Sound on Sound, March,
Benjamin Grosbayne (1931) “ELECTRICITY, ETHER AND INSTRUMENTS: Some considerations, reflections, and inferences on the modern cult of vitamineless art and the synthetic aesthetic,” New York Times, September 6
Schaeffer, Pierre (1952) A la Recherche d'une Musique Concrète (Paris: Éditions du Seuil).
Peignot, Jérôme (1960) “De la musique concrète à l'acousmatique,” Esprit, 280: 111–23.
Minar, E. L. (1944) “Pythagorean communism,” Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, 75: 34–46, at 39.
Schaeffer, Pierre (1966) Traité des objets musicaux (Paris: Le Seuil), p. 91.
Chion, Michel (1983) Guide des objets sonores, Pierre Schaeffer et la recherche musicale (Paris: Ina-GRM/Buchet-Chastel)
Kane, Brian (2007) “L’Objet Sonore Maintenant: Pierre Schaeffer, sound objects and the phenomenological reduction,” Organised Sound, 12(1): 15–24.
Manning, Peter (2004) Electronic and Computer Music (Oxford University Press), pp. 19 and 28.
Berio, Luciano (1956) “Studio di Fonologia Musicale,” The Score, 15: 86.
Stockhausen, Karlheinz (1964) Texte zur Musik 2, Dieter Schnebel (ed.) (Cologne: Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg), p. 23.
Stockhausen, Karlheinz (1961) “Two lectures,” Die Reihe 5 (Bryn Mawr: Theodore Presse), p. 59.
Davies, Hugh (2003) “Obituary: Daphne Oram,” The Guardian, January 24
Young, Gayle (1989) The Sackbut Blues: Hugh Le Caine, Pioneer in Electronic Music (Ottawa: National Museum of Science and Technology).
Young, Gayle (1984) “Hugh Le Caine: Pioneer of electronic music in Canada,” HSTC Bulletin: Journal of the History of Canadian Science, Technology and Medecine / HSTC Bulletin : revue d'histoire des sciences, des techniques et de la médecine au Canada, 8(1): 20–31
Caine, Hugh Le (1953) “Short presentation of the 1948 Sackbut: The Sackbut Blues.” Republished in An Anthology of Noise and Electronic Music, Vol. 4. Sub Rosa (2006).
Bourne, Warren (2008) “Cary, Tristram,” Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online
Schrader, Barry (2008) “Barron, Bebe,” Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online
Schrader, Barry (2008) “Barron, Louis,” Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online
Brockman, J. (1992) “The first electronic filmscore: Forbidden Planet,” The Score, 7(3): 5–13.
Pritchett, James (1996) The Music of John Cage (Cambridge University Press), p. 91
Bayly, Richard (1983) “Ussachevsky on Varèse: An interview April 24, 1979 at Goucher College,” Perspectives of New Music 21(1–2): 145–51
Sitsky, Larry (2002) Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press), p. 533
Meyer, Felix and Zimmerman, Heidi (eds.) (2006) Edgard Varèse – Composer, Sound Sculpture, Visionary (Woodbridge: Boydell Press), p. 340
Mattis, Olivia (2006) “From Bebop to Poo-wip: Jazz influences in Varèse's Poème électronique” in Meyer and Zimmerman (eds.), Edgard Varèse, pp. 309–17.
Kagel, Mauricio (2006) “Edgard Varèse: Years later” in Meyer and Zimmerman (eds.), Edgard Varèse, pp. 476–8.
Pinch, Trevor and Trocco, Frank (2002) Analog Days: The Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), p. 118.
Vail, Mark (2000) Vintage Synthesizers (San Francisco, CA: Backbeat Books), p. 26
Pinch, and Trocco, (Analog Days, p. 216)
Pinch, and Trocco, , Analog Days, p. 11.
Kester, Walt (ed.) (2005) The Data Conversion Handbook (Burlington, MA: Newnes).
Collins, Nick (2010) Introduction to Computer Music (Chichester: Wiley), p. 36.
Hiller, Lejaren and Isaacson, Leonard (1959) Experimental Music: Composition with an Electronic Computer (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press).
Mathews, Max V. (1963) “The digital computer as a musical instrument,” Science, 142 (3592): 553–7.
Holmes, , Electronic and Experimental Music, pp. 176–90.
Manning, Electronic and Computer Music, p. 207
Spiegel, Laurie (1998) “Graphical GROOVE: memorial for the VAMPIRE, a visual music system,” Organised Sound, 3(3): 187–91.
Vail, Vintage Synthesizers, pp. 143, 220.
Ojanen, Mikko, Suominen, Jari, Kallio, Titti, and Lassfolk, Kai (2007) “Design principles and user interfaces of Erkki Kurenniemi's electronic musical instruments of the 1960s and 1970s,” Proceedings of the 2007 Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME07), New York.
There is also a movie glorifying Erkki Kurenniemi's circuits, The Future Is Not What It Used to Be (2002), directed by Mika Taanila
Four generations of these would go up to the famous 4X (completed by 1984), empowering such works as Pierre Boulez's Répons (1984)
Boulez, Pierre and Gerzso, Andrew (1988) “Computers in music,” Scientific American, 258(4): 44–50
Holmes, Electronic and Experimental Music, p. 281.
Vail, Vintage Synthesizers, p. 68
Peel, Ian (2005) “Trevor Horn: 25 years of hits,” Sound on Sound, March
Holmes, , Electronic and Experimental Music.
Hugill, , “The origins of electronic music.”
Lombardo, Vincenzo, Valle, Andrea, Fitch, John, Tazelaar, Kees, Weinzierl, Stefan, and Borczyk, Wojciech (2009) “A virtual-reality reconstruction of Poème électronique based on philological research,” Computer Music Journal, 33(2): 24–47.
Wierzbicki, James (2005) Louis and Bebe Barron's Forbidden Planet: A Film Score Guide (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc.).
(Glinksy, Albert (2005) Theremin: Ether Music and Espionage (Urbana and Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press))
Pinch, and Trocco, , Analog Days, p. 274.
d’Escriván, Julio (2007) “Electronic music and the moving image” in Collins and d’Escriván (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music, pp. 156–70.
Möritz, William (2004) Optical Poetry: The Life and Work of Oskar Fischinger (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press)
Levin, Thomas Y. (2003) “‘Tones from out of nowhere’: Rudolph Pfenninger and the archaeology of synthetic sound,” Grey Room, 12: 32–79.
Lack, Russell (1997) “Electronic film music and musical understanding” in Twenty Four Frames Under: A Buried History of Film Music (London: Quartet Books Ltd.), pp. 310–21
More were missed out; you might investigate sound design in THX 1138 (1971), for example
Donnelly, K. J. (2010) “Hearing deep seated fears: John Carpenter's The Fog (1980)” in Lerner, Neil (ed.), Music in the Horror Film: Listening to Fear (New York: Routledge), pp. 152–67.
Or at least simulacra of acoustic instruments through large sample databases. Lack (“Electronic film music,” p. 315) points to Hans Zimmer as very successfully blurring the line between acoustic and electronic in Black Rain (1990)
Chion, Michel (1994) Audio-vision (New York: Columbia University Press)
Wierzbicki, , Louis and Bebe Barron's Forbidden Planet, p. 21
A further footnote here is to the fate of one of Maddalena Fagandini's popular 1960 interval signals, which became grafted onto the Time Beat (1962) single pushed out by George Martin under the male cover name Ray Cathode, obscuring her role
Rodman, Ron (2011) “‘Coperettas,’ ‘Detecterns,’ and space operas: Music and genre hybridization in American television’ in Deaville, James (ed.), Music in Television: Channels of Listening (New York: Routledge), pp 35–56, at p. 50
Scott, Raymond (2000) Manhattan Research Inc. BASTA Audio/Visuals, Holland, CD liner notes, p. 50.
Holmes, , Electronic and Experimental Music, p. 194.
Pinch, and Trocco, , Analog Days, pp. 55–6
Smith, Ethan (2002) “Organization Moby,” Wired, 10.05
Collins, Karen (2008) Game Sound (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
Everett, Walter (2009) The Foundations of Rock: From Blue Suede Shoes to Suite: Judy Blue Eyes (New York: Oxford University Press), particularly pp. 78–81.
Morton Subotnick's commission to produce Silver Apples of the Moon (1967) is a companion piece, of modest success, showcasing Don Buchla's synthesizer. Indicative of the Moog–Buchla split on keyboard versus alternative controllers, Carlos re-works Bach for a greater mass success, and Buchla uses sequencers for some accessibility, but is much more abstract in general approach
It's a recurring theme of popular music, such as with David Bowie's not-so-electronic Space Oddity (1969) tapping into the Moon landing mania
It is worth acknowledging the commercial musicians working on their own record releases as well as sessions, commercials, and movies; Beaver and Krause's The Nonesuch Guide to Electronic Music (1966), for instance, stayed on the Billboard chart for 26 weeks (Henderson, Journey to a Plugged In State of Mind, p. 74)
Toop, David (2000) Rap Attack 3: African Rap to Global Hip Hop (London: Serpent's Tail), p. 126.
Dibben, Nicola (2009) Björk (London: Equinox Publishing Ltd.).
Whilst not directly synth pop but a sort of eclectic mix from soul to hip hop (“cybersoul”), a more recent manifestation of Metropolis’ far-reaching influence is Janelle Monáe's Cindi Mayweather alias and backstory to her Metropolis: Suite I (The Chase) E.P. (2007) and The ArchAndroid (Suites II and III) album (2010)
Reynolds, Simon (1999) Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture (New York: Routledge), p. 14
Bussy, Pascal (2005) Kraftwerk: Man, Machine and Music, 3rd edn. (London: SAF Publishing Ltd.), p. 190
In this same era, Throbbing Gristle began their industrial experiments, growing out of performance art scenes. Though known more for their weirder side in noise and industrial music, they produced the odd subversive sickly and repetitive synth pop track, such as United (1978)
Numan, Gary with Malins, Steve (1979) Praying to the Aliens: An Autobiography (London: Andre Deutsch)
Goodwin, Paul (2004) Electric Pioneer: An Armchair Guide to Gary Numan (London: Helter Skelter Publishing)
Thompson, Dave (1994) Depeche Mode: Some Great Reward (New York: St. Martin's Press), p. 6
Hook, Peter (2009) The Haçienda: How Not to Run a Club (London: Simon & Schuster)
Albiez, Sean and Pattie, David (eds.) (2011) Kraftwerk: Music Non-Stop (New York: Continuum), p. 172
David Pattie (2011) “Introduction: The (Ger)man machines” in Albiez and Pattie (eds.), Kraftwerk: Music Non-Stop, p. 8
Cross, Ian (2001) “Music, cognition, culture and evolution,Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 930: 28–42
Straw, Will (2007) “Dance music” in Frith, Simon, Straw, Will and Street, John (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Pop and Rock (Cambridge University Press), pp. 158–77
Toop, David (2000) Rap Attack 3: African Rap to Global Hip Hop (London: Serpent's Tail), p. 143
McLeod, Kembrew (2001) “Genres, subgenres, sub-subgenres and more: Musical and social differentiation within electronic/dance music communities,Journal of Popular Music Studies, 13: 59–75
Brewster, Bill and Broughton, Frank (2006) Last Night a DJ Saved My Life (London: Headline Book Publishing), p. 307
Moog engineer Robbie Wedel is credited with the synthesizer programming and sync in Richard Buskin (2009) “Donna Summer ‘I Feel Love’: Classic tracks,” Sound on Sound, October,
, Toop, Rap Attack 3; Shapiro, Peter (2005) Turn the Beat Around: The Secret History of Disco (London: Faber & Faber)
Gordon Reid (2004) “The history of Roland part 2: 1979–1985,” Sound on Sound, December,
Discussion of the first acid house track takes us down a familiarly difficult road of attribution. As Roland had originally hoped, the TB-303 was used in all sorts of places, from Italo-disco (Alexander Robotnick's Problèmes D’Amour (1983)), through indie pop (Orange Juice's No. 8 UK hit Rip It Up (1983)) to an obscure at the time work created by composer Charanjit Singh in Mumbai: Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat (1982). See “The primer on the Roland TB-303” The Wire, 303 (May 2009) and Stuart Aitken (2011) “Charanjit Singh on how he invented acid house…by mistake,” The Guardian, May 10, 2011,
Sicko, Dan (2010) Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk, 2nd edn. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press)
Andy Thomas (2011) “ELECTRONIC ENIGMA: The myths and messages of Detroit techno,” Wax Poetics, 45. Reproduced with additional discussion at
Richard, Birgit and Kruger, Heinz Hermann (1998) “RAVERS’ PARADISE?: German youth cultures in the 1990s” in Skelton, Tracey and Valentine, Gill (eds.), Cool Places: Geographies of Youth Cultures (London: Routledge), pp. 162–75
Haslam, Dave (2001) Adventures on the Wheels of Steel: The Rise of the Superstar DJs (London: Fourth Estate), p. 8
Steingo, Gavin (2005) “South African music after Apartheid: Kwaito, the ‘party politic,’ and the appropriation of gold as a sign of success,Popular Music and Society, 28(3): 333–57
Kirn, Peter (ed.) (2011). Keyboard Presents the Evolution of Electronic Dance Music (Montclair, NJ: Backbeat Books)
Reynolds, Simon (2007) Bring the Noise: 20 Years of Writing About Hip Rock and Hip Hop (London: Faber & Faber), pp. 312–29
Butler, Mark J. (2006) Unlocking the Groove (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press), p. 137
Chion, M. (1982) La musique électroacoustique (Paris: PUF), p. 9
Schedel, Margaret (2007) “Electronic music and the studio” in Collins and d’Escriván (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music, pp. 24–37
Born, Georgina (1995) Rationalizing Culture: Boulez, IRCAM, and the Instituionalization of the Musical Avant-Garde (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press)
Tazelaar, Kees (2009) “The Institute of Sonology,” Leonardo Music Journal, 19: 69–70
Dhomont, Francis (2007) “For classicism,” in Collins and d’Escriván (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music, pp. 194–5
de Visscher, Eric (2001) “Vande Gorne, Annette” in Sadie, Stanley and Tyrrell, John (eds.), The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd edn. (London: Macmillan)
Harrison, Jonty (1989) “Denis Smalley, EMAS and (electro-acoustic) music,” Musical Times, 130(1759): 528–9, 531.
Clozier, Christian (2001) “The Gmebaphone concept and the cybernéphone Instrument,” Computer Music Journal, 25(4): 81–90
Bayle, François (2007) “Space, and more,” Organised Sound, 12(3): 241–9
Harrison, Jonty (1999) “Diffusion: Theories and practices, with particular reference to the BEAST system,” eContact, 2(4)
Malham, David G. and Myatt, Anthony (1995) “3-D sound spatialization using ambisonic techniques,” Computer Music Journal, 19(4): 58–70
Ramakrishnan, Chandrasekhar, Goßmann, Joachim, and Brümmer, Ludger (2006) “The ZKM Klangdom,” Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME06), Paris, France, pp. 140–3
Wilson, Scott and Harrison, Jonty (2010) “Rethinking the BEAST: Recent developments in multichannel composition at Birmingham ElectroAcoustic Sound Theatre,” Organised Sound, 15: 239–50
McFarlane, W. Matthew (2003) “The development of acousmatics in Montréal,” eContact, 6(2)
Dhomont, Francis (1995) “Acousmatic update / Rappel acousmatiques,” eContact, 8(2)
Jonty Harrison (2006) “Dilemmas, dichotomies and definitions: Acousmatic music and its precarious situation in the arts,” keynote address to the SoundAsArt conference. Available online at:
Collins, Nicolas (2004) “Composers Inside Electronics: Music after David Tudor,” Leonardo Music Journal, 14(1): 1–3
Kuivila, Ron (2004) “Open sources: Words, circuits and the notation-realization relation in the music of David Tudor,” Leonardo Music Journal, 14: 17–23, at 20
Lucier, Alvin (1995) “‘Every room has its own melody’” in Reflections/Reflexionen (Cologne: Musiktexte), pp. 94–103.
Lucier, Alvin (1995) “‘I am sitting in a room’” in Reflections/Reflexionen, pp. 322–35
Nyman, Michael (1999) Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond, 2nd edn. (Cambridge University Press)
Truax, Barry (1996) “Soundscape, acoustic communication and environmental sound composition,” Contemporary Music Review, 15(1–2): 49–65
Truax, Barry (2001) Handbook for Acoustic Ecology [CD-ROM] (Vancouver: Cambridge Street Publishing)
Zahler, Noel B. (2012) “Davidovsky, Mario,” Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online
Anderson, Julian (2000) “A provisional history of spectral music,” Contemporary Music Review, 19(2): 7–22
Young, Diana (2002) “The Hyperbow controller: Real-time dynamics measurement of violin performance,” Proceedings of the 2002 Conference on New Instruments for Musical Expression (NIME-02), Dublin, Ireland.
Lewis, George (2000) “Too many notes: Computers, complexity and culture in Voyager,” Leonardo Music Journal, 19: 33–9
Lewis, George (1999) “Interacting with latter day musical automata,” Contemporary Music Review, 18(3): 99–112
Ferrari, Luc (1996) “I was running in so many different directions,” Contemporary Music Review, 15(1–2): 95–104
Collins, Nick (2009) “Electronica” in Dean, Roger (ed.), The Oxford Handbook to Computer Music (New York: Oxford University Press), pp. 334–53
Eno, Brian (2004) “Ambient music” in , Cox and , Warner (eds.), Audio Culture, pp. 94–7
Duckworth, William (2005) Virtual Music: How the Web Got Wired for Sound (New York: Routledge), p. 5
Amusingly, for the Residents are masters of dark humour, they released a disco dance beat version of Eskimo called Diskomo (1980)!
Young, Rob (2005) Warp Labels Unlimited (London: Black Dog Publishing), p. 56
Solomis, Makis (1997) (Kanach, Sharon (trans.)) Liner notes to Xenakis: Electronic Music, Electronic Music Foundation Ltd
Harley, James (2004) Xenakis: His Life in Music (New York: Routledge)
Apollono, Umbro (ed.), Brain, Robert, Flint, R. W., Higgitt, J. C., and Tisdall, Caroline (translations) (1973) Futurist Manifestos (London: Thames & Hudson), pp. 86–7
Sinclair, Mick (1984) “CONCERTO FOR VOICE AND MACHINERY,” Sounds, January,
Cascone, Kim (2000) “The aesthetics of failure: ‘Post-digital’ tendencies in computer music,” Computer Music Journal, 24(4): 12–18
Stuart, Caleb (2003) “Damaged sound: Glitching and skipping compact discs in the audio of Yasunao Tone, Nicolas Collins and Oval,” Leonardo Music Journal, 13: 47–52
Young, Rob (2002) “Worship the glitch” in Young, Rob (ed.), Undercurrents: The Hidden Wiring of Modern Music (London: Continuum), pp. 45–55
Vanhanen, Janne (2003) “Virtual sound: Examining glitch and production,” Contemporary Music Review, 22(4): 45–52
Thomson, Phil (2004) “Atoms and errors: Towards a history and aesthetics of microsound,” Organised Sound, 9(2): 207–18
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Ghazala, Reed (2005) Circuit-Bending: Build Your Own Alien Instruments (Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc.)
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Written on the actual CD of Autechre, Anti EP (1994), Warp Records
, Christoph Cox (2003) “Return to form: Christoph Cox on neo-modernist sound art,” Artforum International, XLII(3)
Alan, Licht (2007) Sound Art: Beyond Music, Between Categories (New York: Rizzoli), p. 221.
Demers, Joanna (2010) Listening Through the Noise: The Aesthetics of Experimental Electronic Music (Oxford University Press), p. 70
Marclay, Christian (2012) Cyanotypes (Zurich: Ringier)
Lewis, George, quoted in Jeanne Schinto (2001) “Raptured,”
Furlong, William (2011, original 1994) in Kelly, Caleb (ed.), Sound (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/London: Whitechapel Gallery), p. 67
Neuhaus, Max (2000) “Sound art?” Liner notes for Volume: Bed of Sound (New York: P.S.1)
Neuhaus, Max (1993), letter provided by Silvia Neuhaus
Neuhaus, Max, quoted in Alicia Zuckerman (2002) “Max Neuhaus’ ‘Times Square’,” Arts Electric
Marclay, Christian, quoted in Philip Sherburne (2005) “This artist makes music like you've never seen before, and art like you've never heard before,” Interview, March: 162–7
Licht, Alan (2009) “Organizing the unpredictable: Tim Knowles and Pe Lang + Zimoun at bitforms gallery,”
Murray Schafer, R. (1994) The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World (Rochester,VT: Destiny Books), p. 212
Cardiff, Janet, quoted in Mirjam Schaub (2005) Janet Cardiff: The Walk Book (Vienna: ThyssenBornemisza Art Contemporary), p. 79
Tate, Greg (2007) Black Light White Noise (Houston: Contemporary Arts Museum), p. 42.
Hegarty, Paul (2007) Noise Music: A History (New York: Continuum), p. 175
Ryoji Ikeda (1997) +/− TO: 30 Touch, liner notes
Stankievech, Charles (2007) “From stethoscopes to headphones: An acoustic spatialization of subjectivity,” Leonardo Music Journal, 17: 55–9
Ouzounian, Gascia (2008) “Sound art and spatial practices: Situating sound installation art since 1958,” Ph.D. thesis, University of California, San Diego, p. 280
Wagner, Richard (1849) “Outlines of the artwork of the future” in Packer, Randall and Jordan, Ken (eds.) (2001), Multimedia: From Wagner to Virtual Reality (New York: W.W. Norton), p. 3
Vaughan, Tay (2006) Multimedia: Making it Work (New York: McGraw-Hill), p. 13
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Charles Hamilton, Albert (1990) The Spenser Encyclopedia (University of Toronto Press), p. 171
Berdahl, Edgar and Ju, Wendy (2011) “Satellite CCRMA: A musical interaction and sound synthesis platform,” Proceedings of the New Interfaces for Musical Expression Conference, Oslo, Norway
Lash, Larry L. (2003) Financial Times, November 12
Fox, Barbara (2005) “Schaeffer stands his ground: Orfée 53 and evocative sound,” EMS: Electroacoustic Music Studies Network, Montréal
Chion, Michael (1998) L’Opéra Concret: Musiques Concrètes 1971–1997 MCE, liner notes
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Sterken, Sven (2001) “Towards a space-time art: Iannis Xenakis's polytopes,” Perspectives of New Music, 39(2): 262–73.
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Snibbe, Scott (2011) “With Biophilia, Björk creates album art for the 21st century (it's an app!),
Ryan, Nick in Kiss, Jemima (2010) “Papa Sangre: The sonic iPhone horror game you've been looking for,” The Guardian,
There are also musical uses of game theory, which is the study of strategic decision making used famously by Iannis Xenakis in his compositions Duel (1959), Stratégie (1962), and Linaia Agon (1972)
Bryan, Beverly (2008) “Lucky Dragons ‘Make a Baby’ with electricity and audience participation,” VenusZine
Feldmeier, Mark and Paradiso, Joseph. A. (2007) “An interactive music environment for large groups with giveaway wireless motion sensors,” Computer Music Journal, 31(1): 50–67
Hahn, Tomie and Bahn, Curtis (2002) “Pikapika – the collaborative composition of an interactive sonic character,” Organised Sound, 7(3): 229–38
Kapur, Ajay, Darling, Michael, Diakopoulos, Dimitri, Murphy, Jim, Hochenbaum, Jordan, Vallis, Owen, and Bahn, Curtis (2011) “The machine orchestra: An ensemble of human laptop performers and robotic musical instruments,” Computer Music Journal, 25(4): 49–63
Kapur, Ajay (2005) “A history of robotic musical instruments,” Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference, Barcelona
Lehrman, Paul D. and Singer, Eric (2006) “A ‘Ballet mécanique’ for the 21st century: Performing George Antheil's Dadaist masterpiece with robots,” Proceedings of the New Interfaces for Musical Expression Conference, Paris
Thomas, Margaret E. (2000) “Nancarrow's canons: Projections of temporal and formal structures,” Perspectives of New Music, 38(2): 106–33
Boden, Margaret and Edmonds, Ernest (2009) “What is generative art?Digital Creativity, 20(1–2): 21–46
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Ikeshiro, Ryo (2012) “Audiovisual harmony: The realtime audiovisualisation of a single data source in Construction in Zhuangzi,” Organised Sound, 17(2): 148–55
Hermann, Thomas, Hunt, Andy, and Neuhoff, John G. (2011) “Introduction” in Hermann, Thomas, Hunt, Andy, and Neuhoff, John G. (eds.), The Sonification Handbook (Berlin: Logos Publishing House), p. 21
Kobakhidze, Archil (2012) “Higgs the musical: The sound of the ‘God particle’,” The Conversation, July 19, 2012
Manovich, Lev (2002) “The anti-sublime ideal in data art,”
Sturm, Bob (2005) “Pulse of an ocean: Sonification of ocean buoy data,” Leonardo Music Journal, 38(2): 143–9
Paine, Garth (2009) “Pools, pixies and potentials,” Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Electronic Arts, Singapore
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Alves, Bill (2005) “Digital harmony of sound and light,” Computer Music Journal, 29(4): 45–54
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Chafe, Chris and Gurevich, Michael (2004) “Network time delay and ensemble accuracy: Effects of latency, asymmetry,” Proceedings of the AES 117th Convention, San Francisco, CA
Caceres, Juan-Pablo and Chafe, Chris (2009) “JackTrip: Under the hood of an engine for network audio,” Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference, Montréal
Dahl, Luke, Herrera, Jorge, and Wilkerson, Carr (2011) “TweetDreams: Making music with the audience and the world using real-time Twitter data,” Proceedings of the New Interfaces for Musical Expression Conference, Oslo, Norway
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Auto-Tune use has become ubiquitous. It has even been used to doctor talent show auditions, as in a 2010 scandal on the UK show X Factor. See Mark Savage (2010) “How commonplace is auto-tune?” BBC News, August 23, 2010, . Auto-Tune and other pitch-correction technologies have appeared in many popular music and music gaming contexts: One of the most amusing uses of Auto-Tune is in the YouTube series “Auto-Tune the news,” which mixes up news footage with auto-tuned speech and music production
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Emmerson, Simon (2009) “Combining the acoustic and the digital: Music for instruments and computers or prerecorded sound” in Dean, Roger T. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Computer Music (New York: Oxford University Press), pp. 167–88, at p. 168
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Croft, John (2007) “Theses on liveness,” Organised Sound, 12(1): 59–66
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Schloss, Andrew W. (2003) “Using contemporary technology in live performance: The dilemma of the performer,” Journal of New Music Research, 32(3): 239–42
Thompson's, Bill dismantle (2010) amplifies the sounds of laptop destruction against a backdrop of London's cathartically destructive Scrap Club
Thompson, Bill (2010) “Scrapyard aesthetics and the swansong of the Inspiron,” eContact!, 12(3)
Alexander, Amy and Collins, Nick (2007) “Live audiovisuals” in Collins and d’Escriván (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music, pp. 126–39
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Neill, Ben (2002) “Pleasure beats: Rhythm and the aesthetics of current electronic music,” Leonardo Music Journal, 12: 3–6
Trueman, Dan (2007) “Why a laptop orchestra?Organised Sound, 12(2): 171–9
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Brown, Chris and Bischoff, John (2002) “Indigenous to the Net: Early network music bands in the San Francisco Bay area,”
Jordà, Sergi (2007) “Interactivity and live computer music” in Collins and d’Escriván (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music, pp. 89–106
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Bellaviti, Sean (2007) “Perception, reception, and all that popular music: An interview with Alejandro Viñao,” Discourses in Music, 6(2) (Spring–Summer)
Wrench, Nigel (2008) “Lost tapes of the Dr Who composer,” BBC News, July 18