Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: December 2014

Chapter 16 - Wild water buffalo Bubalus arnee (Kerr, 1792)

from Part III - Species accounts

Summary

Linnaeus (1758), who generally used very wide genera, (because he did not use the family rank), originally named it as Bos bubalis. Kerr (1792) named it as Bos arnee. Later, both were assigned to genus Bubalus H. Smith, 1827 (in Cuvier’s Animal Kingdom, vol. 5: 371). The name bubalis is based on a domestic animal. It is also the senior synonym. However, those workers who do not use specific names based on domestic animals prefer to use arnee (Corbet & Hill 1992; Groves 1996; Choudhury 1997a, 2001b, 2010).

The Asiatic wild water buffalo Bubalus arnee Kerr (= Bubalus bubalis Linn.) is among the largest members of the family Bovidae. It is also the ancestor of all the domestic varieties and breeds of buffaloes anywhere. Although the exact time and place of its domestication is uncertain there is little doubt that it has been present for at least 5000 years in India and China. Tame and possibly domesticated buffaloes appear on seals in the Indus valley (Mohenjo-daro) and in Mesopotamian civilisations from about the middle of the third millennium BC (Mason 1974; Lenstra & Bradley 1999; Massicot 2004). According to McIntosh (2007), ‘buffaloes occur as images on Indus seals, where they appear to be wild’.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
References
Ali, S. (1927). The Moghul emperors of India as naturalists and sporstmen: part II. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 32(1): 34–63.
Allen, B. C. (1905 [2002]). Gazetteer of Naga Hills and Manipur. New Delhi: Mittal Publications.
Anon. (1920). III: sporting diary. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 27(2): 386–391.
Anon (1940). Editor’s comments. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 41(3): 660.
Anon (2005a). Camera trap catches wild buffalo in Cambodia. , accessed 3 May 2009.
Anon (2005b). Srepok project: photographing of wild water buffalo. , accessed 10 July 2009.
Anon. (2006). Hunting the elusive kouprey. The FCC Cambodia Monthly Newsletter. September.
Anon. (2009). Wild water buffalo Bubalus arnee. , accessed 3 May 2009.
Ara, J. (1949). Wild life reserves in India: Bihar province. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 48(2): 283–289.
Ashby, K. R. & Santiapillai, C. (1987). The ecology of free living water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Sri Lanka with particular reference to Ruhuna National Park. Tigerpaper 14(3): 20–26.
Asmat, G. S. M. (2001). Bagladesher bilupto bannyaprani. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Bangla Academy. (In Bengali)
Babur, Zahiru’d-din Muhammad (1529). The Babur-nama (Memoirs of Babur). Translated from the original Turki text by Annette Susannah Beveridge (1917, 1921). Vol. II sold by Luzac & Co, 46, Great Russell Street, London, UK. 1922. Section III Hindustan.
Beekman, J. H. & Prins, H. H. T. (1989). Feeding strategies of sedentary large herbivores in East-Africa, with emphasis on the African buffalo, Syncerus caffer. African Journal of Ecology 27: 129–147.
Berger, J. (1990). Persistence of different-sized populations: an empirical assessment of rapid extinctions in bighorn sheep. Conservation Biology 4: 91–98.
Blanford, W. T. (1891). Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. London: Taylor & Francis.
Blower, J. H. (1986): Nature Conservation in Bhutan: Project Findings and Recommendations. Rome: FAO.
Bor, L. N. (1982). Flora of Assam. Vol. V, Graminae (reprint from original of 1940). Delhi: A Von Book Company.
Brickle, N., Cu, N., Quynh, H. Q., Cuong, N. T. T. & San, H. V. (1998). The Status and Distribution of Green Peafowl Pavo muticus in Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. Hanoi: BirdLife International.
Brown, R. (1874). Statistical account of Manipur. Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, India (reprint in 2001 by Mittal Publications, New Delhi).
Chaiyarat, R. (2001). Ecology and habitat utilisation of wild water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. Unpublished dissertation. Kasetsart University.
Chaiyarat, R. (2002). Forage species of wild water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. Buffalo Journal 3: 289–302.
Chaiyarat, R. (2004). Status of wild water buffalo Bubalus bubalis in Thailand. Tigerpaper 31(2): 6–9.
Choudhury, A. U. (1986). Wildlife in north-east India. North-Eastern Geographer 18(1–2): 92–101.
Choudhury, A. U. (1988). Conservation in Manas Tiger Reserve. Tigerpaper 15(2): 23–27.
Choudhury, A. U. (1989a). The Kaziranga Sanctuary. The India Magazine 9 (January): 18–28.
Choudhury, A. U. (1989b). S. O. S. Manas! The Sentinel, 7 May.
Choudhury, A. U. (1993a). Saving the wild buffalo. The India Magazine, September: 75.
Choudhury, A. U. (1993b). A Naturalist in Karbi Anglong. Guwahati: Gibbon Books.
Choudhury, A. U. (1994a). The decline of wild water buffalo in Northeastern India. Oryx 28(1): 70–73
Choudhury, A. U. (1994b). Wild buffalo Bubalus bubalis in Dhakuakhana, Lakhimpur district of Assam. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 91(1): 137–138.
Choudhury, A. U. (1994c). Checklist of the Mammals of Assam. Guwahati: Gibbon Books.
Choudhury, A. U. (1996). Survey of the White-winged Wood Duck and the Bengal Florican in Tinsukia District and Adjacent Areas of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. Guwahati: The Rhino Foundation for Nature in North–East India,
Choudhury, A. U. (1997a). Checklist of the Mammals of Assam. Revised 2nd edition. Guwahati:: Gibbon Books and Assam Science Technology & Environment Council, India.
Choudhury, A. U. (1997b). Survey of grasslands in some parts of central and southern Assam: to assess their bio-diversity & socio-economic problem. WWF-India North-East Regional Office, Guwahati.
Choudhury, A. U. (1998a). Wild water buffalo Bubalus bubalis/arnee in Dibang Valley district of Arunachal Pradesh. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 95(1): 110–112.
Choudhury, A. U. (1998b). Mammals, birds and reptiles of Dibru-Saikhowa Sanctuary, Assam, India. Oryx 32(3): 192–200.
Choudhury, A. U. (1999). Status of the wild water buffalo Bubalus arnee in Lohit district, Arunachal Pradesh. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 96(1): 130–132.
Choudhury, A. U. (2001a). On the occurrence of the wild water buffalo Bubalus arnee in the Barak Valley districts of Assam. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 98(2): 270–271.
Choudhury, A. U. (2001b). A systematic review of the mammals of North-east India with special reference to the non-human primates. DSc thesis. Gauhati University.
Choudhury, A. U. (2002). Occurrence of the wild water buffalo Bubalus arnee in Mizoram and Manipur. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99(3): 512–516.
Choudhury, A. U. (2003a). The Mammals of Arunachal Pradesh. New Delhi: Regency Publications.
Choudhury, A. U. (2003b). Meghalaya’s vanishing wilderness. Sanctuary Asia 23(5): 30–35.
Choudhury, A. U. (2004). Kaziranga: Wildlife in Assam. New Delhi: Rupa & Co.
Choudhury, A. U. (2006). Manas: looking back, looking forward. Sanctuary Asia 26(1): 22–29.
Choudhury, A. U. (2008). Distribution and status of the wild water buffalo Bubalus arnee in Bhutan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 105(3): 332–335.
Choudhury, A. U. (2009). Census of Wild Water Buffalo in Unprotected Areas of Eastern Assam. Final Report. Guwahati: The Rhino Foundation for Nature in North-East India.
Choudhury, A. U. (2010). The Vanishing herds: The Wild Water Buffalo. Guwahati: Gibbon Books & The Rhino Foundation for Nature in North-East India.
Choudhury, A. U. (2011). The northernmost range of gaur Bos gaurus and wild water buffalo Bubalus arnee. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 108(1): 56–58.
Choudhury, A. U. & Dey, A. (2008). Census of Wild Water Buffalo in Dibru-Saikhowa National Park. Final Report. Guwahati: The Environment & Forest Department and The Rhino Foundation for Nature in North-East India.
Choudhury, A. U., Swargiary, A., Bhobora, C. R. & Saikia, B. (2008a). Census of Wild water Buffalo in Manas National Park. Final Report. Barpeta Road and Guwahati: The Field Directorate, Manas National Park, and The Rhino Foundation for Nature in North-East India.
Choudhury, A. U., Bonal, B. S. & Muthukumarvel, C. (2008b). Census of Wild Water Buffalo in Laokhowa and Burhachapori Wildlife Sanctuaries. Final Report. Guwahati: The Environment & Forest Department and The Rhino Foundation for Nature in North-East India.
Cockrill, W. R. (1984). Water buffalo. In Evolution of Domesticated Animals, pp. 52–63. Ed. Mason, I. L.London: Longman.
Cooper, T. T. (1873 [1995]). The Mishmee Hills. New Delhi: Mittal Publications.
Corbet, G. B. & Hill, J. E. (1992). The Mammals of the Indomalayan Region: A Systematic Review. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dahmer, T. D. (1978). Status and ecology of the wild Asian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.) in Nepal. MS thesis. University of Montana.
Daniel, J. C. & Grubh, B. R. (1966). The Indian wild buffalo, Bubalus bubalis (L.) in Peninsular India: a preliminary survey. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 63(1): 32–53.
de Silva, M., Dissanayake, S. & Santiapillai, C. (1994). Aspects of the population dynamics of the wild Asiatic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Rahuna National Park, Sri Lanka. Journal of South Asian Natural History 1: 65–76.
Deb Roy, S. (1991). Manas: a monograph. Tigerpaper 18: 6–15.
Delacour, J. (1940). Liste provisoire des mammifères de l’Indochine française. Mammalia 4: 20–29, 46–58.
Deuve, J. (1972). Les mammifères du Laos. Vientiane, Lao PDR: Ministère de l’education nationale.
Dinerstein, E. & McCracken, G. F. (1990). Endangered greater one-horned rhinoceros carry high levels of genetic variation. Conservation Biology 4: 417–422.
Divekar, H. K. (1976). A resurvey of the status of wild buffaloes in the West Bastar, Madhya Pradesh. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 73(2): 382–385.
Divekar, H. K. & Bhusan, B. (1988). Status Survey of the Wild Asiatic buffalo Bubalus bubalis in the Raipur and Bastar Districts of Madhya Pradesh. Bombay: Bombay Natural History Society.
Duckworth, J. W., Salter, R. E. & Khounboline, K. (1999). Wildlife in Lao PDR: 1999 Status Report. Vientiane, Lao PDR: IUCN, Wildlife Conservation Society and Centre for Protected Areas and Watershed Management.
Dumas, C. (1944). La faune sauvage du Cambodge. Saigon: J. Aspar.
Dunbar Brander, A. A. (1931). Wild Animals in Central India. London: Edward Arnold & Co.
Eames, J. C. & Tu, Nguyen Duc (2002). An interim biodiversity report for Yok Don National Park, Dak Lak province, Vietnam. Unpublished report to Vietnam PARC Project, Yok Don Component.
Eisenberg, J. F. & Lockhart, M. (1972). An ecological reconnaissance of Wilpattu National Park, Ceylon. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 101: 1–118.
Ellerman, J. R. & Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. (1966). Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals, 1758 to 1946. 2nd edition. London: British Museum (Natural History).
Falconer, D. S. (1981). Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. London: Longman.
Fazl, Abu’l (c.1590 [1873]). Ain-i-Akbari. Translated by Blochmann, Henry (vol. 1) and Jarrett, Henry Sullivan (vols 2–3). Calcutta: The Asiatic Society of Bengal.
Finn, F. (1929). Sterndale’s Mammalia of India. Revised edition. Calcutta and Simla: Thacker, Spink.
Fisher, J., Simon, N. & Vincent, J. (1969). The Red Book: Wildlife in Danger. London: Collins.
Flamand, J. R. B., Vankan, D., Gairhe, K. P., Duong, H. & Barker, J. S. F. (2003). Genetic identification of wild Asian water buffalo in Nepal. Animal Conservation 6: 265–270.
Forsyth, J. (1889). The Highlands of Central India. London: Chapman & Hall.
Franklin, I. R. (1980). Evolutionary change in small populations. In Conservation Biology: An Evolutionary-Ecological Perspective, pp. 135–149. Eds. Soulé, M. E. & Wilcox, B. A.Sunderland MA: Sinauer.
Gee, E. P. (1950). Wildlife reserves in India: Assam. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 49(1): 81–89.
Gee, E. P. (1952). The Assam earthquake of 1950. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 50(3): 628–635.
Gee, E. P. (1953). Wild buffaloes and tame. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 51(3): 727–730.
Gee, E. P. (1964). The wild life of India. London: Collins.
Gee, E. P. (1966). A note on the conference on conservation of nature and natural resources in tropical South-east Asia held at Bangkok, Thailand. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 63(1): 162–166.
Graham, M. & Round, P. (1994). Thailand’s Vanishing Flora and Fauna. Bangkok: Finance One Public Co. Ltd.
Grimsdell, J. J. R. & Field, C. R. (1976). Grazing patterns of buffaloes in the Rwenzori National Park, Uganda. East African Wildlife Journal 14: 339–344.
Groves, C. P. (1996). The taxonomy of the Asian wild buffalo from the Asian mainland. Z. Saugetierkunde (International Journal of Mammalian Biology) 61: 327–338.
Guinness World Records (2006). Longest horns. , accessed 7 August 2006.
Gupta, R. B. & Mishra, H. R. (1972). The Asiatic Wild Buffalo of Koshi Tappu: An Interim Report. Kathmandu: Department of National Parks and Wildlife Reserve, Nepal.
Hall, J. E. (1936). Shooting wild buffalo in the Kosi river swamps. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 38(3): 584–592.
Harper, F. (1940). The nomenclature and type localities of certain old world mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 21: 191–203, 322–332.
Hasan, S. M. (1980). The enigmatic buffalo. Hornbill 2: 26–27.
Hedges, S. (1995). Asian wild cattle and buffaloes: status report and conservation action plan. 2 vols. Working draft for CAMP/AWCSG meeting. WWF Project 3950/Asia, Thailand.
Heinen, J. T. (1993). Population viability and management recommendations for wild water buffalo Bubalus bubalis in Kosi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Biological Conservation 65: 29–34.
Heinen, J. T. (2001). A translocation proposal for wild buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Nepal: recommended management action in the face of uncertainty for a critically endangered species. Tigerpaper 28: 1–8.
Heinen, J. T. (2002). Phenotypic and behavioural characteristics used to identify wild buffalo Bubalus bubalis from feral backcrosses in Nepal. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99(2): 173–183.
Higgins, J. C. (1934). The game birds and animals of the Manipur State with notes on their numbers, migration and habits: part VI. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 37(2): 298–309.
Humphrey, S. R. & Bain, J. R. (1990). Endangered Animals of Thailand. Gainesville, FL: Sandhill Crane Press.
Imam, A. R. H. B. (1985). Seasonal migration of gaur. Cheetal 26: 45–48.
Inverarity, J. D. (1895). The Indian wild buffalo. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 10: 41–52.
Islam, F. M. S., Rahman, R. H. & Chowdhury, S. M. Z. H. (1992). Prevalence of parasites of water buffaloes in Bangladesh. AJAS 5(4): 601–604.
IUCN (2013). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. , accessed 29 May 2014.
Jalil, A. F. M. (1986). Sundarbaner itihash. Dhaka: Ahmad Publishing House, Bangladesh. (In Bengali)
Jesser, P., Markula, A. & Csurhes, S. (2008). Pest Animal Risk Assessment Water Buffalo Bubalus bubalis. Brisbane: Biosecurity Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries.
Kerr, R. (1792). The Animal Kingdom of the Celebrated Sir Charles Linnaeus: Class I. Mammalia. London: J. Murray,
Kie, J. G. & Bowyer, R. T. (1999). Sexual segregation in white-tailed deer: density-dependent changes in use of space, habitat selection, and dietary niche. Journal of Mammalogy 80: 1004–1020.
Kinloch, A. A. (1885). Large Game Shooting in Thibet, the Himalaya, Northern and Central India. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co.
Kinloch, A. A. (1892). Large Game Shooting in Thibet, the Himalaya, Northern and Central INDIA. 3rd revised and enlarged edition. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co.
Kotwal, P. C. & Mishra, R. P. (2004). Ecobiology of Indian wild buffalo Bubalus arnee L. in Udanti Wildlife Sanctuary, Chhattisgarh, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 101(2): 252–254.
Kotwal, P. C., Naik, M. L. & Mishra, R. P. (2003). Indian wild buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.) an endangered species: habitat and diurnal activity pattern in Udanti Wildlife Sanctuary. Cheetal 41(3–4): 19–28.
Lekagul, B. (1952). On the trail of the kouprey or Indo-Chinese forest ox (Bibos sauveli). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 50(3): 623–628.
Lekagul, B. & McNeely, J. A. (1977). Mammals of Thailand. Bangkok: Association of Conservation of Wildlife.
Lenstra, J. A. & Bradley, D. G. (1999). Systematics and phylogeny of cattle. In Genetics of Cattle, pp. 1–14. Eds. Fries, R. & Ruvinsky, A.Wallingford: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau International.
Canh, Le Xuan, Anh, Pham Trong, Duckworth, J. W., Thanh, Vu Ngoc & Vuthy, Lic (1997). A Survey of Large Mammals in Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. Hanoi: WWF Indochina Programme and IUCN.
Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum Classess, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. I: Regnum Animale. 10th edition. Holmia: Laurentius Salvius.
Lydekker, R. (1900). The Great and Small Game of India, Burma and Tibet. London: Rowland Ward.
Lydekker, R. (1907). The Game Animals of India, Burma, Malaya and Tibet. London: Rowland Ward.
Maharajah of Cooch Behar (1908 [1985]). Thirty-seven Years of Big Game Shooting in Cooch Behar, the Duars and Assam: A Rough Diary. Bombay: The Times Press. Reprinted in 1985 as Big Game Shooting in Eastern and North Eastern India by Mittal Publications, Delhi, India.
Maia, L. C. M. (1970). The present position of the wild buffalo in Asia. Loris 12: 86–88.
Mason, I. L. (1974). Species, types and breeds. In The Husbandry and Health of the Domestic Buffalo, p. 47. Ed. Cockrill, W. R.Rome: FAO Publication.
Massicot, P. (2004). Animal info: wild water buffalo. .
Mathur, P. K., Malik, P. K. & Muley, P. D. (1995). Ecology and Population Genetics of Asian Wild buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in India. Dehradun: Wildlife Institute of India.
Matschie, P. (1912). Beutestücke aus fernen Ländern. Dt. Jäger-Zeitung 59: 97–103.
M’Cosh, J. (1837 [2000]). Topography of Assam. Second Indian reprint, 2000. New Delhi: Logos Press.
McIntosh, J. (2007). The Ancient Indus Valley. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Menon, V. (2003). A Field Guide to Indian Mammals. Delhi: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
Mooney, H. F. (1930). The distribution of Wild Buffalo in Orissa. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 34: 242–244.
Mukherjee, A. K. (1982). Endangered Animals of India. Calcutta: Zoological Survey of India.
Muley, P. D. (2001). Genetic and morphometric studies to differentiate between wild and domestic Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis L.) and their hybrids in Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India. PhD dissertation. University of Wisconsin.
Munrowd, H. G. H. (1945a). Some reminiscences of sport in Assam: pt II. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 45: 322–332.
Munrowd, H. G. H. (1945b). Some reminiscences of sport in Assam: pt III. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 45: 485–495.
Nakasatit, N. & Chanard, T. (1985). Proceedings of the Forestry Seminar. Bangkok: Kasetsart University.
Noronha, R. P. (1952). The Indian wild buffalo. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 51(1): 266–267.
Noronha, R. P. (1954). More notes on the Indian buffalo. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 52(1): 202–204.
Nowak, R. (1999). Walker’s Mammals of the World. 6th edition. Baltimore, MD and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Odden, M., Wegge, P. & Storaas, T. (2005). Hog deer Axis porcinus need threatened tallgrass floodplains: a study of habitat selection in lowland Nepal. Animal Conservation 8: 99–104.
Oryx (1967). Plight of wild buffalo in India. Oryx 9: 176.
Oryx (1989). Pure buffalo need protection in India. Oryx 23: 166.
Osgood, W. H. (1932). Mammals of the Kelley-Roosevelts and Delacour Asiatic expeditions. Publications Field Museum of Natural History Zoology 18: 193–339.
Owen-Smith, R. N. (1988). Megaherbivores: The Influence of Very Large Body Size on Ecology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pandey, R. K. (1988). Habitat utilization and diurnal activity pattern of Indian wild buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.) in Indravati National Park, India: a study of habitat/animal interaction. Journal of Tropical Forestry 4(3): 269–280.
Parsons, R. E. (1940). A large head of the Indian buffalo (Bos bubalis). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 41(3): 659.
Phillips, W. W. A. (1929). The present state of the game and wild life in Ceylon. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 33(4): 942–946.
Leng-Ee, Pong (1978). The conservation of protected large mammals in Thailand. In Wildlife Management in Southeast Asia: Proceedings of the BIOTROP symposium on animal populations and wildlife management in Southeast Asia, pp. 47–60. Bogor: BIOTROP.
Prater, S. H. (1948). Book of Indian Animals. 2nd edition. Bombay: Bombay Natural History Society.
Prater, S. H. (1980). The Book of Indian animals. 4th edition. Bombay: Bombay Natural History Society.
Ranjitsinh, M. K. (1997). Beyond the Tiger:Portraits of Asian Wildlife. New Delhi: Brijbasi Printers Pvt. Ltd.
Ranjitsinh, M. K., Chauhan, S. K. S., Banubakode, S. B., et al. (2000). Status and Conservation of the Wild buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Peninsular India. Bombay: Madhya Pradesh Forest Department, WII, BNHS and BSCN.
Ranjitsinh, M. K., Verma, S. C., Akhtar, S. A., Patil, V., Sivakumar, K. & Bhanubhakude, S. (2004). Status and conservation of the wild buffalo Bubalus bubalis in Peninsular India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 101(1): 64–70.
Redfern, J. V., Grant, R., Biggs, H. & Getz, W. M. (2003). Surface-water constraints on herbivore foraging in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Ecology 84: 2092–2107.
Richardson, W. S. J. (1889). Correspondence: wild buffalo. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 4(3): 231.
Rithe, K. & Fernandes, A. (2002). On the trail of the wild buffalo. Sanctuary Asia 22(4): 46–51.
Ryan, S. J. & Jordaan, W. (2005). Activity patterns of African buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Lower Sabie Region, Kruger National Park, South Africa. Koedoe 48(2): 117–124.
Sah, J. P. (1997). Koshi Tappu Wetlands: Nepal’s Ramsar Site. Bangkok: IUCN.
Salter, R. E. (1983). Survey of Currently Available Information on Internationally Threatened Wildlife Species in Burma. Rangoon: FAO.
Sanderson, G. P. (1896). Thirteen Years Among the Wild Beasts of India. London: W. H. Allen & Co. Ltd.,
Santiapillai, C. (1990). Status, distribution and conservation of wild cattle in Thailand. Unpublished report. WWF-Asia Programme, Bogor, Indonesia.
Sarkar, S. U. (1993). Ecology of Wildlife. Chittagong: Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences.
Seidensticker, J. (1975). Ungulate populations in Chitwan Valley, Nepal. Unpublished report. Office of Zoological Research, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Seidensticker, J. (1976). Ungulate populations in Chitwan Valley, Nepal. Biological Conservation 10: 183–210.
Seidensticker, J. & McNeely, J. (1975). Observations on the use of natural licks by ungulates in the Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 26: 25–34.
Sheshadri, B. (1969). The Twilight of India’s Wildlife. London: John Baker Publishers.
Shukla, U. (1996). Grasses of North-Eastern India. Jodhpur: Scientific Publishers.
Sinclair, A. R. E. (1977). The African Buffalo: A Study of Resource Limitation of Populations. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.
Singh, T. A. (1980). The enigmatic buffalo: ‘feedback’. Hornbill 4: 4.
Singh, S. (1984). A flight of rhinos. Sanctuary Asia 4(3): 250–260.
Smith, C. H. (1827). The Carnassiers. In Cuvier’s Animal Kingdom: Synopsis of the Species of the Class Mammalia. Vol. 2. Order VII: Ruminantia (Pecora, Lin.). (Vol. 4: pp. 1–428; Vol. 5: pp. 296–376). Eds. Griffith, E. et al. London: Whittaker.
Songsri, S. (1987). The water buffalo Bubalus bubalis of Thailand. BIOTROP Special Publication No. 30: Conservation and management of endangered plants and animals.
Soulé, M. E. (1980). Thresholds for survival: maintaining fitness and evolutionary potential. In Conservation Biology, pp. 151–169. Eds. Soulé, M. E. & Wilcox, B.Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Spillett, J. J. (1966). The Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 63(3): 494–527.
Spillett, J. J. (1967). A report on wildlife surveys in North India and southern Nepal: the Jaldapara Wild Life Sanctuary, West Bengal. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 63: 534–556.
Stark, M. A. (1986). Daily movement, grazing activity and diet of savanna buffalo, Syncerus caffer brachyceros, in Benoue National Park, Cameroon. African Journal of Ecology 24: 255–262.
Stebbing, E. P. (1920). The Diary of a Sportsman Naturalist in India. London: John Lane.
Stewart, A. E. (1927). Tiger and Other Game. London: Longmans, Green Ltd.
Stockley, C. H. (1928). Big Game Shooting in the Indian Empire. London: Constable & Co., Ltd.
Stockley, V. M. (1913). Big Game Shooting in India, Burma and Somaliland. London: Horace Cox.
Tikader, B. K. (1983). Threatened Animals of India. Calcutta: Zoological Survey of India.
Timmins, R. J. & Ratanak, Ou (2001). The Importance of Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary and Adjacent Areas for the Conservation of Tigers and Other Key Species. Phnom Penh: WWF Cambodia Conservation Program.
Tordoff, A. W., Timmins, R. J., Maxwell, A., Keavuth, H., Vuthy, L. & Hourt, K. E. (2005). Biological Assessment of the Central Indochina Dry Forest Ecoregion. Phnom Penh: WWF Cambodia Conservation Program.
Traill, L. W., Brook, B. W., Frankham, R. R. & Bradshaw, C. J. A. (2010). Pragmatic population viability targets in a rapidly changing world. Biological Conservation 143: 28–34.
Tulloch, D. G. (1970). Seasonal movements and distribution of the sexes in the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, in the northern territory. Australian Journal of Zoology 18: 399–414.
Tulloch, D. G. (1974). The feral swamp buffaloes of Australia’s Northern Territory. In The Husbandry and Health of the Domestic Buffalo, pp. 493–505. Ed. Cockrill, W. R.Rome: FAO.
Tulloch, D. G. (1979). The water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, in Australia: reproductive and parent–offspring behaviour. Australian Wildlife Research 6: 265–287.
Tulloch, D. G. & Litchfield, R. T. (1981). Wallow for buffalo. Australian Wildlife Research 8: 555–565.
Uicharoensak, V. (1992). Ecology and Current Distribution of Wild Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Uthai Thani Province. Bangkok: Kasetsart University. (In Thai)
Vagholikar, N. (2009). ‘Dam virus’ engulfs Arunachal Pradesh. Hornbill April–June: 42–46.
Walston, J. L. (2001). Mammals of Cambodia. In Biodiversity, the Life of Cambodia: Cambodian bIodiversity Status Report 2001, pp. 135–152. Ed. Smith, J. D.Phnom Penh: Cambodia Biodiversity Enabling Activity, Food and Agriculture Organisation.
Wangchuk, T., Thinley, P., Tshering, K., Thsering, C. & Yonten, D. (2004). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Bhutan. Thimphu: Department of Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan.
Ward, R. (1910). Records of Big Game. 6th edition. London: Rowland Ward Ltd.
Weckerly, F. E., Ricca, M. A. & Meyer, K. P. (2001). Sexual segregation in Roosevelt elk: cropping rates and aggression in mixed-sex groups. Journal of Mammalogy 82(3): 825–835.
Wharton, C. H. (1957). An Ecological Study of the Kouprey Novibos sauveli (Urbain): Monograph 5. Manila: Monographs of the Institute of Science and Technology.
Wilson, D. E. & Mittermeier, R. A. (2011). Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 2. Hoofed Mammals. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
Winterbach, C. H., Winterbach, H. E. K. & Theron, G. (1998). Seasonal variation in home range, movement and habitat selection of the cape buffalo Syncerus caffer caffer in the Willem Pretorius Game Reserve, Free State. Submitted to Koedoe.
Winterbach, H. E. K. & Bothma, J.Du, P. (1998). Activity patterns of cape buffalo Syncerus caffer caffer in the Willem Pretorius Game Reserve, Free State. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 28(3): 73–81.
Wroughton, R. C. (1920). Summary of the results from the Indian mammal survey of the Bombay Natural History Society: part VI. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 27(1): 57–85.