Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: December 2014

Chapter 18 - Tamaraw Bubalus mindorensis Heude, 1888

from Part III - Species accounts

Summary

Names

Genus: Bubalus C. H. Smith, 1827

Species: Tamaraw Bubalus mindorensis Heude, 1888

Names in other languages: French: Tamarau, Tamarao; German: Mindoro-Büffel; Spanish: Tamarao, Búfalo de Mindoro; Italian: Tamaraw

Other common names: Mindoro dwarf buffalo.

Taxonomy

Bubalus mindorensis Heude (1888), type specimen Mindoro Island, Philippines. Despite early debates on its proper taxonomic classification (Everett 1878; Meyer 1878; Bartlett 1878), the tamaraw is classified as a distinct species within the genus Bubalus based on morphological characteristics (Groves 1969; Custodio et al. 1996; Braun et al. 2002; Wilson & Reeder 2005) and genetic analyses (Namikawa et al. 1995; Tanaka et al. 1996, 2000). Steere (1888a) also independently described the tamaraw, placing it in the genus Anoa, but was superseded by Heude (1888). Heude’s type specimen was lost and then rediscovered (Braun et al. 2002) in Xujiahui, China, in the Shanghai Natural History Museum, which acquired the museum Heude founded (Zikawei Museum of Natural History).

Subspecies and distribution

The tamaraw is endemic to the island of Mindoro, Philippines (Plate 9; Heaney et al. 1987; Custodio et al. 1996). Thought to be previously widely distributed in Mindoro (Everett 1878; Steere 1888b, 1891), by 1949 there appears to have been fewer than 1000 animals left on the island, with an estimated 244 in Occidental Mindoro (Manuel 1957) in at least three areas (Harrisson 1969a). By 2007 the three areas where tamaraw are now thought to remain are in Mounts Iglit-Baco National Park (MIBNP), the Mount Calavite Wildlife Sanctuary and the Aruyan-Malati area (R. M. Boyles, unpublished; J. de Leon, unpublished).

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
References
Alvarez, J. B. (1970). Philippine tamaraw: here to stay. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (New Series) 18: 46–51.
Anunciado, R. V. P., Eduardo, S. L., Momongan, V. G. & Escalada, R. F. (1994). Parasites of the captive tamaraw, Bubalus mindorensis (Heude, 1888) (Mammalia: Ruminantia). Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine 31: 5–10.
Bartlett, A. D. (1878). Letter to the Secretary. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1878: 882–883.
Beyer, H. O. (1957). New finds of fossil mammals from the Pleistocene strata of the Philippines. University of the Philippines Bulletin 41: 1–23.
Braun, A., Groves, C. P. & Grubb, P. (2002). Rediscovery of the type specimen of Bubalus mindorensis Heude, 1888. Mammalian Biology 67: 246–249.
Buchholtz, C. (1990). Cattle. In Grzimek’s Encyclopedia of Mammals. Vol. 5, pp. 360–417. Ed. Parker, P. S.. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Cox, R. & Woodford, M. (1990). A technical evaluation of the Philippine Tamaraw Conservation Program. A report to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Republic of the Philippines by IUCN; Zoological Society of London; and Bristol, Clifton, and West England Zoological Society.
Croft, D. A., Heaney, L. R., Flynn, J. J. & Bautista, A. P. (2006). Fossil remains of a new, diminutive Bubalus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae: Bovini) from Cebu Island, Philippines. Journal of Mammalogy 87(5): 1037–1051.
Custodio, C. C., Lepiten, M. V. & Heaney, L. R. (1996). Bubalus mindorensis. Mammalian Species 520: 1–5.
de Leon, J., Lawas, N., Excalada, R., et al. (Eds.). (1996). Tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis): Population and Habitat Viability Assessment Report. Apple Valley, MN: IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group.
Drost, M. (2007). Bubaline versus bovine reproduction. Theriogenology 68: 447–449.
Everett, A. H. (1878). Mr. A. H. Everett on Anoa Depressicornis. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1878: 792.
Groves, C. P. (1969). Systematic of the anoa (Mammalia, Bovidae). Beaufortia 17: 1–12.
Harper, F. (1945). Extinct and vanishing mammals of the Old World. American Committee for International Wildlife Protection, Special Publication 12: 548–550.
Harrisson, T. (1969a). The tamaraw and its survival. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (New Series) 2: 85–86.
Harrisson, T. (1969b). The tamaraw and Philippine conservation. Biological Conservation 1: 317–318.
Heaney, L. R., Gonzales, P. D. & Alcala, A. C. (1987). An annotated checklist of the taxonomic and conservation status of land mammals in the Philippines. Silliman Journal 34: 32–66.
Hedges, S., Duckworth, J. W., IUCN SSC Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group, de Leon, J., Custodio, C. & Gonzales, J. C. (2008). Bubalus mindorensis. In IUCN 2012: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. , accessed 27 June 2013.
Heude, P. M. (1888). Note sur le petit buffle sauvage de l’ile de Mindoro (Philippines). Memoires concernant l’histoire naturelle de l’Empire Chinois 2: 50–51.
Ishihara, S., Ishida, A., del Barrio, A. N., et al. (2007). Field survey on tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis) present population size and herd behavior in wild. Italian Journal of Animal Science 6: 1249–1251.
Jainudeen, M. R. (1986). Reproduction in the water buffalo. In Current Therapy in Theriogenology. Vol. 2, pp. 443–449. Eds Morrow, D. A.Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders.
Keuhn, D. W. (1976). Tamarao: endangered buffalo of the Philippines. National Parks and Conservation Magazine 50: 18–249.
Keuhn, D. W. (1986). Population and social characteristics of the tamarao (Bubalus mindorensis). Biotropica 18: 263–266.
Manuel, C. G. (1957). Status of tamaraw, Anoa Mindorensis (Heude). Proceedings of the Eighth Pacific Science Congress 3: 1463–1474.
McCool, C. J. & Entwistle, K. W. (1989). The development of puberty and sexual maturity in the Australian swamp buffalo bull. Therioenology 32: 171–184.
Meyer, A. B. (1878). Letter to the secretary. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1878: 881–882.
Momongan, V. G. & Walde, G. I. (1993). Behavior of the endangered tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis Heude) in captivity. Asia Life Sciences 2: 241–250.
Namikawa, T., Masangkay, J. S., Maeda, K., Escalada, R., Hirunagi, K. & Momongan, V. G. (1995). External characters and karyotypes of the captive tamaraws Bubalus (B.) mindorensis, at the gene pool in the island of Mindoro, Philippines. Journal of Animal Genetics 23: 19–28.
Roth, H. H. & Montemayor-Taca, B. (1971). Immobilization of the tamaraw (Anoa mindorensis). Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine 10: 45–48.
Sanchez, D. (1892). El tamarao. La Ilustracion Filipina 2: 271.
Sarabia, A. S., Escalada, R. F. & Momongan, V. G. (1998). Some reproductive parameters in female tamaraw. Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine 35: 74–75.
Singh, J., Nanda, A. S. & Adams, G. P. (1986). The reproductive pattern and efficiency of female buffaloes. Animal Reproduction Science 60–61: 593–604.
Steere, J. B. (1888a). The ‘Tamaron’ of the Philippine Islands. Nature 38: 363–364.
Steere, J. B. (1888b). Letter to the secretary. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 29: 413–415.
Steere, J. B. (1891). The island of Mindoro. The American Naturalist 25: 1041–1054.
Stefen, C. & Feiler, A. (2004). Observations on the postnatal changes of skull morphology and tooth wear of the tamara, Bubalus mindorensis, (Mammalia: Bovidae). Zoologische Abhandlungen (Dresden) 54: 317–330.
Suchomel, J. (2005). Some notes relating to the observation of tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis) in the Mt. Iglit-Baco National Park, the Philippines, in 2003. Lynx (Praha), New Series 36: 103–110.
Talbot, L. M. & Talbot, M. H. (1966). The tamarau (Bubalus mindorensis (Heude). Observations and recommendations. Mammalia 30: 1–12.
Tanaka, K., Solis, C. D., Masangkay, J. S., Maeda, K., Kawamoto, Y. & Namikawa, T. (1996). Phylogenetic relationship among all living species of the genus Bubalus based on DNA sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Biochemical Genetics 34: 443–452.
Tanaka, K., Matsuda, Y., Masangkay, J. S., et al. (2000). Cytogenetic analysis of the tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis): a comparison of r-banded karyotype and chromosomal distribution of centromeric satellite DNAs, telomeric sequence, and 18s-28s rRNA genes with domestic water buffalos. The Journal of Heredity 91: 117–121.
Wilson, D. E. & Mittermeier, R. A. (2011). Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 2. Hoofed Mammals. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
Wilson, D. E. & Reeder, D. M. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.