Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: December 2014

Chapter 13 - Banteng Bos javanicus d’Alton, 1823

from Part III - Species accounts



Genus: Bos Linnaeus, 1758

Species: Banteng Bos javanicus d’Alton, 1823

Subspecies: Mainland banteng Bos javanicus birmanicus Lydekker, 1898. Java banteng Bos javanicus javanicus d’Alton, 1823. Bornean banteng Bos javanicus lowi Lydekker, 1912

Names in other languages: French: Banteng; German: Banteng; Spanish: Banteng; Italian: Banteng.

Other names: Malaysian (Sabah): Tembadau, Banting, Sapi hutan; Thai: Wau daeng งัวป่า; Laotian: Ngua Pha; Myanmar: Tsiane


There is some evidence that suggests that the banteng is not a monophyletic species (see Hassanin & Ropiquet 2006); however, phylogenetic studies of this species are few and continue to be confounded by hybridization, small sample sizes (Nijman et al. 2003) and the inability to obtain tissue samples from all subspecies. Grzimek (1987) did not accept the separation of banteng into three subspecies as valid. He argued that interbreeding of small populations of wild banteng with domestic or feral cattle still occurred continuously. This suggestion was supported by Corbert & Hill (1992), who also did not recognize the existence of banteng subspecies. Timmins et al. (2008) proposed that Bos javanicus lowi should be included into Bos javanicus javanicus, yet no molecular studies have investigated the phylogeny of B. j. lowi due to the difficulty of obtaining tissue samples from wild individuals. Timmins et al. (2008) also proposed Bos javanicus javanicus and Bos javanicus birmanicus should be tentatively accepted as different subspecies. It is essential to clarify the genetic description of all subspecies through morphometric and molecular analysis prior to a merger of subspecies. For instance, four haplotypes from six faecal samples of banteng in Thai forests similar to Cambodia’s banteng have been reported (Manatchaiworakul et al. 2011). However, these first analyses require further investigations to better understand the relationships between different banteng populations.

Alikodra, H. S. & Sastradipraja, D. (1983). Studi Tentang Beberapa Parameter Faal Pelestarian Satwa Banteng (Bos javanicus). [Study on Some Physiological Aspects of Banteng]. Research Report, Faculty of Veterinery Animal, Institute Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia.
Bhumpakphan, N. & McShea, W. J. (2011). Ecology of gaur and banteng in the seasonally dry forests of Thailand. In The Ecology and Conservation of Seasonally Dry Forests in Asia. pp. 179–194. Eds. McShea, W. J., Davies, S. J. & Bhumpakphan, N.Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press.
Byers, O., Hedges, S. & Seal, U. S. (1995). Asian Wild Cattle Conservation Assessment and Management Plan Workshop. Apple Valley, MN: IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group.
Caldecott, J. O. (1988). Hunting and Wildlife Management in Sarawak. Switzerland and Cambridge: IUCN Tropical Forest Programme.
Choquenot, D. (1993). Growth, body condition and demography of wild banteng (Bos javanicus) on Couburg Peninsula, Northern Australia. Journal of Zoology 231: 533–542.
Corbet, G. B. & Hill, J. E. (1992). The Mammals of the Indomalayan Region: A Systematic Review. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Davies, G. & Payne, J. (1982). A Faunal Survey of Sabah. Malaysia: World Wildlife Fund.
Francis, C. M. (2008). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Southeast Asia. London: New Holland Publisher (UK) Ltd.
Grzimek, B. (1987). Grzimek Enzyklopädie Säugetiere: Register. Zürich: Kindler Verlag AG.
Halder, U. (1976). Ökologie und Verhalten des Banteng (Bos javanicus) in Java. Hamburg: Verlag Paul Parey.
Hassanin, A. & Ropiquet, A. (2006). What is the taxonomic status of the Cambodian banteng and does it have close genetic links with the Kouprey?Journal of Zoology 271: 246–252.
Hedges, S. & Meijaard, E. (1999). Reconnaissance Survey for Banteng (Bos javanicus) and Banteng Survey Methods Training Project. East Kalimantan: Kayan-Mentarang National Park.
Hedges, S. & Tyson, M. (1996). Is predation by ajag a threat to the banteng population in Alas Purwo? Review of the evidence and discussion of management options. Research report. Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
Hoogerwerf, A. (1970). Udjung Kulon, the Land of the Last Javan Rhinocheros. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
IUCN (2013). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. , downloaded 22 May 2014.
Lekagul, B. & McNeely, J. A. (1988). Mammals of Thailand. 2nd edition. Bangkok: Darnshutha Press.
Lydekker, R. (1913). Catalogue of the Ungulate Mammals in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 1: Artiodactyla, Family Bovidae, Subfamilies Bovinae to Ovibovinae (Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Chamois, Serrows, Takin, Musk-Oxen, etc.). London: British Museum (Natural History).
Manatchaiworakul, W., Treeraditthakul, W., Kidsin, K., et al. (2011). Genetic variation study of mtDNA of Wild Bovid in Khao Ang Rue Nai Wildlife Sanctuary. Poster presentation, Wildlife Seminar of Thailand.
Medway, L. (1983). The Wild Mammals of Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia) and Singapore. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Medway, L. (1969). The Wild Mammals of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Nakhasathien, S., Bhumpakphan, N. & Simcharoen, S. (1987). Ecology of the Wildlife in Thung Yai and Huai Kha Khaen Wildlife Sanctuaries. Bangkok: Wildlife Conservation Division, Royal Forest Department.
National Research Council. (1983). Little-known Asian Animals with Promising Economic future. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
National Research Council (2002). Little-known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future. New York: Books for Business.
Nijman, I. J., Otsen, M., Verkaar, E. L., et al. (2003). Hybridization of banteng (Bos javanicus) and zebu (Bos indicus) revealed by mitochondrial DNA, satellite DNA, AFLP and microsatellites. Heredity 90(1): 10–16. Available at: (accessed 13 February 2013).
Pairah, (2007). Tumpang tindih relung ekologis Banteng (Bos javanicus, d’Alton 1823) dan Rusa Timor (Rusa timorensis, Blainville 1822) di padang penggembalaan Sadengan, Taman Nasional Alas Purwo, Jawa Timur. [Ecological niche overlap between banteng and rusa timor in grassing area, Baluran National Park, East Java]. Masters thesis. Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada. (In Bahasa Indonesia)
Payne, J., Francis, C. M. & Phillips, K. (1985). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo. Malaysia: The Sabah Society.
Pedrono, M., Ha Minh, T., Philippe, C. & Frederi, V. (2009). Status and distribution of the endangered banteng Bos javanicus birmanicus in Vietnam: a conservation tragedy. Oryx 43(4): 618–625.
Prayurasithi, T. (1987). Ecology of banteng in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary. MSc thesis. Kasetsart University.
Prayurasithi, T. (1997). Habitat partitioning between gaur and banteng in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary. PhD thesis. Minasota State University.
Pudyatmoko, S. (2005). Freilanduntersuchungen zur Ökologie und Habitatnutzung Wildlebender Banteng Rinder (Bos javanicus) im Baluran National Park in Ost Java, Indonesien. Goettingen: Cuvillier Verlag.
Pudyatmoko, S. (2012). Influence of dhole (Cuon alpinus) on population and distribution of banteng in Baluran National Park. Research Report. Faculty of Forestry UGM-Nagao Environmental Foundation.
Pudyatmoko, S. et al. (2012). National Strategy and Action Plan for Banteng (Bos javanicus) Conservation 2010–2020.Kalimantan: Ministry of Forestry.
Samejima, H., Ong, R., Lagan, P. & Kitayama, K. (2012). Camera-trapping rates of mammals and birds in a Bornean tropical rainforest under sustainable forest management. Forest Ecology and Management 270: 248–256.
Steinmetz, R. (2004). Gaur (Bos gaurus) and banteng (Bos javanicus) in the lowland forest mosaic of Xe Pian Protected Area in Lao PDR: abundance, habitat use and conservation. Mammalia 68: 141–157.
Timmins, R. J., Duckworth, J. W., Hedges, S., Steinmetz, R. & Pattanavibool, A. (2008). Bos javanicus. In IUCN 2013: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. , accessed 4 March 2013.
Tun Yin, U. (1967). Wild Animals of Burma. Rangoon: Rangoon Gazette.
van den Bergh, G. D., De Vos, J. & Sondaar, P. Y. (2001). The Late Quaternary palaeogeography of mammal evolution in the Indonesian Archipelago. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeogeology 171: 358–408.
Whitemore, T. C. (1990). An Introduction to Tropical Rainforests. 2nd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Whitten, T., Soeriaatmadja, R. E. & Affif, S. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Singapore: Periplus Ltd.
Wilson, D. E. & Mittermeier, R. A. (2011). Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 2. Hoofed Mammals. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.