Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2017
  • Online publication date: March 2017

Chapter 8 - Psychiatric Causes of Agitation: Exacerbation of Personality Disorders

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Abraham, P. F. and Calabrese, J. R. (2008). Evidenced-based pharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder: a shift from SSRIs to anticonvulsants and atypical antipsychotics? J. Affect. Disord. 111, 2130.
Arkowitz, H. (2008). Motivational Interviewing in the Treatment of Psychological Problems. New York: Guilford Press.
Baumann, S. L. (2012). Motivational interviewing for emergency nurses. J. Emerg. Nurs. JEN Off. Publ. Emerg. Dep. Nurses Assoc. 38, 254257.
Bell, A. C. and D’Zurilla, T. J. (2009). Problem-solving therapy for depression: a meta-analysis. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 29, 348353.
Black, D. W. (2015). The natural history of antisocial personality disorder. Can. J. Psychiatry Rev. Can. Psychiatr. 60, 309314.
Bornstein, R. F. (2011). Toward a multidimensional model of personality disorder diagnosis: implications for DSM-5. J. Pers. Assess. 93, 362369.
Borschmann, R., Henderson, C., Hogg, J., et al. (2012). Crisis interventions for people with borderline personality disorder. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 6, CD009353.
Caligor, E., Levy, K. N., and Yeomans, F. E. (2015). Narcissistic personality disorder: diagnostic and clinical challenges. Am. J. Psychiatry 172, 415422.
Chaput, Y. J. A. and Lebel, M.-J. (2007). An examination of the temporal and geographical patterns of psychiatric emergency service use by multiple visit patients as a means for their early detection. BMC Psychiatry 7, 60.
Coid, J. W. (2002). Personality disorders in prisoners and their motivation for dangerous and disruptive behaviour. Crim. Behav. Ment. Health CBMH 12, 209226.
Coid, J., Yang, M., Roberts, A., Ullrich, S., Moran, P., Bebbington, P., Brugha, T., Jenkins, R., Farrell, M., Lewis, G., and Singleton, N. (2006). Violence and psychiatric morbidity in a national household population – a report from the British Household Survey. Am. J. Epidemiol. 164, 11991208.
Cunningham, R. M., Chermack, S. T., Zimmerman, M. A., et al. (2012). Brief motivational interviewing intervention for peer violence and alcohol use in teens: one-year follow-up. Pediatrics 129, 10831090.
Damsa, C., Adam, E., De Gregorio, F., et al. (2007). Intramuscular olanzapine in patients with borderline personality disorder: an observational study in an emergency room. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry 29, 5153.
DSM-5 (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition: DSM-5. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Publishing.
Ekselius, L., Lindström, E., von Knorring, L., et al. (1993). Personality disorders in DSM-III-R as categorical or dimensional. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 88, 183187.
ENA (2011). Emergency Department Violence Surveillance (EDVS) Report.
Fazel, S., and Danesh, J. (2002). Serious mental disorder in 23000 prisoners: a systematic review of 62 surveys. Lancet Lond. Engl. 359, 545550.
Feurino, L., and Silk, K. R. (2011). State of the art in the pharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder. Curr. Psychiatry Rep. 13, 6975.
Fountoulakis, K. N., Leucht, S., and Kaprinis, G. S. (2008). Personality disorders and violence. Curr. Opin. Psychiatry 21, 8492.
Franke, L. J. A., Van Weel-Baumgarten, E. M., Lucassen, P. L. B. J., et al. (2007). Feasibility of training in problem-solving treatment for general practice registrars. Eur. J. Gen. Pract. 13, 243245.
Groves, J. E. (1978). Taking care of the hateful patient. N. Engl. J. Med. 298, 883887.
Hagelstam, C., and Häkkänen, H. (2006). Adolescent homicides in Finland: offence and offender characteristics. Forensic Sci. Int. 164, 110115.
Hasin, D., Fenton, M. C., Skodol, A., Krueger, R., Keyes, K., Geier, T., Greenstein, E., Blanco, C., and Grant, B. (2011). Personality disorders and the 3-year course of alcohol, drug, and nicotine use disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 68, 11581167.
Hasin, D., and Kilcoyne, B. (2012). Comorbidity of psychiatric and substance use disorders in the United States: current issues and findings from the NESARC. Curr. Opin. Psychiatry 25, 165171.
Hickie, I. B. (2000). An approach to managing depression in general practice. Med. J. Aust. 173, 106110.
Holloman, G. H., and Zeller, S. L. (2012). Overview of Project BETA: Best practices in evaluation and treatment of agitation. West. J. Emerg. Med. 13, 12.
Hopwood, C. J., Malone, J. C., Ansell, E. B., et al. (2011). Personality assessment in DSM-5: empirical support for rating severity, style, and traits. J. Personal. Disord. 25, 305320.
Howard, R. (2015). Personality disorders and violence: what is the link? Borderline Personal. Disord. Emot. Dysregulation 2, 12.
Howard, R. C., Huband, N., Duggan, C., and Mannion, A. (2008). Exploring the link between personality disorder and criminality in a community sample. J. Personal. Disord. 22, 589603.
Kahl, K. G., Negt, P., Wollmer, A., J., et al. (2015). Inhaled loxapine for acute treatment of agitation in patients with borderline personality disorder: a case series. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 35, 741743.
Kisely, S., Ligate, L., Roy, M.-A., and Lavery, T. (2012). Applying motivational interviewing to the initiation of long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotics. Australas. Psychiatry 20, 138142.
Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. New York: The Guilford Press.
Linehan, M. M. (1997). Validation and psychotherapy. In Empathy Reconsidered: New Directions in Psychotherapy, Bohart, A. C. and Greenberg, L. S. (Eds.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 353392.
Linehan, M. M. (2014). DBT® Skills Training Manual, Second Edition. New York: The Guilford Press.
Lynch, T. R., Trost, W. T., Salsman, N., and Linehan, M. M. (2007). Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 3, 181205.
Miller, W. R., and Rollnick, S. (2009). Ten things that motivational interviewing is not. Behav. Cogn. Psychother. 37, 129140.
Miller, W. R., and Rollnick, S. (2012). Motivational Interviewing: Helping People Change, 3rd Edition. New York: The Guilford Press.
Mynors-Wallis, L. (2001). Problem-solving treatment in general psychiatric practice. Adv Psych Treat 7, 417425.
Mynors-Wallis, L. (2002). Does problem-solving treatment work through resolving problems? Psychol. Med. 32, 13151319.
Mynors-Wallis, L. (2005). Problem-Solving Treatment for Anxiety and Depression: A Practical Guide. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Mynors-Wallis, L. M., Gath, D. H., Day, A., and Baker, F. (2000). Randomised controlled trial of problem solving treatment, antidepressant medication, and combined treatment for major depression in primary care. BMJ 320, 2630.
Nestor, P. G. (2002). Mental disorder and violence: personality dimensions and clinical features. Am. J. Psychiatry 159, 19731978.
Nordstrom, K., Zun, L. S., Wilson, M. P., et al. (2012). Medical evaluation and triage of the agitated patient: consensus statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project Beta Medical Evaluation Workgroup. West. J. Emerg. Med. 13, 310.
Pascual, J. C., Madre, M., Soler, J., et al. (2006). Injectable atypical antipsychotics for agitation in borderline personality disorder. Pharmacopsychiatry 39, 117118.
Pasic, J., Russo, J., and Roy-Byrne, P. (2005). High utilizers of psychiatric emergency services. Psychiatr. Serv. Wash. DC 56, 678684.
Paton, C., Crawford, M. J., Bhatti, S. F., Patel, M. X., and Barnes, T. R. E. (2015). The use of psychotropic medication in patients with emotionally unstable personality disorder under the care of UK mental health services. J. Clin. Psychiatry 76, e512e518.
Putkonen, H., Komulainen, E. J., Virkkunen, M., Eronen, M., and Lönnqvist, J. (2003). Risk of repeat offending among violent female offenders with psychotic and personality disorders. Am. J. Psychiatry 160, 947951.
Richard-Lepouriel, H., et al. (2015). Predictors of recurrent use of psychiatric emergency services. Psychiatr Serv. 2015 66(5), 521526.
Richmond, J. S., Berlin, J. S., Fishkind, A. B., et al. (2012). Verbal de-escalation of the agitated patient: consensus Statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project BETA De-escalation Workgroup. West. J. Emerg. Med. 13, 1725.
Rubak, S., Sandbaek, A., Lauritzen, T., and Christensen, B. (2005). Motivational interviewing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br. J. Gen. Pract. J. R. Coll. Gen. Pract. 55, 305312.
Saftlas, A. F., Harland, K. K., Wallis, A. B., et al. (2014). Motivational interviewing and intimate partner violence: a randomized trial. Ann. Epidemiol. 24, 144150.
Saunders, E. F. H., and Silk, K. R. (2009). Personality trait dimensions and the pharmacological treatment of borderline personality disorder. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 29, 461467.
Seekles, W., Van Straten, A., Beekman, A., van Marwijk, H., and Cuijpers, P. (2011). Effectiveness of guided self-help for depression and anxiety disorders in primary care: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Psychiatry Res. 187, 113120.
Silk, K. R. (2015). Management and effectiveness of psychopharmacology in emotionally unstable and borderline personality disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry 76, e524e525.
Sinha, B. K. and Watson, D. C. (2001). Personality disorder in university students: a multitrait-multimethod matrix study. J. Personal. Disord. 15, 235244.
Skodol, A. E., Bender, D. S., Oldham, J. M., et al. (2011b). Proposed changes in personality and personality disorder assessment and diagnosis for DSM-5 Part II: Clinical application. Personal. Disord. 2, 2340.
Skodol, A. E., Clark, L. A., Bender, D. S., et al. (2011a). Proposed changes in personality and personality disorder assessment and diagnosis for DSM-5 Part I: Description and rationale. Personal. Disord. 2, 422.
Skodol, A. E., Morey, L. C., Bender, D. S., and Oldham, J. M. (2015). The alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorders: a clinical application. Am. J. Psychiatry 172, 606613.
Sneed, J. R., Balestri, M., and Belfi, B. J. (2003). The use of dialectical behavior therapy strategies in the psychiatric emergency room. Psychother. Theory Res. Pract. Train. 40, 265277.
Soomro, G. M., and Kakhi, S. (2015). Deliberate self-harm (and attempted suicide). BMJ Clin. Evid. Available from: 2015 May. Accessed March 4, 2016.
Tadić, A., Wagner, S., Hoch, J., et al. (2009). Gender differences in axis I and axis II comorbidity in patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychopathology 42, 257263.
Trull, T. J., Jahng, S., Tomko, R. L., Wood, P. K., and Sher, K. J. (2010). Revised NESARC personality disorder diagnoses: gender, prevalence, and comorbidity with substance dependence disorders. J. Personal. Disord. 24, 412426.
Waterhouse, J., and Platt, S. (1990). General hospital admission in the management of parasuicide. A randomised controlled trial. Br. J. Psychiatry J. Ment. Sci. 156, 236242.
Wilson, M. P., Pepper, D., Currier, G. W., Holloman, G. H., and Feifel, D. (2012). The psychopharmacology of agitation: consensus statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project Beta Psychopharmacology Workgroup. West. J. Emerg. Med. 13, 2634.
Yu, R., Geddes, J. R., and Fazel, S. (2012). Personality disorders, violence, and antisocial behavior: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. J. Personal. Disord. 26, 775792.