ACTFL. 1986. ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines. Yonkers, NY: American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Inc
ACTFL. 1999. Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century. Lawrence, KS: Allen Press
Akishina, Alla, and Olga Kagan. 1997. Uchimsya uchit' (“We Learn to Teach”). Moscow: RAN
Aliev, Nizami N., and Betty Lou Leaver. 1994. A New Age in Two Lands: The Individual and Individualism in Foreign Language Instruction. Salinas, CA: The AGSI Press
Allott, Robin M. 1989. The Motor Theory of Language Origin. Sussex: Book Guild
Angelelli, Claudia. 1996. “The Education of Translation/Interpretation Trainers: A Pedagogical Dilemma.” Paper presented at the 37th Annual Conference of the American Translators Association in Colorado Springs, CO
Angelelli, Claudia 2000. “Interpretation Pedagogy: A Bridge Long Overdue.” ATA (American Translator Association) Chronicle: 40–47
Aoki, Nacko. 1999. “Affect and the Role of the Teacher in the Development of Learner Autonomy.” In Affect in Language Learning, ed. Jane Arnold. New York: Cambridge University Press, 142–154
Appel, René, and Pieter Muysken. 1987. Language Contact and Bilingualism. London: Edward Arnold
1987. “Six Writers in Search of Texts: A Protocol-Based Study of L1 and L2 Writing.” ELT Journal 41(4): 257–267.
1998. “Working Memory and Distributed Vocabulary Learning.” Applied Psycholinguistics 19(4): 537–552, and .
Bachman, Lyle F. 1990. Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Badawi, Elsaid. 1985. “Educated Spoken Arabic: A Problem in Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language.” In Scientific and Humanistic Dimensions of Language: Festschrift for Robert Lado on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday on May 31, 1985, ed. K. Jankowsky. Philadelphia: J. Benjamin, 15–22
Bailey, Kathleen M. 1983. “Competitiveness and Anxiety in Adult Second Language Learning: Looking at and through the Diary Studies.” In Classroom-Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition, ed. H. W. Seliger and Michael H. Long. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 67–103
Bakhtin, Mikhail M. 1986a. “The Problem of Speech Genres.” In Speech Genres and Other Late Essays, ed. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin: University of Texas Press, 60–102
Bakhtin, Mikhail M. 1986b. “The Problem of the Text in Linguistics, Philology, and the Human Sciences: An Experiment in Philosophical Analysis.” In Speech Genres and Other Late Essays, ed. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin: University of Texas Press, 103–131
Bazerman, Charles. 1988. Shaping Written Knowledge. The Genre and Activity of the Experimental Article in Science. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press
Becker, Alton L. 1995. Beyond Translation: Essays toward a Modern Philology. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
Beebe, Leslie M. 1988. Issues in Second Language Acquisition: Multiple Perspectives. New York: Newbury House
Belcher, Diane, and Ulla Connor. 2001. Reflections on Multiliterate Lives. Buffalo: Multilingual Matters
Benson, Phil, and Peter Voller, eds. 1997. Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning. Harlow: Longman
Berkenkotter, Carol, and Thomas N. Huckin. 1995. Genre Knowledge in Disciplinary Communication. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Bermel, Neil, and Olga Kagan. 2000. “The Maintenance of Written Russian in Heritage Speakers.” In The Learning and Teaching of Slavic Languages and Cultures, ed. Olga Kagan and Benjamin Rifkin. Bloomington, IN: Slavica Publishers, 405–436
1995. “Interpreting Relationships between L1 and L2 Reading: Consolidating Linguistic Threshold and the Linguistic Interdependence Hypotheses.” Applied Linguistics 16(1): 15–34, and .
1981. “The role of Linguistic Knowledge in Second Language use.” Studies in Second Language Learning 4(1): 31–45.
Bialystok, Ellen, and Kenji Hakuta. 1994. In Other Words: The Science and Psychology of Second-Language Acquisition. New York: Basic Books
1992. “Ultimate Attainment in Second Language Acquisition.” Language 68(4): 707–755.
Birdsong, David. ed. 1999. Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Bloom, Benjamin S. 1956. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: McKay
Bloom, Benjamin S. 1968. Learning for Mastery. Los Angeles, CA: University of California, UCLA-CSEIP Evaluation Comment
Bloomfield, Leonard. 1933. Language. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston
Bogdan, Robert, and S. K. Biklen. 1992. Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Boyd, Rossana R. 2000. “Attitudes of Teachers of Spanish as a Foreign Language Toward Teaching Spanish to Hispanic Students.” Ph.D. dissertation. Baton Rouge: LA State University
Brecht, Richard D., Dan E. Davidson, and Ralph B. Ginsberg. 1993. Predictors of Foreign Language Gain During Study Abroad. Washington, DC: National Foreign Language Center
Brecht, R. D., and V. M. Frank. 2000. Impact of In-country Study on Language Ability: National Security Education Program Undergraduate Scholarship and Graduate Fellowship Recipients. Washington, DC: The National Foreign Language Center
Brecht, Richard D., and Catherine W. Ingold. 1998. “Tapping a National Resource: Heritage Learners in the United States.” In ERIC Digest. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics
2000. “Literacy, Numeracy, and Linguacy: Language and Culture and General Education.” Liberal Education 86(4): 30–39, and
Brecht, Richard D., and William P. Rivers. 2000. Language and National Security in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: Kendall Hunt and National Foreign Language Center
Brecht, Richard D., and A. Ronald Walton. 1993. National Strategic Planning in the Less Commonly Taught Languages. NFLC Occasional Papers. Washington, DC: National Foreign Language Center
Brecht, Richard D., and A. Ronald Walton. 1994. “The Future Shape of Language Learning in the New World of Global Communication: Consequences for Higher Education and Beyond.” In Foreign Language Learning: The Journey of a Lifetime, ed. Richard Donato and Robert M. Terry. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company
2000. “ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines – Speaking. Revised 1999.” Foreign Language Annals 33(1): 13–18, , , and .
2000. “Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 1998.” ADFL Bulletin 31(2): 87–93, and .
Brown, H. Douglas. 1994. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents
Bygate, Martin, Peter Skehan, and Merrill Swain. 2001. Researching Pedagogic Tastes: Second Language Learning, Teaching and Testing. London: Longman
1996. “The Future of German in American Education.” Die Unterrichtspraxis 29(2): 251–259.
Byrnes, Heidi 1998. “Constructing Curricula in Collegiate Foreign Language Departments.” In Learning Foreign and Second Languages: Perspectives in Research and Scholarship, ed. Heidi Byrnes. New York: MLA, 262–295
Byrnes, Heidi 1999. “Meaning and Form in Classroom-Based SLA Research: Reflections from a College Foreign Language Perspective.” In Meaning and Form: Multiple Perspectives, ed. James F. Lee and Albert Valdman. Boston: Heinle and Heinle, 125–179
Byrnes, Heidi 2000a. “Languages across the Curriculum – Intradepartmental Curriculum Construction: Issues and Options.” In Languages across the Curriculum: Interdisciplinary Structures and Internationalized Education, ed. Maria-Regina Kecht and Katharina von Hammerstein. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Press, 151–176
2000b. “Of Standards, Articulation, and Curriculum: Finding a New Narrative.” ACTR Letter 26(4): 1, 3–5, 23–24
Byrnes, Heidi 2001a. “The Dialogism of Meaning, the Discursive Embeddedness of Knowledge, the Colloquy of Being.” In Hermeneutical Philosophy of Science, van Gogh's Eyes, and God: Essays in Honor of Patrick A. Heelan, S. J., ed. Babich E. Babette. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 409–420
2001b. “Reconsidering Graduate Students' Education as Teachers: It Takes a Department!” Modern Language Journal 85(4): 512–530
Byrnes, Heidi, Cori Crane, and Katherine A. Sprang. 2002, in press. “Nonnative Teachers Teaching at the Advanced Level: Challenges and Opportunities.” ADFL Bulletin
Byrnes, Heidi, and Susanne Kord. 2001. “Developing Literacy and Literary Competence: Challenges for Foreign Language Departments.” In SLA and the Literature Classroom: Fostering Dialogues, ed. Virginia M. Scott and Holly Tucker. Boston: Heinle and Heinle, 31–69
Calvin, William H., and George A. Ojemann. 1994. Conversations with Neil's Brain. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
1998. “Heritage Students: A Valuable Language Resource.” ERIC Review 6(1): 31–35, and .
1980. “Theoretical Bases of Communicative Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing.” Applied Linguistics 1(1): 8–24, and .
Carroll, Mary. 1997. “Changing Place in English and German: Language-Specific Preferences in the Conceptualization of Spatial Relations.” In Language and Conceptualization, ed. Jan Nuyts and Eric Pederson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Carroll, Mary. 2000. “Representing Path in Language Production in English and German: Alternative Perspectives on Figure and Ground.” In Räumliche Konzepte und sprachliche Strukturen, ed. Christopher Habel and Christiane von Stutterheim. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 97–118
Caudery, Tim. 1995a. “Multiple Drafting and Second Language Writing Skills.” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Aarhus, Denmark
Caudery, Tim. 1995b. “What the ‘Process Approach’ Means to Practicing Teachers of Second Language Writing Skills.” TESL-EJ 1(4): A3. http://www.jyotosu.ac.jp/information/tesl-ej/ej04/a3.html
1995. “Communicative Competence: A Pedagogically Motivated Model with Content Specifications.” Issues in Applied Linguistics 6(2): 5–35, , and .
Chafe, Wallace L. 1998. “Language and the Flow of Thought.” In The New Psychology of Language: Cognitive and Functional Approaches to Language Structure, ed. Michael Tomasello. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 93–111
Chamot, Anna Uhl, and J. Michael O'Malley. 1994. The CALLA Handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach. New York: Addison Wesley
Chaput, Patricia. 2000. “Fifteen Common Errors in Language Teaching; Assumptions and Strategies.” In Twelve Years of Dialogue on Teaching Russian: From the Front Pages of the ACTR Letter 1988–1999, ed. Betty Lou Leaver. Washington, DC: ACTR/ACCELS Publishing, 283–299
1990. “Feedback in the Writing Process: A Model and Methods for Implementation.” ELT Journal 44(4): 286–293.
Child, James R. 1987. “Language Proficiency Levels and the Typology of Texts.” In Defining and Developing Proficiency: Guidelines, Implementations and Concepts, ed. Heidi Byrnes and Michael Canale. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company, 97–106
Child, James R. 1990. “Language Skills and Textual Norms across Languages.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese, Miami, FL
1998. “Language Skill Levels, Textual Modes, and the Rating Process.” Foreign Language Annals 31(3): 382–391
1993. “Proficiency and Performance in Language Testing.” Applied Language Learning 4(1&2): 19–54, , and .
Christie, Frances. 1989. “Language Development in Education.” In Language Development: Learning Language, Learning Culture, ed. Ruqaiya Hasan and James R. Martin. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 152–198
1999. “Genre Theory and ESL Teaching: A Systemic Functional Perspective.” TESOL Quarterly 33(4): 759–763
Clines, Frances S. 2001. “An Archipelago Called Russia.” New York Times, April 8, Travel Section, 10, 18
Cohen, Andrew D. 1998. Strategies in Learning and Using a Second Language. New York: Longman
Collins, Allan, John S. Brown, and Susan E. Newman. 1989. “Cognitive Apprenticeship: Teaching the Craft of Reading, Writing, and Mathematics.” In Knowing, Learning, and Instruction: Essays in Honor of Robert Glaser, ed. Lauren B. Resnick. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 453–494
1992. “Evidence for Multicompetence.” Language Learning 42(4): 557–591.
1999. “Going Beyond the Native Speaker in Language Teaching.” TESOL Quarterly 33(2): 185–209
Cope, Bill, and Mary Kalantzis, eds. 1993. The Powers of Literacy. London and Washington: The Falmer Press
1987. “Competence Differences between Native and Near-Native Speakers.” Language 63(3): 544–573.
Corin, Andrew. 1997. “A Course to Convert Czech Proficiency to Proficiency in Croatian and Serbian.” In Content-Based Instruction: Models and Methods, ed. Stephen B. Stryker and Betty Lou Leaver. Washington, DC.: Georgetown University Press, 78–104
Council of Europe Modern Languages Division. 2001. Modern Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. A Common European Framework of Reference. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Cowie, Anthony Paul, ed. 1998. Phraseology: Theory, Analysis, and Application. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Crookes, Graham. 1986. Task Classification: A Cross-Disciplinary Review. Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa, Social Science Research Institute, Center for Second Language Classroom Research (Technical Report No. 4)
Crookes, Graham, and Susan M. Gass, eds. 1993. Tasks and Language Learning: Integrating Theory and Practice. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
1989. “Writing Expertise and Second-Language Proficiency.” Language Learning 39(1): 81–141.
Curran, Charles A. 1972. Counseling Learning. New York: Grune and Stratton
1990. “Neural Regionalization of Knowledge Access: Preliminary Evidence.” Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 55: 1039–1047, , , and .
1984. “The Neural Basis of Language.” Annual Review of Neuroscience 7(14): 127–147, and .
Dansereau, Donald. 1988. “Cooperative Learning Strategies.” In Learning and Study Strategies: Issues in Assessment, Instruction, and Evaluation, ed. Claire E. Weinstein, Ernest T. Goetz, and Patricia A. Alexander. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 103–120
Deci, Edward L. 1992. “The Relation of Interest to the Motivation of Behaviour: A Self-determination Theory Perspective.” In The Role of Interest in Learning and Development, ed. K. Ann Renninger, Suzanne Hidi, and Andreas Krapp. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 43–70
Deci, Edward L., and R. M. Ryan. 1985. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum
1997. “Beyond Explicit Rule Learning: Automatizing Second Language Morphosyntax.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition 19(2): 195–222
DeKeyser, Robert M. 1998. “Beyond Focus on Form: Cognitive Perspectives on Learning and Practicing Second Language.” In Focus on Form in Classroom Second Language Acquisition, ed. Catherine Doughty and Jessica Williams. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 42–63
1994. “Back to Basics: Let's Not Lose Sight of What's Really Important.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 19(2): 40–41
Dewey, John. 1938. Experience and Education. New York: Collier Books
Dickinson, Leslie, and Anita Wenden, eds. 1995. “Autonomy, Self-direction and Self-access in Language Teaching and Learning.” Special issue of System, 23(2)
Doughty, Catherine. 1998. “Acquiring Competence in a Second Language: Form and Function.” In Learning Foreign and Second Languages: Perspectives in Research and Scholarship, ed. Heidi Byrnes. New York: MLA, 128–156
Doughty, Catherine, and Jessica Williams. 1998. “Pedagogical Choices in Focus on Form.” In Focus on Form in Classroom Second Language Acquisition, ed. C. Doughty and Jessica Williams. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 197–261
Draper, J., and J. Hicks. 2000. “Teaching Heritage Learners: The Road Traveled.” In Teaching Heritage Language Learners: Voices from the Classroom, ed. John B. Webb and Barbara L. Miller. Yonkers, NY: American Council on Teaching Foreign Languages, 303–306
1992. “Content-Based Instruction: Keeping DLI at the Cutting Edge.” Globe 5: 4–5.
Ehrman, Madeline E. 1996. Understanding Second Language Learning Difficulties. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
1998. “The Learning Alliance: Conscious and Unconscious Aspects of the Second Language Teacher's Role.” System 26(1): 93–106
2000. “Affect, Cognition, and Learner Self-Regulation in Second Language Learning.” In The Learning and Teaching of Slavic Languages, ed. Olga Kagan and Benjamin Rifkin. Bloomington, IN: Slavica Publishers, 109–134
Ehrman, Madeline, and Zoltán Dörnyei. 1998. Interpersonal Dynamics in Second Language Education: The Visible and Invisible Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Ehrman, Madeline, and Betty Lou Leaver. 1997. “The E&L.” Unpublished learning styles test
1989. “Tolerance of Ambiguity and Use of Second Language Strategies.” Foreign Language Annals 22: 437–446.
Esch, Edith. 1996. “Promoting Learner Autonomy: Criteria for the Selection of Appropriate Methods.” In Taking Control: Autonomy in Language Learning, ed. Richard Pemberton, S. L. Edward, Winnie W. F. Or, and Herbert D. Pierson. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 35–48
Eshkembeeva, Ludmila Vladimirovna. 1997. “Emotional Competence.” Paper presented at MAPRIAL (International Association of Teachers of Russian Language and Literature) International Congress, Moscow
1959. “Diglossia.” Word 15: 325–340.
Fillmore, Charles J. 1979. “On Fluency.” In Individual Differences in Language Ability and Language Behavior, ed. Charles J. Fillmore, D. Kempler, and W. S.-Y. Wang. New York: Academic Press, 85–101
Finlay, Ian. 1971. Translating. Edinburgh: The Edinburgh University Press
Fishman, Joshua A., ed. 1978. Advances in the Study of Societal Multilingualism. The Hague: Mouton
Fishman, Joshua A. 2002. “300-Plus Years of Heritage Language Education in the United States.” In Heritage Languages in America: Preserving a National Resource, ed. Joy K. Peyton, Donald A. Ranard, and Scott McGinnis. Washington, DC: Delta Systems and Center for Applied Linguistics
1999. “Beyond the Text: Towards Understanding the Teaching and Learning of Genres.” TESOL Quarterly 33(4): 764–767.
Freedman, Aviva, and Peter Medway, eds. 1994a. Genre and the New Rhetoric. London: Taylor and Francis
Freedman, Aviva, and Peter Medway 1994b. Learning and Teaching Genre. Westport, CT: Heinemann
Frith, James R. 1980. Measuring Spoken Language Proficiency. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press
Frodesen, Jan M., Christine Holten, Linda Jensen, and Lynn Repath-Martos. 1997. Insights 2. Ed. Donna M. Brinton. New York: Longman
Gadamer, Hans-Georg. 1976. “The Nature of Things and the Language of Things.” In Philosophical Hermeneutics, ed. David E. Linge. Berkeley: University of California Press, 69–81
Gardner, Robert, and Wallace E. Lambert. 1972. Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers
Gass, Susan M., and Larry Selinker. 1994. Second Language Acquisition: An Introductory Course. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
1986. “Orality and Literacy: From The Savage Mind to Ways with Words.” TESOL Quarterly 20(4): 719–746
Gee, James P. 1990. Social Linguistics and Literacies: Ideology in Discourses. London: The Falmer Press
Gee, James P. 1998. “What is Literacy?” In Negotiating Academic Literacies: Teaching and Learning across Languages and Cultures, ed. Vivian Zamel and Ruth Spack. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 51–59
Gee, Smiljka. 1997. “Teaching Writing: A Genre-Based Approach.” In Writing in the English Language Classroom, ed. G. Fulcher. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall Europe ELT, 24–40
Gerver, D. 1976. “Empirical Studies of Simultaneous Interpretation.” In Empirical Studies of Simultaneous Interpretation, ed. R. W. Brislin. New York: Gardener Press, 165–207
Gile, Daniel. 1995. Basic Concepts and Models for Interpreter and Translator Training. Amsterdam: John Benjamins
Givón, Talmy. 1993. English Grammar: A Function-Based Introduction. 2 vols. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins
Glaser, B. G., and A. Strauss. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago: Aldine
Gläser, R. 1998. “The Stylistic Potential of Phraseological Units in the Light of Genre Analysis.” In Phraseology: Theory, Analysis, and Application, ed. Anthony Paul Cowie. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 125–143
2000. “Serving the Heritage Speaker across a Five-year Program.” ADFL Bulletin 32(1): 27–35, and .
Goodison, Ronald A. C. 1987. “Language Training and Language Use – The Uncertain Connection.” Unpublished manuscript
Grabe, William, and Robert B. Kaplan. 1996. Theory and Practice of Writing. London and New York: Longman
Grosjean, Françoise. 1982. Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press
Halliday, M. A. K. 1985. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold
1993. “Towards a Language-Based Theory of Learning.” Linguistics and Education 5(2): 93–166
Halliday, M. A. K. 2000. “Grammar and Daily Life. Concurrence and Complementarity.” In Functional Approaches to Language, Culture and Cognition. Papers in Honor of Sydney M. Lamb, ed. David G. Lockwood, Peter H. Fries, and James E. Copeland. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 221–237
Halliday, M. A. K., and James R. Martin. 1993. Writing Science: Literary and Discursive Power. London and Washington: Falmer Press
Hancock, Charles, and Edward Scebold. 2000. “Defining Moments in Foreign- and Second-Language Education during the Last Half of the Twentieth Century.” In Reflecting on the Past to Shape the Future, ed. Diane Birckbichler and Robert Terry. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company, 1–18
Hasan, Ruqaiya. 1995. “The Conception of Context in Text.” In Discourse in Society: Systemic Functional Perspectives: Meaning and Choice in Language: Studies for Michael Halliday, ed. Peter H. Fries and Michael Gregory. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 183–283
1999. “The Disempowerment Game: Bourdieu and Language in Literacy.” Linguistics and Education 10(1): 25–87
Hayward, Fred M. 2000. Internationalization of US Higher Education: Preliminary Status Report 2000. Washington DC: American Council on Education
Head, Henry, Sir. 1920. Studies in Neurology. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Hedge, Tricia. 2000. Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Oxford: Oxford University Press
1998. “The Scope of Hermeneutics in Natural Science.” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 29A(2): 273–298
1998. “Hermeneutical Philosophy and Pragmatism: A Philosophy of Science.” Synthese 115: 269–302, and .
Higgs, Theodore V., and Ray Clifford. 1982. “The Push toward Communication.” In Curriculum, Competence, and the Foreign Language Teacher, ed. Theodore V. Higgs. Skokie, IL: National Textbook Company, 57–79
Hirsch, E. D. 1987. Cultural Literacy: What Every American Should Know. New York: Vintage Books
Holec, H. 1981. Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon. (First published , Strasbourg: Council of Europe.)
1986. “Process, Not Product: Less Than Meets the Eye.” TESOL Quarterly 20(1): 141–144.
1988. “The Beliefs about Language Learning of Beginning University Foreign Language Students.” Modern Language Journal 72: 283–294.
Horwitz, Elaine K., and Dolly J. Young. 1991. Language Anxiety: From Theory and Research to Classroom Implications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
1998a. “Phraseology and Second Language Proficiency.” Applied Linguistics 19(1): 24–44.
Howarth, Peter 1998b. “The Phraseology of Learners' Academic Writing.” In Phraseology: Theory, Analysis, and Application, ed. Anthony Paul Cowie. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 161–186
1995. “Cultural Aspects of Genre Knowledge.” AILA Review 12: 68–78.
Hymes, Dell H. 1971. On Communicative Competence. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press
1996. “Genre in Three Traditions: Implications for ESL.” TESOL Quarterly 30(4): 693–722.
James, Dorothy. 1989. “Re-shaping the ‘College-level’ Curriculum: Problems and Possibilities.” In Shaping the Future: Challenges and Opportunities, ed. Helen S. Lepke. Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference, 79–110
Jones, Janet, Sandra Gollin, Helen Drury, and Dorothy Economou. 1989. “Systemic-Functional Linguistics and Its Application to the TESOL Curriculum.” In Language Development: Learning Language, Learning Culture, ed. Ruqaiya Hasan and James R. Martin. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 257–328
Jordan, R. R. 1990. Academic Writing Course (New Edition). London and Glasgow: Collins ELT
Kagan, Olga, Tatiana Akishina, and Richard Robin. 2002. Russian for Russians. Bloomington, IN: Slavica Publishers
Kaplan, Marsha. 1997. “Very Advanced Language Learning: ‘Beyond-Three’ and Refresher Training.” Unpublished manuscript
Kern, Richard. 2000. Literacy and Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press
King, Larry, and Margarita Suñer. 1999. Gramática Española. Analisis i Practica. Boston: McGraw Hill
1988. “The Role of Knowledge in Discourse Comprehension: A Construction-Integration Model.” Psychological Review 92: 163–182.
Klee, Carol A., and Diane J. Tedick. 1997. “The Undergraduate Foreign Language Immersion Program in Spanish at the University of Minnesota.” In Content-Based Instruction: Models and Methods, ed. Stephen B. Stryker and Betty Lou Leaver. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 140–171
Knowles, Malcolm S. 1990. The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species. Fourth edn. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing
1999. “What is a Near-Native Speaker? Perspectives of Job Seekers and Search Committees in Spanish.” ADFL Bulletin 30(3): 54–62, and .
Kramsch, Claire. 1993. Context and Culture in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Kramsch, Claire. 1996. “Proficiency Plus: The Next Step.”ERIC Digest ED402789
1997. “The Privilege of the Nonnative Speaker.” PMLA 112(3): 359–369
Krashen, Stephen D. 1985. The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. London: Longman
Krashen, Stephen D., and Tracy Terrell. 1983. The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom. San Francisco: Alemany Press
1985. “The Five-Minute Lecture.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 20(2): 65–69.
Lado, Robert. 1964. Language Teaching: A Scientific Approach. New York: McGraw Hill
Langacker, Ronald. 1987. Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. Vol. 1: Theoretical Foundations. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Langacker, Ronald. 1988a. “An Overview of Cognitive Grammar.” In Topics in Cognitive Linguistics, ed. Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 3–48
Langacker, Ronald. 1988b. “A View of Linguistic Semantics.” In Topics in Cognitive Linguistics, ed. Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 49–90
2001. “Postlude to the Dialogue on Articulation and Curriculum: Should It Never End! Part II.” ACTR Letter 27(4): 1–3, 24–25
1986. “Hemisphericity of the Brain and Foreign Language Teaching.” Folia Slavica 8: 76–90.
Leaver, Betty Lou 1997. “Content-Based Instruction in a Basic Russian Program.” In Content-Based Instruction in Foreign Language Education: Models and Methods, ed. Stephen B. Stryker and Betty Lou Leaver. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 30–54
Leaver, Betty Lou 1998. Teaching the Whole Class. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt
Leaver, Betty Lou, and Paula M. Bilstein. 2000. “Content, Language, and Task in Content-Based Programs.” In Languages Across the Curriculum, ed. Maria-Regina Kecht and Katharina von Hammerstein. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 79–118
Leaver, Betty Lou, and Melina Champine. 1999. “Beginning a Journey: The Choice to Study a Foreign Language.” In Passport to the World: Learning to Communicate in a Foreign Language, ed. Betty Lou Leaver, Inna Dubinsky, and Melina Champine. San Diego, CA: LARC Press, San Diego State University, 1–15
1988. “On Hierarchies of Reading Skills and Text Types.” Modern Language Journal 72(2): 173–187, and .
Lekic, Maria. 1990. The Glasnost Press – Ogonjok 1990. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company
Lekic, Maria, Nadezhda Nitkina, and Tatiana Kirsh. 1994. Rovesniki/Peers. Washington, DC: ACTR/ACCELS Publications
Lewis, Michael. 1996. Implementing the Lexical Approach. Hove: Language Teaching Publications
Lipson, Alexander. 1968. A Russian Course. Cambridge, MA: Slavica Publishers
1988. “Toward an Instance Theory of Automaticization.” Psychological Review 95: 492–527.
Long, Michael. 1988. “Instructed Interlanguage Development.” In Issues in Second Language Acquisition: Multiple Perspectives, ed. Leslie M. Beebe. New York: Newbury House, 115–141
1998. “Focus on Form in Task-Based Language Teaching.” University of Hawai'i Working Papers in ESL 16(2): 35–49
1988. “The Semiotics of Culture and the Concept of a Text.” Soviet Psychology 26(3): 52–58.
1991. “Eyewitness Identification and the Selection of Distracters for Line Ups.” Law and Human Behavior 15: 43–57, and .
Madden, Thomas. 1989. “Advanced Chinese Language Study.” State Department cable sent to the Foreign Service Institute
Maly, Eugene. 1993. “Task-Based Instruction from the Teacher's Perspective.” Dialogue on Language Instruction 9: Heinle and Heinle, 107–121
Martin, James R. 1985. “Process and Text: Two Aspects of Human Semiosis.” In Systemic Perspectives on Discourse, ed. James D. Benson and William S. Greaves. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 237–274
Martin, James R. 1992. English Text: System and Structure. Philadelphia: John Benjamins
Martin, James R. 1999. “Mentoring Semogenesis: ‘Genre-Based’ Literacy Pedagogy.” In Pedagogy and the Shaping of Consciousness: Linguistic and Social Presses, ed. Frances Christie. London: Cassell, 123–155
McGinnis, Scott. 1996. “Teaching Chinese to the Chinese: The Development of an Assessment and Instructional Model.” In Patterns and Policies: The Changing Demographics of Foreign Language Instruction. AAUSC, ed. Judith E. Liskin-Gasparro. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle, 107–121
McLaughlin, Barry. 1987. Theories of Second Language Acquisition. London: Edward Arnold
McNamara, Tim F. 1996. Measuring Second Language Performance. London/New York: Longman
1984. “Genre as Social Action.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 70(2): 151–167
Miller, John P., and Wayne Seller. 1985. Curriculum: Perspectives and Practice. New York: Longman
Ministère de l'Education Nationale et de la Formation Professionelle. 1998. L'apprentissage précoce des langues … et après? Innovation et recherche pédagogiques. (“Early Language Learning … and Then? Pedagogical Innovation and Research.”) Luxembourg: Ministère de l'Education Nationale et de la Formation Professionelle
Mitrofanova, Olga Danilovna, ed. 1996. Porogovoj uroven': Russkij jazyk: Tom I: Povsednevnoe obshchenie. (“Threshold Level: Russian Language: Volume 1: Everyday Communication.”) Moscow: Sovet Evropy Press
Moore, Zena. 1994. “The Portfolio and Testing Culture.” In Teaching, Testing, and Assessment: Making the Connection. Northeast Conference Reports, ed. Charles Hancock. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Publishers, 163–182
Naiman, Neil. 1996. The Good Language Learner. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
National Foreign Language Center. 2001. LangNet Procedures Manual. Working document
Nattinger, James R., and Jeanette S. DeCarrico. 1992. Lexical Phrases and Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press
New London Group, The. 1996. “A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures.” Harvard Educational Review 66(1): 60–92
Nunan, David. 1988. The Learner-Centered Curriculum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Oxford, Rebecca L. 1990. Language Learning Strategies: What Every Foreign Language Teacher Should Know. New York: HarperCollins
Oxford, Rebecca L., and Betty Lou Leaver. 1996. “A Synthesis of Strategy Instruction for Language Learners.” In Language Learning Strategies Around the World: Cross-Cultural Perspectives, ed. Rebecca L. Oxford. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii East-West Press, 227–246
1976. “Styles and Strategies of Learning.” British Journal of Educational Psychology 46: 128–148
Pawley, A., and F. Syder. 1983. “Two Puzzles for Linguistic Theory: Nativelike Selection and Nativelike Fluency.” In Language and Communication, ed. Jack Richards and Richard Schmidt. London: Longman, 191–226
Pawley, A., and F. Syder. 2000. “The One-Clause-at-a-Time Hypothesis.” In Perspectives on Fluency, ed. Heidi Riggenbach. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 163–199
Pellegrino, Valerie. 1999. “Plunging In: Taking the Risk of Learning a New Language and Culture.” In Passport to the World: Learning to Communicate in a Foreign Language, ed. Betty Lou Leaver, Inna Dubinsky, and Melina Champine. San Diego, CA: LARC Press, San Diego State University, 111–129
Pemberton, Richard, S. L. Edward, Winnie F. F. Or, and Herbert D. Pierson, eds. 1996. Taking Control: Autonomy in Language Learning. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press
Piaget, Jean. 1967. Six Psychological Studies. New York: Random House, 111–130
Piaget, Jean, and Barbel Inhelder. 1973. Memory and Intelligence. New York: Basic Books
1985. “Psychological Constraints on the Teachability of Languages.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition 6(2): 186–214.
Polinsky, Maria. 2000. “A Composite Linguistic Profile of a Speaker of Russian in the US.” In The Learning and Teaching of Slavic Languages and Cultures, ed. Olga Kagan and Benjamin Rifkin. Bloomington, IN: Slavica Publishers, 437–466
Preisler, Bent. 1997. A Handbook of English Grammar on Functional Principles. Second edn. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press
Readings, Bill. 1996. The University in Ruins. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Reid, Helen. 2000. Survey of Heritage Languages Teaching at UCLA, Fall 1999. http://www.humnet.ucla.edu.flrc/
Reid, Joy. 1999. “Affect in the Classroom: Problems, Politics and Pragmatics.” In Affect in Language Learning, ed. Jane Arnold. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 297–306
Reiser, Morton F. 1991. Memory in Mind and Brain. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Riding, Richard, and Stephen Rayner. 1998. Cognitive Styles and Learning Strategies. London: David Fulton Publishers
Riggenbach, Heidi, ed. 2000. Perspectives on Fluency. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
1997. “Generalizability and Automaticity of Second Language Learning Under Implicit, Incidental, Enhanced, and Instructed Conditions.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition 19(2): 223–247.
2001. “Task Complexity, Task Difficulty and Task Production: Exploring Interactions in a Componential Framework.” Applied Linguistics 22(1): 27–57
Rogers, Carl. 1968. The Interpersonal Relationship in the Facilitation of Learning. Columbus, OH: Merrill
Rubin, Joan, and Irene Thompson. 1994. How To Be a More Successful Language Learner. Second edn. Boston: Heinle and Heinle
Schemo, Diana Jean. 2001. “Use of English as World Tongue is Booming, and So Is Concern: In Washington a Lack of Linguists to Take Key Security Jobs.” New York Times, April 16
Schleppegrell, Mary. 1987. The Older Language Learner. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics
Schmeck, Ronald R., ed. 1988. Learning Strategies and Learning Styles. New York: Plenum
Schneider, Alison. 2001. “A University Plans to Promote Languages by Killing Its Languages Department.” Chronicle of Higher Education. March 9, A14–15
2001. “Cultural Differences in Student and Teacher Perceptions Concerning the Role of Grammar Instruction and Corrective Feedback: USA-Colombia.” Modern Language Journal 85(2): 244–258.
1997. “Social Origins of Self-Regulatory Competence.” Educational Psychologist 32(4): 195–208, and .
Scovel, Thomas. 1991. “The Effect of Affect on Foreign Language Learning: A Review of the Anxiety Research.” In Language Anxiety: From Theory and Research to Classroom Implications, ed. Elaine K. Horwitz and Dolly J. Young. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 15–24
Segalowitz, Norman. 2000. “Automaticity and Attentional Skill in Fluent Performance.” In Perspectives on Fluency, ed. Heidi Riggenbach. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 200–219
Seliger, Herbert W. 1983. “Learner Interaction in the Classroom and its Effects on Language Acquisition.” In Classroom-oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition, ed. Herbert W. Seliger and Michael H. Long. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 246–267
Selinker, Larry. 1992. Rediscovering Interlanguage. London: Longman
Shaw, Peter. 1997. “With One Stone: Models of Instruction and their Curricular Implications in an Advanced Content-Based Foreign Language Program.” In Content-Based Instructions in Foreign Language Education: Models and Methods, ed. Stephen B. Stryker and Betty Lou Leaver. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 261–282
Shekhtman, Boris. 1990. How To Improve Your Foreign Language Immediately. Rockville, MD: Specialized Language Training Center
Shohamy, Elana. 1998. “Evaluation of Learning Outcomes in Second Language Acquisition: A Multiplism Perspective.” In Learning Foreign and Second Languages: Perspectives in Research and Scholarship, ed. Heidi Byrnes. New York: MLA, 238–261
Skehan, Peter. 1998. A Cognitive Approach to Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Slobin, Dan I. 1996a. “From ‘Thought and Language’ to ‘Thinking for Speaking.’” In Rethinking Linguistic Relativity, ed. John J. Gumperz and Stephen C. Levinson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 70–96
Slobin, Dan I. 1996b. “Two Ways To Travel: Verbs of Motion in English and Spanish.” In Grammatical Constructions: Their Form and Meaning, ed. Masayoshi Shibatani and Sandra A. Thompson. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 195–219
Slobin, Dan I. 1998. “Verbalized Events: A Dynamic Approach to Linguistic Relativity and Determinism.“Working paper for the LAUD Symposium, March 1998
2001. “Developing 3+/4 Reading and Translation Skills for Presidential Needs: A Summary.” ACTR Letter 28(1): 1–3.
Spolsky, Bernard, ed. 1978. Approaches to Language Testing. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics
Sprang, Katherine A. 2002. “Vocabulary Acquisition and Advanced Learners: The Role of Grammaticization and Concept Formation in the Acquisition of German Verbs with Inseparable Prefixes.” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, DC
1997. “A Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance.” American Psychologist 52: 613–629.
Stevick, Earl W. 1980. Teaching Languages: A Way and Ways. New York: Newbury House
Stevick, Earl W. 1996. Memory, Meaning, and Method. Boston: Heinle and Heinle
Stryker, Stephen B. 1997. “The Mexico Experiment at the Foreign Service Institute.” In Content-Based Instruction: Models and Methods, ed. Stephen B. Stryker and Betty Lou Leaver. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 174–199
Stryker, Stephen B., and Betty Lou Leaver. 1997a. “Content-Based Instruction: From Theory to Practice.” In Content-Based Instruction: Models and Methods, ed. Stephen B. Stryker and Betty Lou Leaver. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2–27
Stryker, Stephen B. 1997b. “Content-Based Instruction: Some Lessons and Implications.” In Content-Based Instruction: Models and Methods, ed. Stephen B. Stryker and Betty Lou Leaver. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 282–309
Swaffar, Janet K. 1991. “Articulating Learning in High School and College Programs: Holistic Theory in the Foreign Language Curriculum.” In Challenges in the 1990s for College Foreign Language Programs, ed. Sally Sieloff Magnan. Boston: Heinle and Heinle, 27–54
Swales, John. 1990. Genre Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Talmy, Leonard. 1991. “Path to Realization: A Typology of Event Conflation.” Paper read at Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society
Taylor, Charles. 1991. “The Dialogical Self.” In The Interpretive Turn, ed. David R. Hiley, James F. Bohman, and Richard Shusterman. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 303–314
Taylor, Steven J., and Robert Bogdan. 1984. Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods: The Search for Meanings. New York: John Wiley and Sons
Teliya, V., Natalya Bragina, E. Oparina, and I. Sandomirskaya. 1998. “Phraseology as a Language of Culture: Its Role in the Representation of a Cultural Mentality.” In Phraseology: Theory, Analysis, and Application, ed. Anthony Paul Cowie. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 55–75
1986. “Acquisition in the Natural Approach: The Binding/Access Framework.” Modern Language Journal 70(3): 63–76.
Thompson, Irene. 2000. “Assessing Foreign Language Skills: Data from Russian.” In The Learning and Teaching of Slavic Languages and Cultures, ed. Olga Kagan and Benjamin Rifkin. Bloomington, IN: Slavica Publishers, 255–284
1993. “Systematic and Nonsystematic Variability in Advanced Language Learning.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition 15: 439–460, , and .
Tribble, Chris. 1996. Writing. Oxford: Oxford University Press
1999. “Multidimensional Project-based Teaching in French as a Second Language (FSL): A Process–Product Case Study.” Modern Language Journal 83(4): 548–568.
University of California at Los Angeles. Fall. 2000. Heritage Language Research Priorities Conference Report. http://www.cal.org/heritage/
Ushioda, Ema. 1996. Learner Autonomy 5: The Role of Motivation. Dublin: Authentik
Valdés, Guadalupe. 1988. “The Language Situation of Mexican Americans.” In Language Diversity: Problem or Resource?, ed. S. McKay and S. Wong. New York: Newbury House, 111–139
1989. “Teaching Spanish to Hispanic Bilinguals: A Look at Oral Proficiency Testing and the Proficiency Movement.” Hispania 72(May): 392–401
Valdés, Guadalupe 1992. “The Role of the Language Teaching Profession in Maintaining Non-English Languages in the United States.” In Languages for a Multicultural World in Transition (1992 Northeast Conference Report), ed. Heidi Byrnes. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company, 29–71
1999. “Nonnative English Speakers: Language Bigotry in English Mainstream Classrooms.” ADFL Bulletin 31(1): 43–48
Valdés, Guadalupe 2000. “The Teaching of Heritage Language: An Introduction for Slavic-Teaching Professionals.” In The Learning and Teaching of Slavic Languages and Cultures, ed. Olga Kagan and Benjamin Rifkin. Bloomington, IN: Slavica Publishers, 375–404
Valdés, Guadalupe, and Richard Figueroa. 1994. Bilingualism and Testing: A Special Case of Bias. New York: Ablex
1998. “Chicano Spanish: The Problem of the ‘Underdeveloped’ Code in Bilingual Repertoires.” Modern Language Journal 82(4): 473–501, and .
Valdés, Guadalupe, Thomasina Hannum, and Richard V. Teschner. 1982. Cómo se escribe: curso de secundaria para estudiantes bilingües. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
Valdés, Guadalupe, and Richard V. Teschner. 1999. Español escrito. Upper Saddle Back, NJ: Prentice Hall
VanPatten, Bill. 1998. “Cognitive Characteristics of Adult Second Language Learners.” In Learning Foreign and Second Languages, ed. Heidi Byrnes. New York: MLA, 105–127
Veltman, C. 2000. “The American Linguist Mosaic: Understanding Language Shift in the United States.” In New Immigrants in the United States, ed. S. L. McKay and S. I. Wong. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 58–93
1976. “Rule Fossilization: A Tentative Model.” Language Learning 26: 281–295, and .
2000. “Writing in the Secondary Foreign Language Classroom: The Effects of Prompts and Tasks on Novice Learners of French.” Modern Language Journal 84(2): 171–184, , and .
1995. “The Role of Formulaic Language in Second Language Acquisition: A Review.” Applied Linguistics 16(2): 181–205.
Weinstein, Claire E., Ernest T. Goetz, and Patricia A. Alexander, eds. 1988. Learning and Study Strategies: Issues in Assessment, Instruction and Evaluation. New York: Academic Press
Wenden, Anita. 1991. Learner Strategies for Learner Autonomy: Planning and Implementing Learner Training for Language Learners. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Wenden, Anita, and Joan Rubin. 1987. Learner Strategies in Language Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Wertsch, James V. 1990. “Dialogue and Dialogism in a Socio-Cultural Approach to Mind.” In The Dynamics of Dialogue, ed. Ivana Markovà and Klaus Foppa. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 62–82
1995. “Inherent Details in Self-Regulated Learning.” Educational Psychologist 20(4): 173–187.
Wirt, John. 2001. The Condition of Education 2001. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, US Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement (NCES 2001–72)
Yokoyama, Olga. 2000. “Teaching Heritage Speakers in the College Russian Language Classroom.” In The Learning and Teaching of Slavic Languages and Cultures, ed. Olga Kagan and Benjamin Rifkin. Bloomington, IN: Slavica Publishers, 467–475
Young, Richard, and Agnes W. He, eds. 1998. Talking and Testing. Discourse Approaches to the Assessment of Oral Proficiency. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins
2001. “Umiraet li jazyk russkogo zarubezh'ja?” (“Is the Russian Language Dying Out in Russian Communities Abroad?”) Voprosy Jazykoznanija 1: 14–30
Zifonun, Gisela, Ludger Hoffman, Bruno Strecker, et al. 1997. Grammatik der deutschen Sprache. 3 vols. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter