Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: April 2011

Chapter 3 - Epidemiology of pediatric multiple sclerosis: incidence, prevalence, and susceptibility risk factors

from Section 1 - Pediatric MS Diagnosis

References

1. CompstonA, ColesA. Multiple sclerosis. Lancet 2002;359:1221–1231.
2. CompstonA, McDonaldI, NoseworthyJ, et al. McAlpine's Multiple Sclerosis. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2006.
3. ConfraveauxC, VukusicS. The clinical epidemiology of multiple sclerosis. Neuroimag Clin N Am 2008;18:589–622.
4. TardieuM, MikaeloffY. Multiple sclerosis in children. Int MS J 2004;11:36–42.
5. BanwellB, GhezziA, Bar-OrA, MikaeloffY, TardieuM. Multiple sclerosis in children: Clinical diagnosis, therapeutic strategies, and future directions. Lancet Neurol 2007;6:887–902.
6. HanefeldF. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: A short history of a long story. Neurology 2007;68(16 Suppl 2):S3–6.
7. NessJM, ChabasD, SadovnickAD, PohlD, BanwellB, Weinstock-GutmanBfor International Pediatric MS Study Group. Clinical features of children and adolescents with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2007;68(16 Suppl 2):S37–45.
8. ChabasD, StroberJ, WaubantE. Pediatric multiple sclerosis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2008;8:434–441.
9. YehEA, ChitnisT, KruppL, et al. Pediatric multiple sclerosis. Nat Rev Neurol 2009;5:621–631.
10. NatowiczMR, BejjaniB. Genetic disorders that masquerade as multiple sclerosis. Am J Med Genet 1994;49:149–169.
11. van der KnaapMS, ValkJ. Magnetic Resonance of Myelination and Myelin Disorders. 3rd ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2005.
12. HahnJS, PohlD, RenselM, RaoS, International Pediatric MS Study Group. Differential diagnosis and evaluation in pediatric multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2007;68(16 Suppl 2):S13–22.
13. KruppLB, BanwellB, TenembaumS, International Pediatric MS Study Group. Consensus definitions proposed for pediatric multiple sclerosis and related disorders. Neurology 2007;68(16 Suppl 2):S7–12.
14. ChabasD, NessJ, BelmanA, et al. Younger children with MS have a distinct CSF inflammatory profile at disease onset. Neurology 2010;74:399–405.
15. BanwellB, ShroffM, NessJM, et al. MRI features of pediatric multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2007;68(16 Suppl 2):S46–53.
16. CallenDJ, ShroffMM, BransonHM, et al. MRI in the diagnosis of pediatric multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2009;72:961–967.
17. CallenDJ, ShroffMM, BransonHM, et al. Role of MRI in the differentiation of ADEM from MS in children. Neurology 2009;72:968–973.
18. WaubantE, ChabasD. Pediatric multiple sclerosis. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2009;11:203–210.
19. RuggieriM, PolizziA, PavoneL, GrimaldiLM. Multiple sclerosis in children under 6 years of age. Neurology 1999;53:478–484.
20. RuggieriM, IannettiP, PolizziA, PavoneL, GrimaldiLME. Italian Society of Pediatric Neurology Study Group on Childhood Multiple Sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis in children under 10 years of age. Neurol Sci 2004;25(Suppl 4):S326–335.
21. MarrieRA, YuN, BlanchardJ, LeungS, ElliottL. The rising prevalence and changing age distribution of multiple sclerosis in Manitoba. Neurology 2010;74:465–471.
22. HillAB. The environment and disease: Association or causation?Proc R Soc Med 1965;58:295–300.
23. BentzenJ, FlachsEM, StenagerE, Brønnum-HansenH, Koch-HenriksenbN. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Denmark 1950–2005. Multiple Sclerosis 2010;Mar 9 [Epub ahead of print].
24. PugliattiM, SotgiuS, RosatiG. The worldwide prevalence of multiple sclerosis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2002;104:182–191.
25. Granieri, CasettaI, GovoniV, et al. The increasing incidence and prevalence of MS in a Sardinian province. Neurology 2000;55:842–848.
26. LowisGW. The social epidemiology of multiple sclerosis. Sci Total Environ 90:163–190.
27. BanwellB, KennedyJ, SadovnickD, et al. Incidence of acquired demyelination of the CNS in Canadian children. Neurology 2009;72:232–239.
28. TorisuH, KiraR, IshizakiY, et al. Clinical study of childhood acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, multiple sclerosis, and acute transverse myelitis in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Brain Dev 2009;Nov 24 [Epub ahead of print].
29. ChitnisT, GlanzB, JaffinS, HealyB. Demographics of pediatric onset multiple sclerosis in an MS center population from the Northeastern United States. Mult Scler 2009;15:627–631.
30. HaderWJ, YeeIM. Incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Neurology 2007;69:1224–1229.
31. PohlD, HennemuthI, von KriesR, HanefeldF. Pediatric multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in Germany: Results of a nationwide survey. Eur J Pediatr 2007;166:405–412.
32. BoikoA, VorobeychikG, PatyD, DevonshireV, SadovnickD, University of British Columbia MS Clinic Neurologists. Early onset multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study. Neurology 2002;159:1006–1010.
33. DuquetteP, MurrayTJ, PleinesJ, et al. Multiple sclerosis in childhood: clinical profile in 125 patients. J Pediatr 1987; 111:359–363.
34. FerreiraML, MachadoMI, DantasMJ, MoreiraAJ, SouzaAM. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: Analysis of clinical and epidemiological aspects according to National MS Society Consensus 2007. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2008;66:665–670.
35. GhezziA, DeplanoV, FaroniJ, et al. Multiple sclerosis in childhood: Clinical features of 149 cases. Mult Scler 1997;3:43–46.
36. GovenderR, WieselthalerNA, NdondoA, WilmshurstJM. Acquired demyelinating disorders of childhood in the Western Cape, South Africa. J Child Neurol 2010;25:48–56.
37. OzakbasS, IdimanE, BaklanB, YulugB. Childhood and juvenile onset multiple sclerosis: Clinical and paraclinical features. Brain Dev 2003;25:233–236.
38. SimoneIL, CarraraD, TortorellaC, et al. Course and prognosis in early-onset MS: Comparison with adult-onset forms. Neurology 2002;59:1922–1928.
39. SindernE, HaasJ, StarkE, WursterU. Early onset MS under the age of 16: Clinical and paraclinical features. Acta Neurol Scand 1992;86:280–284.
40. AmatoMP, GorettiB, GhezziA, et al. Cognitive and psychosocial features of childhood and juvenile MS. Neurology 2008;70:1891–1987.
41. GhassemiR, AntelSB, NarayananS, et al. Lesion distribution in children with clinically isolated syndromes. Ann Neurol 2008;63:401–405.
42. NeuteboomRF, KetelslegersIA, BoonM, Catsman-BerrevoetsCE, HintzenRQ, Dutch Study Group on ChildhoodMultiple Sclerosis and Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. Barkhof magnetic resonance imaging criteria predict early relapse in pediatric multiple sclerosis. Pediatr Neurol 2010;42:53–55.
43. StarkW, HuppkeP, GärtnerJ. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: The experience of the German Centre for Multiple Sclerosis in Childhood and Adolescence. J Neurol 2008;255 (Suppl 6):119–122.
44. BanwellB, KruppL, KennedyJ, et al. Clinical features and viral serologies in children with multiple sclerosis: A multinational observational study. Lancet Neurol 2007;6:773–781.
45. ISTAT. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica. Available at http://www.istat.it.
46. NicolettiA, Lo BartoloML, Lo FermoS, et al. Prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis in Catania, Sicily. Neurology 2001;56:62–66.
47. NicolettiA, PattiF, Lo FermoS, et al. Possible increasing risk of multiple sclerosis in Catania, Sicily. Neurology 2005;65:1259–1263.
48. AlonsoA, JickSS, OlekMJ, HernánMA. Incidence of multiple sclerosis in the United Kingdom. Findings from a population-based cohort. J Neurol 2004;254:1736–1741.
49. PolliackML, BarakY, AchironA. Late-onset multiple sclerosis. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;49:168–171.
50. OrtonSM, HerreraBM, YeeIM, et al. Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in Canada: A longitudinal study. Lancet Neurol 2006;5:932–936.
51. TintorèM, ArrambideG. Early onset multiple sclerosis: The role of gender. J Neurol Sci 2009;286:31–34.
52. KisB, RumbergB, BerlitP. Clinical characteristics of patients with late-onset multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 2008;255:697–702.
53. MartinelliV, RodegherM, MoiolaL, ComiG. Late onset multiple sclerosis: Clinical characteristics, prognostic factors and differential diagnosis. Neurol Sci 2004;25 (Suppl 4):S350–355.
54. HalilogluG, AnlarB, AysunS, et al. Gender prevalence in childhood multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis. J Child Neurol 2002;17:390–392.
55. GhezziA, PozzilliC, LiguoriM, et al. Prospective study of multiple sclerosis with early onset. Mult Scler 2002;8:115–118.
56. ColeGF, AuchterlonieLA, BestPV. Very early onset multiple sclerosis. Dev Med Child Neurol 1995;37:667–672.
57. GiroudM, SemamaD, PradeauxL, GouyonJB, DumasR, NivelonJL. Hemiballismus revealing multiple sclerosis in an infant. Childs Nerv Syst 1990;6:236–238.
58. MaedaY, KitamotoI, KurokawaT, UedaK, HasuoK, FujiokaK. Infantile multiple sclerosis with extensive white matter lesions. Pediatr Neurol 1989;5:317–319.
59. MáttyusA, VeresE. Multiple sclerosis in childhood: Long term katamnestic investigations. Acta Paediatr Hung 1985;26:193–204.
60. ShawCM, AlvordEC Jr. Multiple sclerosis beginning in infancy. J Child Neurol 1987;2:252–256.
61. EraksoyM, DemirGA, YapycyZ. Multiple sclerosis in childhood: A prospective study. Brain Dev 1988;20:427 [Abstract].
62. HanefeldF. Multiple sclerosis in childhood. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg 1992;5:359–363.
63. HanefeldF, BauerHJ, ChristenHJ, KruseB, BruhnH, FrahmJ. Multiple sclerosis in childhood: Report of 15 cases. Brain Dev 1991;13:410–416.
64. Pinhas-HamielO, BarakY, Siev-NerI, AchironA. Juvenile multiple sclerosis: Clinical features and prognostic characteristics. J Pediatr 1998;132:735–737.
65. DuquetteP, GirardM. Hormonal factors in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg 1993;6:195–201.
66. ShusterEA. Hormonal influences in multiple sclerosis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2008;318:267–311.
67. van den BroekHH, DamoiseauxJG, De BaetsMH, HuppertsRM. The influence of sex hormones on cytokines in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: A review. Mult Scler 2005;11:349–359.
68. CoccoE, SotgiuA, CostaG, et al. HLA-DR, DQ and APOE genotypes and gender influence in Sardinian primary progressive MS. Neurology 2005;64:564–566.
69. GalimbertiD, ScalabriniD, FenoglioC, et al. Gender-specific influence of the chromosome 16 chemokine gene cluster on the susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 2008;267:86–90.
70. Weinstock-GuttmanB, JacobsLD, BrownscheidleCM, et al. Multiple sclerosis characteristics in African American patients in the New York State Multiple Sclerosis Consortium. Mult Scler 2003,9:293–298.
71. BoutinB, EsquivelE, MayerM, ChaumetS, PonsotG, ArthuisM. Multiple sclerosis in children: Report of clinical and paraclinical features of 19 cases. Neuropediatrics 1987;19:118–123.
72. SelcenD, Banu AnlarB, RendaY. Multiple sclerosis in childhood: Report of 16 cases. Eur Neurol 1996;36:79–84.
73. MikaeloffY, CaridadeG, AssiS, SuissaS, TardieuM. Prognostic factors for early severity in a childhood multiple sclerosis cohort. Pediatrics 2006;118:1133–1139.
74. RenouxC, VukusicS, MikaeloffY, et al. Natural history of multiple sclerosis with childhood onset. N Engl J Med 2007;356:2603–2613.
75. LeakeJAD, AlbaniS, KaoAS, SenacMO, BillmanGF, NesepcaMP. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in childhood: Epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory features. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004;23:756–764.
76. PavoneP, Pettoello-MantovanoM, Le PiraA, et al. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. A long-term prospective study of 17 pediatric patients with systematic review of 750 cases and meta-analysis of 492/750 cases in the literature. Neuropediatrics 2010(in press).
77. MikaeloffY, SuissaS, ValléeL, et al. First episode of acute CNS inflammatory demyelination in childhood: Prognostic factors for multiple sclerosis and disability. J Pediatr 2004;144:246–252.
78. SadovnickAD, ArmstrongH, RiceGP, et al. A population-based study of multiple sclerosis in twins: Update. Ann Neurol 1993;33:281–285.
79. SadovnickAD. Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating disorders. In Emery and Rimoin's Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics. 4th ed, eds. D Rimoin, JM Condor, RE Pyeritz, BR Korf. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2002:3203–3208.
80. SadovnickAD. The genetics and genetic epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: The “hard facts”. Adv Neurol 2006;98:17–25.
81. DeryckO, KetelaerP, DuboisB. Clinical characteristics and long term prognosis in early onset multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 2006;253:720–723.
82. PohlD. Epidemiology, immunopathogenesis and management of pediatric central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating conditions. Curr Opin Neurol 2008;21:366–372.
83. al RajehS, BademosiO, IsmailH, et al. A community survey of neurological disorders in Saudi Arabia: The Thugbah study. Neuroepidemiology 1993;12:164–178.
84. CreeBA, KhanO, BourdetteD, et al. Clinical characteristics of African Americans vs Caucasian Americans with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2004;63:2039–2045.
85. KarniA, KahanaE, ZilberN, AbramskyO, AlterM, KarussisD. The frequency of multiple sclerosis in Jewish and Arab populations in greater Jerusalem. Neuroepidemiology 2003;22:82–86.
86. ShibasakiH, McDonaldWI, KuroiwaY. Racial modification of clinical picture of multiple sclerosis: Comparison between British and Japanese patients. J Neurol Sci 1981;49:253–271.
87. KurtzkeJF, BeebeGW, NormanJE Jr. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in U.S. veterans: 1. Race, sex, and geographic distribution. Neurology 1979;29:1228–1235.
88. KennedyJ, O'ConnorP, SadovnickAD, PeraraM, YeeI, BanwellB. Age at onset of multiple sclerosis may be influenced by place of residence during childhood rather than ancestry. Neuroepidemiology 2006;26:162–167.
89. BosterAL, EndressCF, HrehaSA, CaonC, PerumalJS, KhanOA. Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis in African-American black and European-origin white patients. Pediatr Neurol 2009;40:31–33.
90. KruppL, McLinskeyN, TroellR. Racial and ethnic findings in pediatric MS: an update. Neurology 2008;70(Supp1):A135 [Abstract].
91. KaufmanMD, JohnsonSK, MoyerD, BivensJ, NortonHJ. Multiple sclerosis: Severity and progression rate in African Americans compared with whites. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2003;82:582–590.
92. AlterM, LeibowitzU, SpeerJ. Risk of multiple sclerosis related to age at immigration to Israel. Arch Neurol 1966;15:234–237.
93. DeanG, KurtzkeJF. On the risk of multiple sclerosis according to age at immigration to South Africa. Br Med J 1971;3:725–729.
94. KurtzkeJF, BeebeGW, NormanJE Jr. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in US veterans: III. Migration and the risk of MS. Neurology 1985;35:672–678.
95. DeanG, ElianM. Age at immigration to England of Asian and Caribbean immigrants and the risk of developing multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;63:565–568.
96. CabreP, SignateA, OlindoS, et al. Role of return migration in the emergence of multiple sclerosis in the French West Indies. Brain 2005;128:2899–2910.
97. HammondSR, EnglishDR, McLeodJG. The age-range of risk of developing multiple sclerosis. Evidence from a migrant population in Australia. Brain 2000;123:968–974.
98. Rodríguez-ViolanteM, OrdoñezG, BermudezJR, SoteloJ, CoronaT. Association of a history of varicella virus infection with multiple sclerosis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2009;111:54–56.
99. HaahrS, Moller-LarsenA, PedersenE. Immunological parameters in multiple sclerosis patients with special reference to the herpes virus group. Clin Exp Immunol 1983;51:197–206.
100. SandersV, FelisanS, WaddellA, TourtellotteW. Detection of herpesviridae in postmortem multiple sclerosis brain tissue and controls by polimerase chain reaction. J Neurovirol 1996;2:249–258.
101. Alvarez-LafuenteR, Martin-EstefaniaC, De las HerasV, et al. Prevalence of herpes virus DNA in MS patients and healthy blood donors. Acta Neurol Scand 2002;105:95–99.
102. Al-ShammariS, NelsonR, VoevodinA. HHV-6 DNAemia in patients with multiple sclerosis in Kuwait. Acta Neurol Scand 2003;107:122–124.
103. Alvarez-La FuenteR, García-MontojoM, De la HerasV, BartolomeM, ArroyoR. Clinical parameters and HHV-6 active replication in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis patients. J Clin Virol 2006;37(Suppl 1):S24–26.
104. Alvarez-La FuenteR, De las HerasV, BartolomeM, García-MontojoM, ArroyoR. Human herpesvirus 6 and multiple sclerosis: A one-year follow-up study. Brain Pathol 2006;16:20–27.
105. RossR. The varicella zoster virus and multiple sclerosis. J Clin Epidemiol 1998;51:533–535.
106. RossR, NicolleL, DawoodMR, CheangM, FeschukC. Varicella zoster antibodies after herpes zoster, varicella and multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci 1997;24:137–139.
107. RossR, NicolleL, CheangM. The varicella zoster virus: A pilot trial of a potential therapeutic agent in multiple sclerosis. J Clin Epidemiol 1997;50:63–68.
108. RossRT, CheangM, LandryG, KlassenL, DoerksenK. Herpes zoster and multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci 1999;26:29–32.
109. HaahrS, PlesnerA, VestergaardB, HollsbergP. A role of late Epstein Barr virus infection in multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand 2004;109:270–275.
110. HöllsbergP, KuskM, BechE, HansenHJ, JakobsenJ, HaahrS. Presence of Epstein–Barr virus and Human herpesvirus 6B DNA in multiple sclerosis patients: Associations with disease activity. Acta Neurol Scand 2005;112:395–402.
111. HaahrS, HöllsbergP. Multiple sclerosis is linked to Epstein–Barr virus infection. Rev Med Virol 2006;16:297–310.
112. RossRT, NicolleLE, CheangM. Varicella zoster virus and multiple sclerosis in a Hutterite population. J Clin Epidemiol 1995;48:1319–1324.
113. Perez-CesariC, SanigerMM, SoteloJ. Frequent association of multiple sclerosis with varicella and zoster. Acta Neurol Scand 2005;112:417–419.
114. SoteloJ, OrdoñezG, PinedaB. Varicella-zoster virus at relapses of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 2007;254:493–500.
115. OrdoñezG, PinedaB, Garcia-NavarreteR, SoteloJ. Brief presence of varicella-zoster viral DNA in mononuclear cells during relapses of multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 2004;61:529–532.
116. TarratsR, OrdoñezG, RiosC, SoteloJ. Varicella, ephemeral breastfeeding and eczema as risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Mexicans. Acta Neurol Scand 2002;105:88–94.
117. MarrieRA, WolfsonC. Multiple sclerosis and varicella zoster virus infection: A review. Epidemiol Infect 2001;127:315–325.
118. LevinLI, MungerKL, RubertoneMV, et al. Multiple sclerosis and Epstein–Barr virus. JAMA 2003;289:1533–1536.
119. ThackerEL, MirzaeiF, AscherioA. Infectious mononucleosis and risk for multiple sclerosis: A meta-analysis. Ann Neurol 2006;59:499–503.
120. AlotaibiS, KennedyJ, TellierR, StephensD, BanwellB. Epstein–Barr virus in pediatric multiple sclerosis. JAMA 2004;291:1875–1879.
121. PohlD. Epstein–Barr virus and multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 2009;286:62–64.
122. BagertBA. Epstein–Barr virus in multiple sclerosis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2009,9:405–410.
123. AscherioA, MungerKL. Epstein–Barr virus infection and multiple sclerosis: A review. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2010;Apr 6 [Epub ahead of print].
124. JensonHB. Epstein–Barr virus. In: Nelson's Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. eds. RM Kliegman, RE Behrman, HB Jenson, BF Stanton. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier; 2008: 1372–1377.
125. LünemannJD, HuppkeP, RobertsS, BrückW, GärtnerJ, MünzC. Broadened and elevated humoral immune response to EBNA1 in pediatric multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2008;71:1033–1035.
126. JaquiéryE, JilekS, SchluepM, et al. Intrathecal immune responses to EBV in early MS. Eur J Immunol 2010;40:878–887.
127. PeferoenLA, LamersF, LodderLN, et al. Epstein Barr virus is not a characteristic feature in the central nervous system in established multiple sclerosis. Brain 2009;132:3318–3328.
128. FranciottaD, BestettiA, SalaS, et al. Broad screening for human herpesviridae DNA in multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Acta Neurol Belg 2009;109:277–282.
129. SargsyanSA, ShearerAJ, RitchieAM, et al. Absence of Epstein–Barr virus in the brain and CSF of patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2010;74:1127–1135.
130. RamagopalanSV, ValdarW, DymentDA, et al. Association of infectious mononucleosis with multiple sclerosis. A population-based study. Neuroepidemiology 2009;32:257–262.
131. PohlD, KroneB, RostasyK, et al. High seroprevalence of Epstein–Barr virus in children with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2006;67:2063–2065.
132. PohlD, RostasyK, JacobiC, et al. Intrathecal antibody production against Epstein–Barr and other neurotropic viruses in pediatric and adult onset multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 2010;257:212–216.
133. MikaeloffY, CaridadeG, SuissaS, TardieuM, KIDSEP Study Group. Clinically observed chickenpox and the risk of childhood-onset multiple sclerosis. Am J Epidemiol 2009;169:1260–1266.
134. DenneC, KleinesM, DieckhöferA, et al. Intrathecal synthesis of anti-viral antibodies in pediatric patients. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2007;11:29–34.
135. ContiniC, SeraceniS, CultreraR, CastellazziM, GranieriE, FainardiE. Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection and its role in neurological disorders. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis 2010;2010:273573. Epub 2010 Feb 21.
136. MacIntyreA, AbramovR, HammondCJ, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection promotes the transmigration of monocytes through human brain endothelial cells. J Neurosci Res 2003;71:740–750.
137. RostasyK, ReiberH, PohlD, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae in children with MS: Frequency and quantity of intrathecal antibodies. Neurology 2003;61:125–128.
138. KroneB, PohlD, RostasyK, et al. Common infectious agents in multiple sclerosis: A case-control study in children. Mult Scler 2008;14:136–139.
139. PohlD, RostasyK, GieffersJ, MaassM, HanefeldF. Recurrent optic neuritis associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of the central nervous system. Dev Med Child Neurol 2006;48:770–772.
140. HernánMA, JickSS. Hepatitis B vaccination and multiple sclerosis: The jury is still out. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2006;15:653–655.
141. BalinskaMA. Hepatitis B vaccination and French Society ten years after the suspension of the vaccination campaign: How should we raise infant immunization coverage rates?J Clin Virol 2009;46:202–205.
142. BraillonA, DuboisG. Hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of CNS inflammatory demyelination in childhood. Neurology 2009;72:2053.
143. LièvreM, Members of Epidemiology Working Group of French Pharmacovigilance Commission, CostagliolaD, et al. Hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of CNS inflammatory demyelination in childhood. Neurology 2009;73:1426–1427.
144. NessJ, BaleJF Jr. Hepatitis vaccines and pediatric multiple sclerosis: Does timing or type matter?Neurology 2009;72:870–871.
145. ZippF, WeilJG, EinhauplKM. No increase in demyelinating diseases after hepatitis B vaccination. Nat Med 1999;5:964–965.
146. SadovnickAD, ScheifeleDW. School-based hepatitis B vaccination programme and adolescent multiple sclerosis. Lancet 2000;355:549–550.
147. AscherioA, ZhangSM, HernanMA, et al. Hepatitis B vaccination and the risk of multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 2001;344:327–332.
148. DeStefanoF, VerstraetenT, JacksonLA, et al. Vaccinations and risk of central nervous system demyelinating diseases in adults. Arch Neurol 2003;60:504–509.
149. DeStefanoF, WeintraubES, ChenRT. Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of multiple sclerosis: A prospective study. Neurology 2005;64:1317.
150. TouzéE, GoutO, Verdier-TailleferMH, Lyon-CaenO, AlpérovitchA. The first episode of central nervous system demyelinization and hepatitis B vaccination. Rev Neurol (Paris) 2000;156:242–246.
151. TouzéE, FourrierA, Rue-FenoucheC, et al. Hepatitis B vaccination and first central nervous system demyelinating event: A case-control study. Neuroepidemiology 2002;21:180–186.
152. SturkenboomM, AbenhaimL, WolfsonC, RoulletE, HeinzlefO, GoutO. Vaccinations, demyelination and multiple sclerosis study (VDAMS): A population-based study in the UK. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1999;8(Suppl 2):S170–S171.
153. HernánMA, JickSS, OlekMJ, JickH. Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of multiple sclerosis: A prospective study. Neurology 2004;63:838–842.
154. MikaeloffY, CaridadeG, RossierM, SuissaS, TardieuM. Hepatitis B vaccination and the risk of childhood-onset multiple sclerosis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2007;161:1176–1182.
155. MikaeloffY, CaridadeG, AssiS, TardieuM, SuissaS, KIDSEP study group of the French Neuropediatric Society. Hepatitis B vaccine and risk of relapse after a first childhood episode of CNS inflammatory demyelination. Brain 2007;130:1105–1110.
156. MikaeloffY, CaridadeG, SuissaS, TardieuM. Hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of CNS inflammatory demyelination in childhood. Neurology 2009;72:873–880.
157. AntonovskyA, LeibowitzU, SmithHA, et al. Epidemiologic study of multiple sclerosis in Israel. An overall review of methods and findings. Arch Neurol 1965;13:183–193.
158. Villard-MackintoshL, VesseyMP. Oral contraceptives and reproductive factors in multiple sclerosis incidence. Contraception 1993;47:161–168.
159. ThorogoodM, HannafordPC. The influence of oral contraceptives on the risk of multiple sclerosis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998;105:1296–1299.
160. HernánMA, OlekMJ, AscherioA. Cigarette smoking and incidence of multiple sclerosis. Am J Epidemiol 2001;154:69–74.
161. RiiseT, NorvtvedtMW, AscherioA. Smoking is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2003;61:1122–1124.
162. HedstromAK, BaarnhielmM, OlssonT, AlfredssonL. Tobacco smoking, but not Swedish snuff use, increases the risk of multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2009;73:696–701.
163. ZivadinovR, Weinstock-GuttmanB, HashmiK, et al. Smoking is associated with increased lesion volumes and brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2009;73:504–510.
164. HealyBC, AliEN, GuttmannCRG, et al. Smoking and disease progression in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 2009;66:858–864.
165. SafariN, HoppenbrouwersIA, HopWC, BretelerMM, HintzenRQ. Cigarette smoking and risk of MS in multiplex families. Mult Scl 2009;15:1363–1367.
166. MikaeloffY, CaridadeG, TardieuM, SuissaS, KIDSEP study group. Parental smoking at home and the risk of childhood-onset multiple sclerosis in children. Brain 2007;130:2589–2595.
167. HansFJ, WeiL, BereczkiD, et al. Nicotine increases microvascular blood flow and flow velocity in three groups of brain areas. Am J Physiol 1993;265:H2142–2150.
168. SmithADM, DuckettS, WatersAH. Neuropathological changes in chronic cyanide intoxication. Nature 1963;200:179–181.
169. BassNH. Pathogenesis of myelin lesions in experimental cyanide encephalopathy. Neurology 1968;18:167–177.
170. AvanziniMA, RicciA, ScaramuzzaC, et al. Deficiency of INFgamma producing cells in adenoids of children exposed to passive smoke. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2006;19:609–616.
171. MungerKL, ChitnisT, AscherioA. Body size and risk of MS in two cohorts of US women. Neurology 2009;73:1543–1550.