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  • Deep Carbon
  • Past to Present
  • Online publication date: October 2019
  • pp 653-670
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

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Index

abiotic processing, stages of, 467468
abiotic reactions, 430, 457, 467
abiotic sulfurization, 483484
abyssal peridotite, 455456
accretionary cycle, 277
accumulation curve, 631
acetate, in ultramafic systems, 495
acetogenesis, 483
active volcanoes
emissions from, 194197, 216
temporal variability of, 208209
adiabatic mantle, 166167
affinity, 590
aldehyde disproportionation reactions, 433434
aldol reactions, 434
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 1
aliphatic chains, 462
alkalinity, cycle of, biological evolution and, 296
alkanes, 424, 426427
alkenes, 424
alloy–silicate melt partitioning, 29
coefficients, 1617
Dcalloy/silicate and, 25
hydrogen and, 2526
of LEVEs, 2021
LEVEs and, 25
American–Antarctic Ridge, 255257
anabolic reactions, 607608
anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME), 530531, 534
anhydrous MORBs, 135136
animation, as substitution reaction, 430433
ANME. See anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea
Anthropocene, 627
antigorite, 285286
aqueous electrolytes, 368
in confined liquids, 372
aquifers, 191192
aragonite, 74, 137
archaea
anaerobic methane-oxidizing, 530531, 534
in subsurface biome, 533534
Archean, 283
Ashadze, 494
asthenospheric mantle, 7072, 7880
atmosphere loss, MO and, 1719
atmospheric recycling, of sulfur, 100102
ATP, 588
Aulbach, S., 68
axial diffuse vents
basalts and, 492
oceanic rocky subsurface and, 492
axial high temperature
basalts, 488492
oceanic rocky subsurface and, 488492
Azores, 240242
Bagana, 217
Baltic Sea, 527528
basalts. See also mid-ocean ridge-derived basalts
axial diffuse vents and, 492
axial high temperature, 488492
carbon content of, 45
carbon dioxide and, 144
ocean islands and, 144
benzaldehyde, 433434
benzene, 426
Berner’s model, 336
bicarbonate ions, 19
bioavailability, of OC, 505
biofilm-based metabolisms, 504
biogeochemical cycling, 480
reaction rate controls, 505
biogeochemistry, of deep life, 561562
biological evolution, 299300
alkalinity, cycle of and, 296
dioxygen cycle and, 294296
subduction and, 294
biomass, 587588
deep biosphere, 588
energy limits and, 588
bioorthogonal non-canonical amino tagging (BONCAT), 563
biotic recycling, of sulfur, 100102
bipartite networks, 642643
Birch–Murnaghan equation of state (BMEOS), 171
Birch’s law, 50
BMEOS. See Birch–Murnaghan equation of state
Boltzmann constants, 395
BONCAT. See bioorthogonal non-canonical amino tagging
Brazilian diamonds, 103
bridgmanite, 7576, 9091
Brillouin scattering, 77
Brønsted acid catalysis, 422
BSE. See Bulk Silicate Earth
bulk rock investigations, 449451
bulk silicate, 112
Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE), 322, 325
carbon in, 1014, 2526
C/H ratio of, 14, 19
chondrites, 67
C/N ratios of, 14, 19
C/S ratio of, 1618
D/H ratio of, 79
equilibrium accretion and budget of, 1921
hydrogen in, 1012
LEVE budgets of, 1419, 2526
magma ocean differentiation and budget of, 1921
nitrogen in, 1012
S/N ratio of, 1618
sulfur in, 1012
volatile budget of, 1921
Bureau, H., on diamond formation, 106108
CaCO3, 56. See also carbonates
deep carbon stored as, 74
in dolomite, 7374
calcite, 74
calcium silicate perovskite, 112
Ti-poor, 112113
Ti-rich, 112113
calderas
emissions and, 201206, 209
temporal variability of, 209
unrest in, 203204
Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle, 564565
CaMg(CO3), 7374. See also carbonates
Canary Islands, 143, 149150, 240242
Candidate Phyla Radiations, 556565
Cannizzaro reactions, 433434
Cape Vede, 149150
carbide, 29, 461
atomic scale structure of, 47
crystalline, 47
in Fe(Ni) alloys, 72
graphite–Fe, 8
molten iron, 47
carbide inner core model, 4142
carbon. See also deep carbon; organic carbon
abundance, 1114
abundance of, in mantle, 6773
in basalts, 45
baseline, 347348
in BSE, 1014, 2526
in chondritic building blocks, 12
across CMB, 5556
in continental lithosphere, 7072
of continental subsurface, 500501
in convecting mantle, 7072, 254257
in core formation, 20
in core over time, 5556
in core–mantle segregation, 2425
defining, 40
dissolved inorganic, 480489
distribution of, 8081, 276
on Earth, 45
in E-chondrites, 1112
estimates of abundance of, 6667
in exogenic systems, 347348
extraction of, from mantle, 6773
feedbacks, 299
in Fe(Ni) alloys, 72
forms of, 1114, 66
fractionation of, 1819
inheritance of, in mantle, 68
isotopic composition of, 89
as light element in core, 2728, 40, 55
in mantle, 238
mantle melting and, 257262
melting points and, 5354
in meteorites, 1114
mineral ecology, 630633
movement of, 1
outgassed from volcanoes, 211215
oxidation of, 418419
oxidized form, 7072
in partial melting, 258
perturbations in flux of, 277278
polymorphs, 7374
ratios, 1114
in redox reactions, 8081
reduced form, 7072
residence time of, 277278
sedimentary, 133
solidus and, 264
solubility, 18, 2021
sources of, 211215
speciation of, from mantle, 6773
stability of, 7072
in subconduction zones, 133
temporal distribution of, 628629
in ultramafic systems, 494
in ureilites, 16
volcanic, 215
carbon budgets, 45
constraints on, 5657
of core, 4041
from core accretion, 6667
from core–mantle differentiation, 6667
ingassing, 66
of Moon, 811
outgassing, 66
volcanic carbon and, 216217
carbon cycle, 57
cadence of, 278279
carbon deposition centers and, 276278
carbonate melts in, 129
components of, 277
continental, 499
contingency at, 299300
deep water and, 105106
diamonds and, 9495
longevity of, 278279, 299
long-term, 276278
mantle transition zone and, 102103
non-steady-state dynamic of, 299
organic chemistry of, 416420, 438439
pace of, 278279
prediction of, 280281
pulse of, 278279, 292, 299
self-stabilizing feedbacks, 299
subduction, 276
subduction zones and, 416417
supercontinent assembly and, 625626
surface processes and, 279283
tectonic, 279, 293295
carbon deposition centers, carbon cycle and, 276278
carbon dioxide, 455456. See also emissions, carbon dioxide
atmospheric plumes of, 188189
basalts and, 144
bulk, 135136
decadal averages of, 196197
degassing, 238264
diffuse emissions, 191192, 201206
direct measurement of, 191
dissolution, 2122
eclogites and, 146147
experimental containers and, 457458
during explosive eruptions, 197198
flux, 195196, 242243, 250
global emission rates of, 193194
groundwater and, 191192
incipient melting and, 165166, 170171, 177
indirect measurement of, 190191
in magmas, 238264
as magmatic volatile, 188
in mantle, 6768, 177
mantle plumes and, 251254
melt density and, 170171
methanation, 367375
methane and, 9596
in mid-ocean ridge system, 242243
in MORBs, 243, 250251
OIB, 252
partial melting and, 165166
peridotite and, 146147
primary magma, 253
saturation, 238264
solubility of, 238
volcanic, 190
carbon distribution, in core formation, 2225
carbon dynamics, at subduction/collision transition, 292293
carbon flux, 150151, 339341
carbonate precipitation and, 331333
carbonate weathering and, 330331
metamorphic inputs, 329330
OC weathering and, 330331
outputs, 331334
silicate weathering and, 331333
subduction zones and, 281
volcanic inputs, 328329
Carbon in Earth, 1
carbon isotopes
composition, 103
of diamonds, 103
in fluid-buffered systems, 97
fractionation, 97
of PDAs, 109
redox-neutral formation and, 9698
carbon neutrality, of subduction zones, 283284
carbon phase
diagram, 595
oxygen fugacity of, 7677
carbon reservoirs, 323324
deep, 7475
sizes of, 41
carbon solubility, 18
in magmas, 6768
subduction zone and, 284285
carbon speciation
in MO, 22
oxy-thermobarometry and, 7677
carbon transformation pathways, in subduction zones, 277278
carbon transport, 133
in cratonic lithospheric mantle, 142
under nanoconfinement, 363364
in subduction zone, 289
carbonaceous chondrites, LEVEs in, 1529
carbonaceous matter (CM)
abiotic formation of, 466468
accumulation of, 466
composition of, 466467
experimental occurrences of, 461465
formation of, 464
future research on, 469470
in hydrothermal experiments, 462463
in hydrothermally altered mantle-derived rocks, 449
limits to knowledge about, 469470
oxygen fugacity and, 462463
carbonate basalt, 113
carbonate ions, 19
carbonate melts
in carbon cycle, 129
compositions, 137138
in cratonic lithospheric mantle, 138139, 142143
from diapirs, 287288
extraction of, 148
from hot slabs, 287288
importance of, 150
incipient melting of, 166168
in intraplate settings, 143
under mid-ocean ridges, 147148
migration of, 129, 132
at ocean islands, 143
silicate melts and, 168169
stability fields of, 147
structure of, 168169
with subconduction zones, 132134
in upper mantle, 129
in various geodynamic settings, 166168
carbonate stability
constraints on, 130131
oxygen fugacity and, 130
carbonate weathering, carbon flux and, 330331
carbonated basalts
bulk compositions, 137
melt stability of, 179
carbonated MORBs, 135136
carbonated sediment
melting of, 134138
potassium in, 137138
solidus of, 135136
in transition zone, 134138
in upper mantle, 134138
carbonates
assimilation, 70
breakdown of, 8081
in cratonic lithospheric mantle, 140142
experimental calibrations, 140142
Fe-bearing, 75
formation of, 133
in mantle, 7273, 143145
mineral dissolution of, 133134
Na-carbonate, 137
pelagic, 296299
phase at solidus, 135136
precipitation, 331333
pump, 279280
redox constraints on, 140142
seismic detectability of, 77
silicate and, 142143
solubility of, 285
stability fields of, 147
structure of, 282
thermoelastic properties of, 7778
carbonate–silicate melts, formation of, 69
carbonatite melts, 173
mobility of, 168178
carbonatites, 133134
abundance of, 149
classification of, 148
crustally emplaced, 147150
deep, 144
emplacement of, 149
evolution of, 149
formation of, 144, 149
limits to knowledge and, 150151
magmas, 130
magmatism of, 149
ocean islands and, 149
in subconduction zones, 134
carbon-bearing fluids
complexity in, 358, 360
fluid–fluid interactions, 366
guest molecules in, 366372
nanoconfinement and, 363
carbon-bearing phases
limits to knowledge about, 8182
stable forms of, 66
carbon-bearing reactants, in experiments, 458461
carbonite peridotite
in mantle, 131132
melting of, 131132
CARD. See catalyzed reporter deposition
Carnegie Institute of Science, 388389
CaSiO3-perovskite, 112113
retrogressed, 114115
CaSiO3-walstromite, 9192
catabolic reactions, 599601
catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD), 562563
cathodoluminescence, of Marange diamond, 95
CaTiO3-perovskite, 112113
C-bearing phases, in E-chondrites, 1112
cell counts, 586
cellular bioenergetics, 566567
cementite. See Fe3C
Cenozoic, 276, 293
Census of Deep Life, 558
C/H ratios
of BSE, 14, 1619
bulk weight, 1314
subchondritic, 19
C–H species, stabilization of, 19
Le Chatelier’s Principle, 420
chlorite, 285286
chondrites
BSE, 67
CI, 67
E-chondrites, 67, 1112, 15
EH, 15
EL, 15
ordinary, 1516
chondritic building blocks, carbon in, 12
CI, chondrites, 67
Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit, 528530
Claisen–Schmidt condensation, 434
climate, 188, 215
stability of Earth, 4
climatic drivers
in elemental cycling, 319321
negative feedbacks and, 319321
clinopyroxene, 136137
CLIPPIR diamonds, 114
inclusions in, 114115
silicates in, 114115
closed-system volcanoes, 209
CM. See carbonaceous matter
CMB. See core-mantle boundary
C/N ratios
of BSE, 14, 19
bulk weight, 1314
superchondritic, 19
Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO), 532
C–O–H fluids, 134
cold oxic basement, subsurface biome of, 530
compositional expansion coefficients, 4150
compressional-wave velocity, 53
conductive geotherms, 132
confined liquids
aqueous electrolytes in, 372
reactivity and, 374375
solubility and, 369370
volatile gas solubility in, 370372
continent. See supercontinent assembly
continental crust, 326327
continental lithosphere, carbon in, 7072
continental lithospheric mantle, 326327
continental rifts, emissions and, 201206
continental subsurface, 497498
biomes, 524527
carbon content of, 500501
carbon cycling, 499
deep bedrock in, 503504
deep coal beds in, 503
environments, 498501
hydrocarbon reservoirs in, 502503
continental weathering, 310
convecting mantle, 237
carbon in, 7072, 254257
limits of knowledge about, 263264
melting, 257262
plumes, 251254
sampling, 240242
convective geotherms, 132
core, 45
carbon as light element in, 2728, 40, 55
carbon budgets of, 4041
carbon in, over time, 5556
composition, 57
Fe7C3 at, 55
limits to knowledge about, 5758
pressure of, 44
recovery, 237
core accretion
carbon budget from, 6667
multistage, 2526
simulation of, 2425
core formation
carbon distribution in, 2225
carbon in, 20
Dcalloy/silicate in, 2225
disequilibrium, 2627
LEVEs in, 20
multistage, 2326, 28
proto-Earth, 2627
single-stage, 28
sulfide segregation and, 1618
core–mantle boundary (CMB)
carbon across, 5556
chemical equilibrium at, 5556
pressure for, 5455
temperature at, 53
core–mantle differentiation, carbon budget from, 6667
core–mantle fractionation, 2324
core–mantle segregation, 5, 2223
carbon in, 2425
cracking reactions, 496497
cratonic lithospheric mantle
carbon transport in, 142
carbonate melts in, 138139, 142143
carbonates in, 140142
deep, 142143
kimberlite in, 138139
metasomatism of, 142143
oxygen fugacity in, 141
reduction of, 141
Cretaceous Peninsular Ranges, 344345
CROMO. See Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory
crustally emplaced carbonatites, 147150
cryptic methane cycle, 405406
C/S ratios
of BSE, 1618
bulk weight, 1314
of fumaroles, 193
temporal variability and, 210211
C/X ratios, 5
cycloalkanes, 426
cyclohexane, 423426
cyclohexanol, 426
Darcy’s law, 177
Dcalloy/silicate
alloy–silicate melt partitioning and, 25
in core formation, 2225
sulfur in, 25
DCO. See Deep Carbon Observatory
deamination
rates, 431432
as substitution reaction, 430433
DECADE. See Deep Earth Carbon Degassing
decompression melting, 257
deep bedrock, in continental subsurface, 503504
deep biosphere
adaptations for survival in, 539, 568569
biomass, 588
energetics, 585
limits to knowledge about, 505506
locations, 481
metabolism, 562565
similarities across, 504505
deep carbon
as CaCO3, 74
organic chemistry of, 416420, 438439
reservoir, magnesite as, 7475
science, emergence of, 1
subduction, 288289
Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO), 1, 90, 388389
Carbon Mineral Challenge, 632
data and, 620
DMGC and, 115116
Integrated Field Site Initiatives, 641
on volcanism, 189190
deep carbonatites, 144
deep coal beds, in continental subsurface, 503
Deep Earth Carbon Degassing (DECADE), 195, 206, 217218
on volcanism, 189190
deep life, 539541
biogeochemistry of, 561562
deep mantle
oxy-thermobarometry of, 7677
redox freezing in, 111114
Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP), 250
deep water
carbon cycle and, 105106
diamonds and, 105
in ringwoodite, 106
degassing
diffuse, 199201, 204
MO, 5
passive, 197, 206207
dehydration, 436
aqueous alcohol, 421422
as elimination reaction, 420423
dehydrogenation reactions, 423427
depleted MORB mantle (DMM), 211215
Desulfovibrio indonesiensis, 570571
devolatization pattern, 285286
D/H ratio, of BSE, 79
diagenesis, 430
DIAL. See differential absorption LIDAR
diamantiferous peridotite, 70
diamonds
Brazilian, 103
Bureau on, 106108
carbon cycle and, 9495
carbon isotope composition of, 103
carbonates in, 135
CLIPPIR, 114115
crystallization from single carbon fluid species, 9798
deep water and, 105
defects in, 92
depth of formation, 9192
diagnostic tools for, 107
experiments for studying, 106108
Frost on, 106108
FTIR maps and, 9294
future research on, 115116
geobarometry of, 91
HDF migration and, 99100
history of, 9394
inclusion entrapment, 106108
isochemical precipitation, 97
Jagersfontein, 103
Kankan, 103
limits to knowledge about, 115116
lithospheric, 8990
mantle metasomatism and formation of, 99100
from mantle transition zone, 103104
Marange, 95
metasomatic fluids and formation of, 98100
Monastery, 103
monocrystalline growth of, 107
natural growth media, 107
Northwest Territories Canadian, 99100
obtaining, 8990
platelets in, 9394
polycrystalline formation of, 108109
precipitation of, and methane, 9596
Proterozoic lherzolitic formation, 110111
redox freezing and, 111114
redox-neutral formation of, 9698
scanning electron microscope images of, 107108
sublithospheric, 8990
super-deep, 105
synthesizing, 106107
thermal modelling of, 9294
trapping of inclusions in, 92
Diamonds and the Mantle Geodynamics of Carbon (DMGC)
DCO and, 115116
goals of, 115116
research areas of, 90
on super-deep diamonds, 105
diapirs, carbonate melt from, 287288
DIC. See dissolved inorganic carbon
dielectric constants, in nanoconfinement, 372374
differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL), 190191
differential equations, first order, 317
diffuse degassing, 199201, 204
emissions from, 207208
diffuse emissions, 191192, 201207
diffusion
pore, 364366
surface, 364365
viscosity-diffusion, 171172
diffusion-sink experiments, 176
dioxygen cycle, biological evolution and, 294296
disequilibrium core formation, 2627
disproportionation reactions, 433434
aldehyde, 433434
dissolution, of siderites, 462463
dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), 480489
dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 480489
solubilization of, 484
DMGC. See Diamonds and the Mantle Geodynamics of Carbon
DMM. See depleted MORB mantle
DOC. See dissolved organic carbon
dolomite
CaCO3 in, 7374
crystal structure of, 7374
high-pressure polymorphs and, 7374
iron and, 7374
MgCO3 in, 7374
dolomitic carbonite, 132
Dorado Outcrop, 492493
dormancy, 588589
dormant volcanoes, emissions from, 198
down-going slab materials, 133
DSDP. See Deep Sea Drilling Program
E. coli, 570571
EAR. See East African Rift
Earth. See also Bulk Silicate Earth
carbon on, 45
climate stability of, 4, 313
life on, 4
mantle reservoir of, 45
organic chemistry and, 415416
proto-Earth core formation, 2627
structure of, 45
surface temperature of, 313
whole-Earth carbon cycle, 315316, 338341
Earth Microbiome Project, 641
EarthChem Library, 240242, 623
EAS. See electrophilic aromatic substitution
East African Rift (EAR), 149, 205206, 217, 328329
East Pacific Rise, 179, 240241
Ebelman reaction, 292
EC. See Eddy covariance
E-chondrites
carbon in, 1112
C-bearing phases in, 1112
LEVEs and, 15
model, 67
eclogite, 70
carbon dioxide and, 146147
in mantle, 144
melting, 215
eclogite-derived melts, 146147
eclogitic lithospheric diamonds, 90
Eddy covariance (EC), 191
Eger Rift, 206
EH chondrites, 15
elastic geobarometry, 9192
electrical conductivity
anomalous, 181
enhancement, 176177
incipient melting and, 173174, 179
melt mobility and, 179
in olivine matrix, 174
electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS), 433434
elemental cycling
basic concepts of, 315
climatic drivers in, 319321
negative feedback in, 319321
residence time in, 315319
steady state in, 315319
elimination reactions
dehydration as, 420423
hydration as, 420423
EM1 OIB, 102
EMFDD reaction, 131
emissions, carbon dioxide
from active volcanoes, 194197, 216
calderas and, 201206, 209
constraints, 207
continental rifts and, 201206
cumulative, 201202
data distribution, 203
decadal averages of, 196197
diffuse, 191192, 201207, 216
from diffuse degassing, 207208
from dormant volcanoes, 198
estimation of, 197
during explosive eruptions, 197198
fumaroles and, 198201
global of carbon dioxide, 193194
hydrothermal systems, 201206
measurement of, 199201
next iteration of, 206208
over geologic time, 215
plume gas, 188, 201203
quantifying, 215217
synthesis of, 215217
temporal variability of, 208209
vent, 216
EMOD buffers, 9697
endogenic systems, 314315
energy limits, 585
anabolism and, 607608
biomass and, 588
density and, 603605
maintenance in, 586587
microbial states and, 586589
time and, 606607
Enermark field, 526527
entropy, 590
changes in, 590
defining, 590
enzyme evolution, 635636
equilibrium accretion, BSE budget and, 1921
eruption forecasting, temporal variability and, 209211
eukaryotes, in subsurface biome, 535536
eutectic composition, 4142
of Fe–O binary system, 4243
of Fe–S binary system, 4243
of Fe–Si binary system, 4243
exogenic reservoirs, 327328
exogenic systems, 314315
carbon flux, 331
carbon in, 347348
experimental containers, carbon dioxide and, 457458
extreme cellular biophysics, 570572
extreme molecular biophysics, in subsurface environment, 567570
Fe3C
density of, 4748
inner core phase and, 5052
natural form of, 4448
near iron end member, 48
orthorhombic, 4448
Fe7C3
constraints from, 52
at core, 55
electrical resistivity of, 55
sound velocities of, 52
Fe-bearing carbonates, melting of, 75
Fe–C alloy
constraints from, 52
elasticity parameters for, 45
liquid, 49, 52
melting temperatures of, 5355
near iron end member, 52
slab-derived, 56
sound velocities of, 50
Fe–C binary system, 4142
densities of, 44, 48
FeCO3, 7879
feedback loops, 317318
Fe–H, sound velocities of, 53
Fe–light element alloys
melting curve parameters, 52
sound velocities of, 5253
Fe(Ni) alloys
carbide in, 72
carbon in, 72
precipitation curve, 7071
Fe–Ni–C alloys, solidus temperature ranges in, 72
Fe–O binary system
characterizing, 44
eutectic composition, 4243
melting temperatures, 55
sound velocities of, 53
ferropericlase, 76
Fe–S binary system
characterizing, 42
eutectic composition, 4243
eutectic point of, 55
melting temperatures, 55
sound velocities of, 53
Fe–Si binary system
characterizing, 4244
eutectic composition, 4243
melting temperatures, 55
sound velocities of, 53
FISH. See fluorescent in situ hybridization
Fisher–Tropsch process, 460461
flank gas emission, 188
fluid addition, 215
fluid inclusions, in oceanic lithosphere, 456464
fluid–fluid interactions, 366
fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), 562563
flux melting, 144
formaldehyde, 459
formate, in ultramafic systems, 495
founder effect, 540
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) maps, 190191, 238, 451452
diamonds and, 9294
Friedel–Crafts reaction, 434
Frost, D. J., 69
on diamond formation, 106108
FTIR. See Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy maps
FTT reactions, 457458
magnetite and, 464
fumaroles, 213214
C/S ratios of, 193
emission rates and, 198201
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), 568
Gakkel Ridge, 240241, 250
Galapagos Spreading Center, 248249
Garrett melt inclusion, 246247
gas giants, growth of, 10
generalized inverse Gauss–Poisson (GIGP), 631632
genetic drift, 540
Genomic Standard Consortium, 641
geobarometry
of diamonds, 91
elastic, 9192
geo–bio interactions, 640643
geochemical tracers, 68
geologic time
emissions over, 215
volcanic carbon and, 215
geological cycle, 294
GeoMapApp, 241242
geomimicry, 439
geotherms
conducive, 132
convective, 132
Gibbs energy, 589599
changes in, 591
composition and, 599601
densities, 604605
molal, 604
pressure and, 599601
standard state, 592595
surveying, 601603
temperature and, 599601
GIGP. See generalized inverse Gauss–Poisson
global emission rates, of carbon dioxide, 193194
Global Volcanism Program (GVP), 197
Volcanoes of the World, 194
GOSAT. See Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite
GPCRs. See G protein-coupled receptors
grain boundaries, 361362
Grand Tack scenario, 811
graphite, 29
exhausting, 259260
formation, 465466
in mantle, 259260
thermodynamic predictions, 465
graphite–Fe–carbide, 8
graphitization, 282283
green chemistry, 439
greenhouse conditions, 342
Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), 192193
greenhouse intervals, 342343
groundwater
carbon dioxide and, 191192
Vesuvio, 191192
Guaymas Basin, 527528
guest molecules, in carbon-bearing fluids, 366372
Gulf of Mexico, 527528
Gutenberg discontinuity, 164165
GVP. See Global Volcanism Program
Halicephalobus mephisto, 535
harzburgite, 132
Hashin–Shtrikman upper-bound (HS+) model, 174176
Hauri, E. H., 189190, 248249, 264, 323
Hawaii melt inclusions, 263
Hazen, R. M., 630632
HDF microinclusions, in lithospheric diamonds, 99
HDF migration, diamonds and, 99100
heat flux, from hotspots, 252
Helgeson–Kirkham–Flowers (HKF) equations, 596
helium, 213215, 244245
hematite-magnetite, 457
hematite–magnetite–pyrite, 457
heteroatoms, 456
HFSE. See high-field-strength element
high-field-strength element (HFSE), 9899
highly siderophile element (HSE), 1529
sulfide segregation and, 1618
HIMU OIB, 102
histone-like nucleoid structuring proteins (HNS), 568
HKF equations. See Helgeson–Kirkham–Flowers equations
Holocene, 194
hot slabs, carbonate melt from, 287288
hothouses, 345346
hot spots, 240242, 257
heat flux from, 252
HS+ model. See Hashin–Shtrikman upper-bound model
HSE. See highly siderophile element
hydration, as elimination reaction, 420423
hydraulic fracturing, 526527
hydrocarbon reservoirs, in continental subsurface, 502503
hydrocarbons, short-chain, 495
hydrogen
alloy–silicate melt partitioning and, 2526
in BSE, 1012
fractionation of, 1819
isotopic composition of, 89
methane and, 459460
hydrogenation reactions, 423427
Hydrogenophaga, 531532
hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, 483
hydrolyzable amino acids, 495
hydrothermal
carbon pump, 279280, 283
circulation, 495496
experiments, CM in, 462463
petroleum, 484497
reactions, 436437
hydrothermal systems
abundance of, 204
emissions and, 201206
sedimented, 496497
volcanism and, 204
hydrothermally altered mantle-derived rocks, CM in, 449
ICB. See inner core boundary
ICDP. See International Continental Drilling Programs
icehouse conditions, 342
icehouse drivers, 344345
Iceland, 240242
igneous aquifers, 499502
IMLGS. See Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples
incipient melting
carbon dioxide and, 165166, 170171, 177
of carbonate melt, 166168
composition, 167
defining, 163165
density, 170171
electrical conductivity and, 173174, 179
interconnectivity, 175176
limits of knowledge about, 182
mantle convection and, 181182
melt mobility of, 177179
origins, 164
of peridotite, 179
profiles, 167168
of silicate melt, 166168
stability fields in, 165166
transport properties, 171172
types of, 177178
viscosity-diffusion, 171172
water and, 165166, 170171
Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS), 240241
inner core
Fe3C and, 5052
late veneer, 811
phase, 5052
sound velocities in, 5051
inner core boundary (ICB), 4142
insoluble organic molecules (IOMs), 11
Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), 250, 527
International Continental Drilling Programs (ICDP), 641
International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), 641
interphase boundaries, 361362
Interunion Commission on Biothermodynamics, 596597
intraplate settings, carbonate melts in, 143
inverse Monte Carlo simulations, 2627
IODP. See Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, International Ocean Discovery Program
IOMs. See insoluble organic molecules
iron
carbon alloys, 4041
dolomite and, 7374
melting point, 5354
redox capacity of, 107108
spin state, 7879
iron end member
Fe3C near, 48
Fe–C alloy near, 52
iron–light element systems
binary phase relations, 4142
phase relations of, 4144
isotope clumping, 388
kinetics, 393399
isotopic reservoirs, 401405
Jagersfontein diamonds, 103
Jagersfontein kimberlite, 76
Juan de Fuca Ridge, 240241, 248249, 493, 528530
warm anoxic basement of, 528530
Jupiter, 811
Kaapvaal cratons, 69, 101, 103
Kankan diamonds, 103
karpatite, 450451
Kerguelen Islands, 143
kerogen, 282283
Kidd Creek, 400401
Kilauea, 253
kimberlite, 8990, 106107, 139140
in cratonic lithospheric mantle, 138139
eruption dates, 93, 111
genesis of, 140
group 1, 139
group 2, 139
Jagersfontein, 76
magmatism, 110111
origins of, 139
oxygen fugacity and, 130131
parental magma composition, 139140
kinetic array, 399401
kinetic inhibition, 419420
kinetic minimum, 293
kinetic rate constants, 340
kinetics
isotope clumping, 393399
Michaelis–Menten, 393399
Kokshetav, 292
LAB. See lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary
labile amino acids, 497
large igneous provinces (LIPs), 254
large ion lithophile element (LILE), 9899
large number of rare events (LNRE), 630631
late accretion, 1416
LEED. See low-energy electron diffraction
LEVEs. See life-essential volatile elements
Lewis acid catalysis, 422
lherzolite, 132
LIDAR. See Light Detection and Ranging
life, records of, 294
life-essential volatile elements (LEVEs), 4, 2829
alloy–silicate melt partitioning and, 25
alloy–silicate partitioning of, 2021
budgets of BSE, 1419, 2526
in carbonaceous chondrites, 1529
constraints from isotopes of, 78
in core formation, 20
delivery timing of, 1718
distributions of, 56
E-chondrites and, 15
initial distributions of, 20
isotopic compositions of, 5
limits of knowledge, 29
origins of, 11, 1920
solubility data for, 19
unknowns involving, 29
Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), 190191
light elements, 49
carbon as, in core, 2728, 40
lignin phenols, 481483
Ligurian Tethyan ophiolites, 453454
LILE. See large ion lithophile element
LIPs. See large igneous provinces
liquid Fe–C alloy, 49
constraints from, 52
elasticity parameters for, 46
sound velocities of, 52
liquid outer core, oxygen in, 44
lithophile elements, 67
lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (LAB), 164
defining, 181
geophysical discontinuities, 181
thermal, 167168
lithospheric diamonds, 8990
classification of, 90
composition of, 90
eclogitic, 90
formation of, 90
HDF microinclusions in, 99
peridotitic, 90
reduced mantle volatiles in, 9496
refertilization in, 110
lithospheric mantle, continental, 326327
lithospheric reservoir, 348
LNRE. See large number of rare events
Logatchev hydrothermal fields, 449450, 494
Loihi, 253
longevity, of carbon cycle, 278279
Lost City, 404405
low energy states, 589
low-velocity zone (LVZ), 164165, 181
limits of knowledge about, 182
low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), 452453
Lucky Strike segment, 240241
LVZ. See low-velocity zone
macrofauna, 481
magma ocean (MO)
atmosphere interactions, 1719
BSE budget and, 1921
carbon speciation in, 22
degassing, 5
magmas, carbon dioxide in, 238264
magnesite, as deep carbon reservoir, 7475
magnesium budgets, 492493
magnetite, 459
FTT and, 464
MAGs. See metagenome-assembled genomes
Maier–Kelley formulation, 596
Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), 205206
maintenance
in energy limits, 586587
measurements of, 587
Manam, 217
mantle. See also convecting mantle; cratonic lithospheric mantle; deep mantle; upper mantle
abundance of carbon in, 6773
adiabatic, 166167
asthenospheric, 7072, 7880
carbon dioxide in, 6768, 177
carbon in, 238
carbonate in, 143145
carbonate minerals in, 7273
carbonite peridotite in, 131132
convection, 181182
deep, 7677, 111114
degassing, 339342
eclogite in, 144
extraction of carbon from, 6773
graphite in, 259260
incipient melting and, 181182
ingassing, 339342
inheritance of carbon at, 68
oxidation of, 258
oxidized carbon in, 7778
peridotite in, 113114, 144
resistive lids, 164165
slab-derived fluids in, 134
speciation of carbon from, 6773
sulfur in, 100102
mantle geodynamics. See Diamonds and the Mantle Geodynamics of Carbon
mantle melting regime, 164
carbon and, 257262
mantle metasomatism, 100101
characterizing, 163
defining, 163165
diamond formation and, 99100
mantle plumes
carbon dioxide and, 251254
convecting, 251254
mantle reservoirs
of Earth, 45
modern, 322326
primitive, 322326
mantle transition zone
carbon cycle and, 102103
diamonds from, 103104
hydration state of, 105
MAR. See Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Marange diamonds, 95
cathodoluminescence of, 95
methane and, 9596, 98
RIFMS for, 98
Mars, 2627, 259260, 321
Masaya, 209
mass-independent fractionation (MIF), 100101
MED. See Mineral Evolution Database
melt, incipient. See incipient melting
melt composition, melt mobility and, 177179
melt density
calculation of, 170171
carbon dioxide and, 170171
curve, 170171
water and, 170171
melt inclusions
data sets, 240242
Garrett, 246247
glassy, 253
Hawaii, 263
isotopic heterogeneity in, 246248
MORB, 244248
OIBs and, 252253
Siqueiros, 246247
volumes, 242
melt mobility
electrical conductivity and, 179
of incipient melts, 177179
melt composition and, 177179
melt stability, of carbonated basalts, 179
melts. See specific types
Menez Gwen, 494
MER. See Main Ethiopian Rift
Mesozoic, 276
metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), 558560
metamorphic inputs, carbon flux, 329330
metamorphism, defining, 188
metasomatic fluids, diamond-forming, 98100
metasomatism. See also mantle metasomatism
of cratonic lithospheric mantle, 142143
overprints, 142
metatranscriptomics, 560
meteorites, carbon in, 1114
methanation, carbon dioxide, 367375
methane, 388389, 447448, 459, 489
biogenic, 503
carbon dioxide and, 9596
cycling, 504
in diamond precipitation, 9596
formation, 403, 465466
hydrogen and, 459460
limits to knowledge about, 409
in Marange diamonds, 9596, 98
oxidation, 405409
production of, 459460
synthesis of, 9596
thermodynamic equilibrium and, 388389
in ultramafic systems, 494495
methanogenesis
differential reversibility of, 406
reversibility of, 394
methanol, 459
formation of, 459
methylcyclohexanol, 435436
MgCO3, 56. See also carbonates
in dolomite, 7374
Michaelis–Menten kinetics, 393399
microbial array, 399401
microbial ecosystems, 640643
microbial metabolism, in subsurface environment, 562565
microbial states, energy limits and, 586589
micro-Raman spectroscopy, 9192
microscale, in situ investigations at, 451464
Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), 240241, 494
mid-ocean ridge system
carbon dioxide in, 242243
carbonate melts under, 147148
mid-ocean ridge-derived basalts (MORBs), 112113, 213, 237
anhydrous, 135136
bulk compositions of, 135136
carbon dioxide in, 243, 250251
carbonated, 135136
chemistry of, 135136
compositions, 137, 248251
eruption of, 243
melt inclusions, 244248
oxidation of, 69
oxygen fugacity and, 69
samples, 243244
solubility in, 243244
vapor-undersaturated, 246
variations in, 248251
MIF. See mass-independent fractionation
Mineoka ophiolite complex, 455456
Mineral Evolution Database (MED), 621
Miyakejima volcano, 195
MO. See magma ocean
modern mantle reservoirs, 322326
molecular lubrication, pore diffusion and, 365366
Momotombo, 209
Monastery diamonds, 103
montmorillonites, 464465
Moon
carbon budgets of, 811
formation of, 11, 2627
MORBs. See mid-ocean ridge-derived basalts
Mount Etna, 208, 328329
Multi-Gas measurements, 190191
Murowa, 93
Na-carbonate, at solidus, 137
Nankai Trough, 527528
nanoconfinement
carbon transport under, 363364
carbon-bearing fluids and, 363
dielectric constants in, 372374
nanoporosity, 359360, 362363
features of, 360363
NanoSIMS, 562563
National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), 240241
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Association, 240241
NBO/T approach, 2122
NCEI. See National Centers for Environmental Information
negative feedback, 317318, 338
climatic drivers and, 319321
in elemental cycling, 319321
Neoproterozoic, 346347
network analysis, 640643
Newer Volcanics of Victoria, 132
Nibelungen, 494
nitrogen
aggregation, 93
in BSE, 1012
depletion, 1819
fractionation of, 1819
isotopic composition of, 89
as siderophile elements, 25
nitrogen cycle, mantle transition zone and, 102103
nominal oxidation state of carbon (NOSC), 587588
non-ideal conditions, 598
Northwest Territories Canadian diamonds, 99100
NOSC. See nominal oxidation state of carbon
novel genes, 564565
Nuna, 629
Nyiragongo volcano, 195, 201206
OC. See organic carbon
Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), 492493
Hole 735B, 455
Leg 201, 527528
ocean island basalt (OIB), 237
carbon dioxide in, 252
chemistry of, 135136
melt inclusions and, 252253
sulfides from, 101102
ocean islands
basalts and, 144
carbonate melts beneath, 143
carbonatites and, 149
oceanic crust, 487488
axial diffuse vents and, 492
axial high temperature and, 488492
characteristics, 491
fluid inclusions in, 456464
recharge water and, 487488
ridge flanks and, 492493
subsurface biome of, 528
ultramafic systems and, 493495
warm anoxic basement, subsurface biome of, 528530
OCO-2. See Orbiting Carbon Observatory
ODP. See Ocean Drilling Program
OET. See oxygen exposure time
OIB. See ocean island basalt
Oldoinyo Lengai, 198199
oligomer dissociation, 569
olivine, 132
carbonation of, 462
olivine matrix, electrical conductivity in, 174
Olmani Cinder cone, 132
OMI. See Ozone Monitoring Instrument
Opalinus Clay, 526527
orangeites, 139
Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2), 192193
ordinary chondrites, 1516
organic carbon (OC), 282
anaerobic breakdown of, 483
bioavailability of, 505
burial rate, 333
carbon flux and, 330331
dissolved, 480489
oxidation of, 481
particulate, 480489
weathering, 330331
organic chemistry
bonds in, 415416
of carbon cycle, 416420, 438439
of deep carbon, 416420, 438439
Earth and, 415416
organic matter preservation, in sedimentary subsurface, 484485
organic oxidations, 427429
orthopyroxene, 132
oxidation
aqueous, 428
of carbon, 418419
methane, 405409
organic, 427429
of organic carbon, 481
oxidized carbon, in mantle, 7778
oxygen, in liquid outer core, 44
oxygen exposure time (OET)
models of, 486487
sedimentary subsurface and, 486
oxygen fugacity, 1718, 2122, 150151
of carbon phases, 7677
carbonate stability and, 130
CM and, 462463
in cratonic lithospheric mantle, 141
kimberlite and, 130131
magnitude of, 131
MORBs and, 69
oxy-thermobarometry
carbon speciation and, 7677
of deep mantle, 7677
Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), 193, 206207
data sets, 197
pace, of carbon cycle, 278279
PAH. See polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), 319
partial melting
carbon dioxide and, 165166
carbon in, 258
particulate organic carbon (POC), 480489
microorganisms accessing, 484
PDAs. See polycrystalline aggregates
Pearson correlation coefficients, 246247
pelagic carbonates, in subduction zone, 296299
periclase, 113114
peridotite, 130, 144145
abyssal, 455456
carbon dioxide and, 146147
incipient melting of, 179
in mantle, 113114, 144
solidus of, 258
peridotitic lithospheric diamonds, 90
permeability, 177, 203204
perturbations, 277278
Peru Margin, 527528
petit spot volcanism, 179, 238
PETM. See Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum
petrogenic carbon, 481483
Phanerozoic, 149, 281282
phase relations, of iron–light element systems, 4144
Photobacterium profundum, 570571
piezolyte, 570
Pitcairn, 253
Planck constants, 395
planetary embryos, 2829
sulfur in, 26
plume gas emissions, 188, 201203
POC. See particulate organic carbon
Poisson’s ratio, 7778
polycrystalline aggregates (PDAs), 108109
absolute ages of, 109
carbon isotope values of, 109
formation of, 109
polycrystalline diamond formation, 108109
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), 450451, 497
pore diffusion
molecular lubrication and, 365366
steric effects and, 364365
porosity. See nanoporosity
potassium, in carbonated sediment, 137138
predictive reaction-rate models, 432433
PREM model, 50
pressure–temperature plot, silicate melts and, 144145
primary magma carbon dioxide, 253
primitive mantle reservoirs, 322326
process end members, 401402
propanoic acid, 428
protein expression, 635636
protein unfolding, 569
Proterozoic, 283
Proterozoic lherzolitic diamond formation, 110111
through time, 110111
protoplanetary bodies, 20
P–T trajectories, 285287, 289
subduction zone, 289290
pulse, of carbon cycle, 278279
pumps
carbonate, 279280
hydrothermal carbon, 279280
soft-tissue, 279280
pyrite–pyrrhotite–magnetite, 457
QFM buffer, 258
quartz–fayalite–magnetite, 457
radiogenic isotopes, 237238
rare biosphere, 525526
rare earth elements (REE), 129
Rayleigh isotopic fractionation in multi-component systems (RIFMS), 97, 109
for Marange diamonds, 98
reactivity, confined liquids and, 374375
recharge water, oceanic rocky subsurface and, 487488
recycling processes, 164
Redoubt Volcano, 204
redox capacity
of iron, 107108
of sulfides, 107108
redox constraints, on carbonates, 140142
redox freezing
in deep mantle, 111114
defining, 113114
diamonds and, 111114
redox processes, in subduction zone, 290291
redox reactions, 75, 81
carbon in, 8081
redox-neutral formation
carbon isotope fractionation and, 9698
of diamonds, 9698
reduced mantle volatiles
in lithospheric diamonds, 9496
in sublithospheric diamonds, 9496
REE. See rare earth elements
refractory elements, constraints from isotopes of, 67
refractory garnet peridotites, 111
remineralization, 481
reservoirs
carbon, 41, 323324
deep carbon, 7475
exogenic, 327328
hydrocarbon, 502503
isotopic, 401405
lithospheric, 348
mantle, 45, 322326
Solar, 89
residence time
defining, 318319
in elemental cycling, 315319
response time, defining, 318319
Rhine Graben, 206
ribosomal gene sequencing, 558
ridge flanks
advective flow through, 492
oceanic rocky subsurface and, 492493
RIFMS. See Rayleigh isotopic fractionation in multi-component systems
ringwoodite, deep water in, 106
Rio Grande Rift, 206
rocks. See specific types
Rodinia, 620, 629
supercontinent assembly of, 623625
Rotorua, 201204
RRUFF Project, 633
S isotopic systematics, 100101
in sulfide inclusions, 101
Sabatier reaction, 395398
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 570571
SAGMEG. See South African Gold Mine Miscellaneous Euryarchaeal Group
SAGs. See single-cell amplified genomes
sapropels, 484
scanning electron microscope images, of diamonds, 107108
scanning transmission X-ray microscope, 485
Schoell plot, 402
seafloor dredging, 237238
seafloor weathering feedback, 338
secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), 238
sedimentary aquifers, 499502
sedimentary carbon, 133
subduction, 280281
sedimentary subsurface, 481
chemical composition of, 481484
organic matter preservation in, 484485
oxygen exposure time and, 486
sorption in, 485486
sedimented hydrothermal systems, 496497
selective preservation, 483484
serpentinized oceanic rocks, 451452
Serpentinomonas, 531532
shear-wave velocity, 53
Shimokita Peninsula, 527528
siderites, 461
dissolution of, 462463
siderophile elements, 67
nitrogen as, 25
silicate, 4, 310. See also Bulk Silicate Earth
carbonate and, 142143
silicate melt, 2122
carbonate melts and, 168169
extraction of, 148
formation of, 143144
incipient melting of, 166168
pressure–temperature plot and, 144145
stability fields of, 147
structure of, 168169
in upper mantle, 143144
in various geodynamic settings, 166168
viscosity-diffusion and, 172
silicate weathering
carbon flux and, 331333
feedback, 334338
global rates of, 336337
silicates, in CLIPPIR diamonds, 114115
SIMS. See secondary ion mass spectrometry
single-carbon species, 459
single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs), 558560
single-species ecosystems, 525526
SiO2
bulk, 135136
in subduction zone, 291
SIP. See stable isotope probing
Siqueiros Fracture Zone, 245246
Siqueiros melt inclusion, 246247
Siqueiros Transform, 240241
slab-derived fluids, in mantle, 134
slave cratons, 101
SLiMEs. See subsurface lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystems
small polar compounds, 496
small volcanic plumes, 198201
smectite clays, 464465
S/N ratio, of BSE, 1618
snowballs, 346347
soft-tissue pump, 279280
Solar reservoir, 89
solidus
carbon and, 264
carbonate phase at, 135136
of carbonated sediment, 135136
curves, 136
Na-carbonate at, 137
of peridotite, 258
solubility
confined liquids and, 369370
of DOC, 484
sorption, in sedimentary subsurface, 485486
sound velocities
of Fe–C alloy, 50
in inner core, 5051
South African Gold Mine Miscellaneous Euryarchaeal Group (SAGMEG), 534
Southwest Indian Ridge, 255257
spin transition, 7778
diagram, 7879
spot measurements, 195196
SRB. See sulfate-reducing bacteria
stability fields, in incipient melting, 165166
stable isotope probing (SIP), 562563
steady state
in elemental cycling, 315319
transition to new, 321322
steric effects
pore diffusion and, 364365
surface diffusion and, 364365
Stromboli, 208
S-type asteroids, 79
subaerial volcanic budget, 206207
sub-arc depths, 133134
subconduction zone
carbon in, 133
carbonate melts with, 132134
carbonatites in, 134
cross-section of, 134
subduction, 215, 311
biological evolution and, 294
carbon cycling, 276
cycle,