Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: August 2014

9 - Creativity and the spectrum of affective and schizophrenic psychoses

from Part III - Creativity and the spectrum of mental illness

Summary

The possible connection between madness and creativity is a highly controversial issue. This is barely surprising, because it touches upon fundamental, human nature, issues that resonate beyond the scientific arena. In a sense, the subject borders on themes that can be regarded as distributive justice (Does one need to “pay a price” for having superior gifts?), “poetic” justice (Are those cursed with mental suffering at least compensated with an easier access to the muse?), and ethics (If we could eradicate the genetics of psychosis, would we actually be removing the genetic reservoir of unique human qualities such as creativity?).

Some would consider that the question itself is fundamentally wrong for various reasons. Humanistic and positive psychology schools view it as an attempt to pathologize what is essentially a positive feature that arises in healthy and self-actualized individuals (e.g., Fromm, 1980). Others claim that the whole theme survives as a cultural myth derived from inaccurate historical reinterpretations of the association between melancholia and creativity established by Greek philosophers (e.g., Schlesinger, 2009). Finally, many have criticized the lack of “strong” methods to prove the connection, which has relied on anecdotal descriptions of mad geniuses for a long time. All of these criticisms contain grains of truth and not surprisingly are brought up when the issue is presented in terms of madness being a necessary condition for creativity or creativity leading to madness. However, as will be elaborated, the recognition of multiple ingredients in both creativity and madness and the addition of more sound methods challenge the simple dismissal of this topic.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
References
Abraham, A. and Windmann, S. (2008). Selective information processing advantages in creative cognition as a function of schizotypy. Creativity Research Journal, 20, 1–6.
Abraham, A., Windmann, S., Daum, I. and Güntürkün, O. (2005). Conceptual expansion and creative imagery as a function of psychoticism. Consciousness and Cognition, 14, 520–534.
Abraham, A., Windmann, S., McKenna, P. and Güntürkün, O. (2007). Creative thinking in schizophrenia: The role of executive dysfunction and symptom severity. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 12(3), 235–258.
Akiskal, H. S. and Akiskal, K. (1988). Reassessing the prevalence of bipolar disorders: Clinical significance and artistic creativity. Psychiatry and Psychobiology, 3, 29–36.
Akiskal, K. K. and Akiskal, H. S. (2007). In search of Aristotle: Temperament, human nature, melancholia, creativity and eminence. Journal of Affective Disorders, 100, 1–6.
Akiskal, K. K., Savino, M. and Akiskal, H. S. (2005). Temperament profiles in physicians, lawyers, managers, industrialists, architects, journalists, and artists: A study in psychiatric outpatients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 85(1–2), 201–206.
American Psychiatric Association (APA) (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental health disorders (4th edn.). Washington DC: Author.
Andreasen, N. C. (1987). Creativity and mental illness: Prevalence rates in writers and first-degree relatives. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1288–1292.
Andreasen, N. J. and Canter, A. (1974). The creative writer: Psychiatric symptoms and family history. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 15, 123–131.
Baas, M., De Dreu, C. K. W. and Nijstad, B. A. (2008). A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood creativity research: Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus? Psychological Bulletin, 134(6), 779–806.
Baron-Cohen, S., Richler, J., Bisarya, D., Gurunathan, N. and Wheelwright, S. (2003). The systemizing quotient: An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 358(1430), 361–374.
Barrantes-Vidal, N. (2004). Creativity and madness revisited from current psychological perspectives. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 11(3–4), 58–78.
Barrantes-Vidal, N., Colom, F. and Claridge, G. (2002). Temperament and personality in bipolar affective disorders. In Vieta, E. (Ed.), Bipolar disorders: Clinical and therapeutic progress (pp. 217–242). Madrid: Panamericana.
Barrantes-Vidal, N., Ros-Morente, A. and Kwapil, T. R. (2009). An examination of neuroticism as a moderating factor in the association of positive and negative schizotypy with psychopathology in a nonclinical sample. Schizophrenia Research, 115(2–3), 303–309.
Barron, F. (1963). Barron–Welsh Art Scale: A portion of the Welsh Figure Preference Test. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Barron, F. (1969). Creative person and creative process. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Barron, F. (1972). Artists in the making. New York: Seminar.
Baruch, I., Hemsley, D. R. and Gray, J. A. (1988). Differential performance of acute and chronic schizophrenics in a latent inhibition task. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 176, 598–606.
Batey, M. and Furnham, A. (2008). The relationship between measures of creativity and schizotypy. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 816–821.
Batey, M. and Furnham, A. (2009). The relationship between creativity, schizotypy and intelligence. Individual Differences Research, 7(4), 272–284.
Becker, G. (1978). The mad genius controversy: A study into the sociology of deviance. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Becker, G. (2000–2001). The association of creativity and psychopathology: Its cultural-historical origins. Creativity Research Journal, 13(1), 45–54.
Bowerman, W. G. (1947). Studies in genius. New York: Philosophical Library.
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base. New York: Basic Books.
Brod, J. H. (1997). Creativity and schizotypy: In Claridge, G. (Ed.), Schizotypy: Implications for illness and health (pp. 274–298). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Burch, G., Pavelis, C., Hemsley, D. and Corr, P. (2006). Schizotypy and creativity in visual artists. British Journal of Psychology, 97, 177–190.
Cameron, N. (1938). Reasoning, regression and communication in schizophrenics. Psychological Monographs, 50, 1–34.
Carson, S. H. (2011). Creativity and psychopathology: A shared vulnerability model. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56(3), 144–153.
Cassaday, H. J. (1997). Latent inhibition: Relevance to the neural substrates of schizophrenia and schizotypy? In Claridge, G. (Ed.), Schizotypy: Implications for illness and health (pp. 124–144). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Claridge, G. (Ed.) (1997). Schizotypy: Implications for illness and health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Claridge, G. (1998). Creativity and madness: Clues from modern psychiatric diagnosis. In Steptoe, A. (Ed.), Genius and the mind: Studies of creativity and temperament (pp. 226–251). New York: Oxford University Press.
Claridge, G. (2009). Personality and psychosis. In Corr, P. J. and Matthews, G. (Eds.), Handbook of personality (pp. 631–648). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Claridge, G. and Barrantes-Vidal, N. (2013). Creativity: A healthy side of madness. In Kirkcaldy, B. (Ed.), Chimes of time. Wounded health professionals: Essays on recovery (pp. 115–132). Leiden, NL: Sidestone Academic Press.
Claridge, G. and Blakey, S. (2009). Schizotypy and affective temperament: Relationships with divergent thinking and creativity styles. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(8), 820–826.
Claridge, G. and McDonald, A. (2009). An investigation into the relationships between convergent and divergent thinking, schizotypy, and autistic traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(8), 794–799.
Claridge, G., Pryor, R. and Watkins, G. (1998). Sounds from the Bell Jar. Cambridge, MA: Malor Books (reedition of the original edition, 1990).
Davis, M. A. (2009). Understanding the relationship between mood and creativity: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108(1), 25–38.
Demjaha, A., MacCabe, J. H. and Murray, R. M. (2012). How genes and environmental factors determine the different neurodevelopmental trajectories of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38(2), 209–214.
Eisenman, R. (1990). Creativity, preference for complexity, and physical and mental illness. Creativity Research Journal, 3, 231–236.
Ellis, H. (1904). A study of British genius. London: Hurst and Blackett.
Eysenck, H. J. (1995). Genius: The natural history of creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Eysenck, H. J. and Eysenck, S. B. G. (1976). Psychoticism as a dimension of personality. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Feist, G. J. (1998). A meta-analysis of personality in scientific and artistic creativity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2(4), 290–309.
Fink, A., Slamar-Haldbedl, M., Unterrainer, H. F. and Weiss, E. M. (2012). Creativity: Genius, madness, or a combination of both. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 6(1), 11–18.
Fisher, J. E., Heller, W. and Miller, G. A. (2013). Neuropsychological differentiation of adaptive creativity and schizotypal cognition. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(1), 70–75.
Folley, B. S. and Park, S. (2005). Verbal creativity and schizotypal personality in relation to prefrontal hemispheric laterality: A behavioural and near-infrared optical imaging study. Schizophrenia Research, 80, 271–282.
Fredrickson, B. L. and Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Cognition and Emotion, 19(3), 313–332.
Fromm, Ε. (1980). Greatness and limitations of Freud’s thought. New York: New American Library.
Furnham, A., Batey, M., Anand, K. and Manfield, J. (2008). Personality, hypomania, intelligence and creativity. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(5), 1060–1069.
Galvez, J. F., Thommi, S. and Ghaemi, S. N. (2011). Positive aspects of mental illness: A review in bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 128(3), 185–190.
Garety, P. A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., Freeman, D. and Bebbington, P. E. (2001). A cognitive model of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 31, 189–195.
Ghadirian, A., Gregoire, P. and Kosmidis, H. (2001). Creativity and the evolution of psychopathologies. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 145–148.
Goertzel, V. and Goertzel, M. G. (1962). Cradles of eminence. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co.
Gough, H. G., Hall, W. B. and Bradley, P. (1996). Forty years of experience with the Barron–Welsh Art Scale. In Montuori, A. (Ed.), Unusual associates: A festschrift for Frank Barron (pp. 252–301). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc.
Guilford, J. P. (1950). Creativity. American Psychologist, 5, 444–454.
Hasenfus, N. and Magaro, P. (1976). Creativity and schizophrenia: An equality of empirical constructs. British Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 346–349.
Hemsley, D. R. (1993). A simple (or simplistic?) cognitive model for schizophrenia. Behaviour and Research Therapy, 31, 633–645.
Heston, L. L. (1966). Psychiatric disorders in foster home reared children of schizophrenic mothers. British Journal of Psychiatry, 112, 819–825.
Jamison, K. R. (1989). Mood disorders and patterns of creativity in British writers and artists. Psychiatry, 52, 125–134.
Jamison, K. R. (1993). Touched with fire: Manic-depressive illness and the artistic temperament. New York: Free Press.
Jaracz, J., Patrzała, A. and Rybakowski, J. K. (2012). Creative thinking deficits in patients with schizophrenia: Neurocognitive correlates. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 200(7), 588–593.
Johnson, S. L., Eisner, L. R. and Carver, C. S. (2009). Elevated expectancies among persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48(2), 217–222.
Johnson, S. L., Murray, G., Fredrickson, B., Youngstrom, E. A., Hinshaw, S., Bass, J. M. et al. (2012). Creativity and bipolar disorder: Touched by fire or burning with questions? Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 1–12.
Jones, T., Caulfield, L., Wilkinson, D. and Weller, L. (2011). The relationship between nonclinical schizotypy and handedness on divergent and convergent creative problem-solving tasks. Creativity Research Journal, 23(3), 222–228.
Juda, A. (1949). The relationship between highest mental capacity and psychic abnormalities. American Journal of Psychiatry, 106, 296–307.
Karimi, Z., Windmann, S., Güntürkün, O. and Abraham, A. (2007). Insight problem solving in individuals with high versus low schizotypy. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 473–480.
Karlsson, J. L. (1970). Genetic association of giftedness and creativity with schizophrenia. Hereditas, 66, 177–182.
Kaufman, J. C. (2001). The Sylvia Plath effect: Mental illness in eminent creative writers. Journal of Creative Behavior, 35, 37–50.
Kaufman, J. C. (2005). The door that leads into madness: Eastern European poets and mental illness. Creativity Research Journal, 17, 99–103.
Kaufman, J. C. (2009). Creativity 101. New York: Springer.
Kaufman, J. C. and Baer, J. (2002). I bask in dreams of suicide: Mental illness and poetry. Review of General Psychology, 6(3), 271–286.
Kaufman, J. C. and Sexton, J. D. (2006). Why doesn’t the writing cure help poets? Review of General Psychology, 10(3), 268–282.
Kaufmann, G. (2003). The effect of mood on creativity in the innovative process. In Shavinina, L. V. (Ed.), International handbook on innovation (pp. 191–203). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Keefe, J. A. and Magaro, P. A. (1980). Creativity and schizophrenia: An equivalence of cognitive processing. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 390–398.
Kinney, D. K. and Matthysse, S. (1978). Genetic transmission of schizophrenia. Annual Review of Medicine, 29, 459–473.
Kinney, D. K., Richards, R. R., Lowing, P. A., LeBlanc, D., Zimblaist, M. E. and Harlan, P. (2000–2001). Creativity in offspring of schizophrenic and control parents: An adoption study. Creativity Research Journal, 13(1), 17–26.
Kottler, J. (2005). Divine madness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Kwapil, T. R. and Barrantes-Vidal, N. (2012). Schizotypal personality disorder: An integrative review. In Widiger, T. A. (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of personality disorders (pp. 437–477). New York: Oxford University Press.
Kyaga, S., Landén, M., Boman, M., Hultman, C., Långström, N. and Lichtenstein, P. (2013). Mental illness, suicide and creativity: 40-year prospective total population study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(1), 83–90.
Kyaga, S., Lichtenstein, P., Boman, M., Hultman, C., Långström, N. and Landén, M. (2011). Creativity and mental disorder: Family study of 300,000 people with severe mental disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 199(5), 373–379.
Lange-Eichbaum, W. (1932). The problem of genius. New York: Macmillan.
Lombroso, C. (1895). The man of genius. London: Walter Scott.
Lubow, R. E. and Gewirtz, J. C. (1995). Latent inhibition in humans: Data, theory, and implications for schizophrenia. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 87–103.
Ludwig, A. M. (1994). Mental illness and creative activity in female writers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1650–1656.
Ludwig, A. M. (1995). The price of greatness. New York: Guilford Press.
Ludwig, A. M. (1998). Method and madness in the arts and sciences. Creativity Research Journal, 11, 93–101.
MacCabe, J. H., Lambe, M. P., Cnattingius, S., Sham, P. C., David, A. S., Reichenberg, A. et al. (2010). Excellent school performance at age 16 and risk of adult bipolar disorder: National cohort study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 196, 109–115.
MacCabe, J. H., Lambe, M. P., Cnattingius, S., Torrång, A., Sham, P. C., David, A. S. et al. (2008). Scholastic achievement at age 16 and risk of schizophrenia and other psychoses: A national cohort study. Psychological Medicine, 38(8), 1133–1140.
Martindale, C. (1999). Biological basis of creativity. In Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 137–152). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mednick, S. A. (1962). The associative basis of the creative process. Psychological Review, 69, 220–232.
Mendelsohn, G. A. (1976). Associative and attentional processes in creative performance. Journal of Personality, 44, 341–369.
Mikulincer, M. and Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change. New York: Guilford Press.
Miller, G. F. and Tal, I. R. (2007). Schizotypy versus openness and intelligence as predictors of creativity. Schizophrenia Research, 93, 317–324.
Murray, G. and Johnson, S. (2010). The clinical significance of creativity in bipolar disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 721–732.
Nelson, B. and Rawlings, D. (2010). Relating schizotypy and personality to the phenomenology of creativity. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 36(2), 388–399.
Nettle, D. (2001). Strong imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nettle, D. (2006). Psychological profiles of professional actors. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 375–383.
Nowakowska, C., Strong, C. M., Santosa, C. M., Wang, P. W. and Ketter, T. A. (2005). Temperamental commonalities and differences in euthymic mood disorder patients, creative controls, and healthy controls. Journal of Affective Disorders, 85(1–2), 207–215.
O’Reilly, T., Dunbar, R. and Bentall, R. (2001). Schizotypy and creativity: An evolutionary connection? Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 1067–1078.
Parker, G., Paterson, A., Fletcher, K., Blanch, B. and Graham, R. (2012). The “magic button question” for those with a mood disorder – would they wish to re-live their condition? Journal of Affective Disorders, 136, 419–424.
Peterson, J. B. and Carson, S. (2000). Latent inhibition and openness to experience in a high-achieving student population. Personality and Individual Differences, 28(2), 323–332.
Post, F. (1994). Creativity and psychopathology: A study of 291 world-famous men. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 22–34.
Post, F. (1996). Verbal creativity, depression and alcoholism: An investigation of one hundred American and British writers. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 545–555.
Pretti, A. and Vellante, M. (2007). Higher rates of psychosis proneness and nonright-handedness among creative artists compared to same age and gender peers. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195, 837–845.
Rawlings, D. and Locarnini, A. (2008). Dimensional schizotypy, autism, and unusual word associations in artists and scientists. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 465–471.
Richards, R. (2000–2001). Creativity and schizophrenia spectrum: More and more interesting. Creativity Research Journal, 13(1), 111–132.
Richards, R. L., Kinney, D. K., Benet, M. and Merzel, A. P. C. (1988). Assessing everyday creativity: Characteristics of the Lifetime Creativity Scales and validation with three large samples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 476–485.
Rodrigue, A. L. and Perkins, D. R. (2012). Divergent thinking abilities across the schizophrenic spectrum and other psychological correlates. Creativity Research Journal, 24(2–3), 163–168.
Rothenberg, A. (1990). Creativity and madness: New findings and old stereotypes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Rubenstein, G. (2008). Are schizophrenic patients necessarily creative? A comparative study between three groups of psychiatric inpatients. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 806–810.
Runco, M. A. (1999). Tension, adaptability, and creativity. In Russ, S. W. (Ed.), Affect, creative experience, and psychological adjustment (pp. 165–194). Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.
Russ, S. W. (2000–2001). Primary-process thinking and creativity: Affect and cognition. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 27–35.
Rybakowski, J. K. and Klonowska, P. (2011). Bipolar mood disorder, creativity and schizotypy: An experimental study. Psychopathology, 44(5), 296–302.
Santosa, C. M., Strong, C. M., Nowakowska, C., Wang, P. W., Rennicke, C. M. and Ketter, T. A. (2007). Enhanced creativity in bipolar disorder patients: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 100, 31–39.
Sass, L. A. (1992). Madness and modernism: Insanity in the light of modern art, literature, and thought. New York: Basic Books.
Sass, L. A. (2000–2001). Schizophrenia, modernism, and the “creative imagination”: On creativity and psychopathology. Creativity Research Journal, 13(1), 55–74.
Sass, L. A. and Schuldberg, D. (2000–2001). Introduction to the Special Issue: Creativity and the schizophrenia spectrum. Creativity Research Journal, 13(1), 1–4.
Sawyer, R. K. (2006). Explaining creativity: The science of human innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schildkraut, J. J., Hirshfeld, A. J. and Murphy, J. M. (1994). Mind and mood in modern art, II: Depressive disorders, spirituality, and early deaths in the abstract expressionist artists of the New York School. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(4), 482–488.
Schlesinger, J. (2009). Creative mythconceptions: A closer look at the evidence for the “mad genius” hypothesis. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 3(2), 62–72.
Schuldberg, D. (1990). Schizotypal and hypomanic traits, creativity, and psychological health. Creativity Research Journal, 3, 218–230.
Schuldberg, D. (2000–2001). Six subclinical spectrum traits in normal creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 13(1), 5–16.
Schuldberg, D. (2005). Eysenck Personality Questionnaire scales and paper-and-pencil tests related to creativity. Psychological Reports, 97(1), 180–182.
Schuldberg, D., French, C., Stone, B. L. and Heberle, J. (1988). Creativity and schizotypal traits. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 176, 648–657.
Silvia, P. and Kaufman, J. C. (2010). Creativity and mental illness. In Kaufman, J. C. and Sternberg, R. J. (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of creativity (pp. 381–394). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Simeonova, D. I., Chang, K. D., Strong, C. and Kette, T. A. (2005). Creativity in familial bipolar disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 39, 623–631.
Simonton, D. K. (2004). Creativity in science: Chance, logic, genius, and zeitgeist. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Simonton, D. K. (2005). Are genius and madness related? Contemporary answers to an ancient question. Psychiatric Times, 22(7), 21–22.
Simonton, D. K. (2010). So you want to become a creative genius? You must be crazy! In Cropley, D., Kaufman, J. C., Cropley, A. and Runco, M. (Eds.), The dark side of creativity (pp. 218–234). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Soeiro-de-Souza, M. G., Dias, V. V., Bio, D. S., Post, R. M. and Moreno, R. A. (2011). Creativity and executive function across manic, mixed and depressive episodes in bipolar I disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 135(1–3), 292–297.
Srivastava, S., Childers, M. E., Baek, J. H., Strong, C. M., Hill, S. J., Warsett, K. S. et al. (2010). Toward interaction of affective and cognitive contributors to creativity in bipolar disorders: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 125, 27–34.
Storr, A. (2000–2001). Creativity and psychopathology. Bulletin of Psychology of the Arts, 1(2), 42–43.
Strong, C. M., Nowakowska, C., Santosa, C. M., Wang, P. W., Kraemer, H. C. and Ketter, T. A. (2007). Temperament–creativity relationships in mood disorder patients, healthy controls and highly creative individuals. Journal of Affective Disorders, 100, 41–48.
Torrance, E. P. (1974). Torrance tests of creative thinking. Lexington, MA: Personnel Press.
Tremblay, C. H., Grosskopf, S. and Yang, K. (2010). Brainstorm: Occupational choice, bipolar illness and creativity. Economics and Human Biology, 8, 233–241.
Tsakanikos, E. and Claridge, G. (2005). More words, less words: Verbal fluency as a function of “positive” and “negative” schizotypy. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(4), 705–713.
van Os, J. and Kapur, S. (2009). Schizophrenia. Lancet, 374, 635–645.
van Os, J., Kenis, G. and Rutten, B. P. F. (2010). The environment and schizophrenia. Nature, 468, 203–212.
Vellante, M., Zucca, G., Preti, A., Sisti, D., Bruno, M., Rocchi, L. et al. (2011). Creativity and affective temperaments in non-clinical professional artists: An empirical psychometric investigation. Journal of Affective Disorders, 135(1–3), 28–36.
Weinstein, S. and Graves, R. E. (2002). Are creativity and schizotypy products of a right hemisphere bias? Brain and Cognition, 49, 138–151.
Weisberg, R. W. (2006). Creativity: Understanding innovation in problem solving, science, invention, and the arts. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Wills, G. I. (2003). A personality study of musicians working in the popular field. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 359–360.