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Creating Agile Business Systems with Reusable Knowledge
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Book description

Agility and innovation are necessary to achieve global excellence and customer value in twenty-first century business; yet most approaches to business process engineering sacrifice these in favor of operational efficiency and economics. Moreover, the IT systems used to automate and encapsulate business processes are unresponsive to the dynamic business environment. Mitra and Gupta provide insight to close this gap - showing how innovation can be systematized with normalized patterns of information, how business processes and information systems may be tightly aligned, and how these processes and systems can be designed to automatically adapt to change by reconfiguring shared patterns of knowledge. A modular approach to building business systems that parallels that of object oriented software is presented. Practical templates required for accelerating integration, analysis and design are provided. This book will appeal to consultants, analysts, and managers in IT as well as researchers and graduate students in business, management and IT.

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  • Foreword
    pp xv-xvi
    • By Harold W. Sorenson, Professor of Engineering Systems Faculty Director Graduate Program in Architecture-based Engineering of Enterprise Systems, Jacobs School of Engineering, Rady School of Management University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92037; Former Chief Scientist, US Air Force; Former Senior Vice President and General Manager for Air Force Systems, at MITRE; Former Chief Engineer, AF Electronic Systems Center
Intelligent agents
1 Mark Nissen, Professor BA248D, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. Telecommunications and Distributed Processing. Intelligent Agents: A Technology and Business Application Analysis, November 30, 1995 at
2 W. Shen and D. H. Norrie of Division of Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Calgary. Agent-Based Systems for Intelligent Manufacturing: A State-of-the-Art Survey, International Journal of Knowledge and Information Systems, 1(2), 129–156, 1999 at
3 Cetus Team. Distributed Objects and Components: Mobile Agents, 2001/03/17, 1996–2000 at
Business Process (re)engineering and e-commerce
4 B. de Vries, J. P. van Leeuwen, and H. H. Achten of Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands. Design Studio of the Future, 1997 at
5 Craig Standing, School of Management Information Systems, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia. Managing and Developing Internet Commerce Systems with ICDM, 1999 at
6 William J. Kettinger, James T. C. Teng, and Subashish Guha, Business Process Change: A Study of Methodologies, Techniques, and Tools, Appendices 4 and 5, in MISQ Archivist, March 1997 at
7 Activity Based Costing and Management from QPR Software at
8 The (US) Department of Defense, 12/15/94. Framework for Managing Process Improvement.
9 Ellen Gottesdiener, President, EBG Consulting, Inc. OO Methodologies: Process and Product Patterns, EBG Consulting, Inc., SIGS Publications, published in Component Strategies, 1(5), 1998 at
10 Wilfred van der Vegte, Assistant Professor, Delft University of Technology presented at EDIProd Conference, October 14, 2000, Dychow, Poland. Reflections on Artifact Related Process Modeling, October 20, 2000 at,,,
Ontologies and component re-use projects
11 Jose Vasconcelos, Department of Computer Science, University of York, UK and Multimedia Resource Center, University of Fernando Pessoa, Portugal; Chris Kimble, Department of Computer Science, University of York, UK; Feliz Gouveia, Multimedia Resource Center, University of Fernando Pessoa, Portugal; Daniel Kudenko, Department of Computer Science, University of York, UK. A Group Memory System for Corporate Knowledge Management: An Ontological Approach, September 2000 at
12 Peter Green of Department of Commerce, University of Queensland, Australia and Michael Roseman of School of Information Systems, Queensland Institute of Technology, Australia. Ontological Analysis of Integrated Process Modeling: Some Initial Insights, a paper presented in the Proceedings of the Australian Conference on Information Systems (ACIS 2000), Brisbane, Australia, December 6–8, 2000.
13 Michael Rosemann of Queensland University of Technology, School of Information Systems and Peter Green of University of Queensland, Department of Commerce in the Proceedings of the Information Systems Foundations Workshop on Ontology, Semiotics and Practice 1999. Enhancing the Process of Ontological Analysis – The “Who Cares” Dimension at
14 C. N. G. (Kit) Dampney and M. S. J Johnson, Department of Computing, Macquarie University in Proceedings of the Information Systems Foundations Workshop on Ontology, Semiotics and Practice, 1999. An Information Theory Formalization and the BWW Ontology at
15 Andreas L. Opdahl and Brian Henderson-Sellers of School of Computing Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney in Proceedings of the Information Systems Foundations Workshop on Ontology, Semiotics and Practice 1999. Evaluating and Improving OO Modeling Languages Using the BWW-Model at
16 Glynn Winskel and Mogels Nielsen, Computer Science Department, Aarhus University, Denmark. Categories, in Concurrency, 1997. See abstract at,
17 David Rowe and John Leaney, Computer Systems Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney. Evaluating Evolvability of Computer Based Systems Architectures – An Ontological Approach in IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Computer-Based Systems (ECBS Workshop 1997) at
18 Mylopoulos, John, University of Toronto. Information Modeling in the Time of RevolutionInformation Systems 23 (3–4), June 1998.
19 Julieanne van Zyl and Dan Corbett, School of Computer and Information Science, University of South Australia. Framework for Comparing Methods for Using or Reusing Multiple Ontologies in an Application, a paper presented in the Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, Darmstadt, Germany, August, 2000.
20 Urban Nulden, Department of Informatics, Göteborg University, Sweden. The Why, What, and How of Reuse in Software Development at the 20th Information Systems Research seminar in 1997 at Scandinavia, Hank⊘, Norway at
21 Andreas L Opdahl, Department of Information Science, University of Bergen. A Comparison of Four Families of Multi-Perspective Problem Analysis Methods, technical paper from project Technology Inc., 1998 at papers.html.
22 Yair Wand, Management Information Systems, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, The University of British Columbia, Canada and Richard Y. Wang, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. Business: Anchoring Data Quality Dimensions in Ontological Foundations, 1994 at
23 Andreas L. Opdahl, Associate Professor, Department of Information Science, University of Bergen. Towards a Faceted Modeling Language in Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Information Systems, 353–366, Cork, Cork Publishing Ltd, 1997.
24 National Committee for Information Technology Standards, Technical Committee H7. Object Model Features Matrix (document number X3H7-93-007v12b) May 25, 1997 at
25 John Kingston, AIAI, University of Edinburgh. Merging Top Level Ontologies for Scientific Knowledge Management (ref. EDI-INF-RR-0171) in Proceedings of the AAAI Workshop on Ontologies and the Semantic Web, AAAI-02 Conference, Edmonton, Canada, July 29, 2002 at
26 List of some key domain specific and cross industry software component reuse projects with links to each at and
27 Peter Clark of Boeing. Some Ongoing KBS/Ontology Projects and Groups, compiled at
28 Institut für Angewandte Informatik und Formale Beschreibungsverfahren links to world-wide ontology and knowledge use projects and researchers at or
29 COMMET & KREST. Knowledge Reusability and Configurability Projects at
30 TOVE (Toronto Virtual Enterprise) Knowledge Reuse Project (as of February 18, 2002) at
31 TOVE ontologies at
32 KACTUS Reusable Knowledge Modeling, 1995 at
33 Wielinga, Schreiber and others. Project 8145 (The project partners were Cap Gemini Innovation (January 1994–September 1995), Integral Solutions Limited (September 1995–September 1996), CAP Programator, DELOS S.p.A, FINCANTIERI, IBERDROLA, LABEIN, Lloyd's Register, RPK Universität Karlsruhe, STATOIL, SINTEF Automatic Control, University of Amsterdam: KACTUS ESPRIT). Modeling Knowledge about Complex Technical Systems for Multiple Use, several papers at
34 PROJECTXML™ (Year: 2000) by Project. Net San Diego, CA. The firm's website is
35 The One World Information System (OWIS) General Enterprise Management (GEM), Engineering, and Improvement Framework at
36 Rational Corporation: Rational Requirements Framework, Net Market Edition, 2000.
37 Simon Cox of Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. DCMI Box Encoding Scheme: Specification of the Spatial Limits of a Place, and Methods for Encoding This in a Text String, July 28, 2000 at
38 Simon Cox of Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. DCMI Period Encoding Scheme: Specification of the Limits of a Time Interval, and Methods for Encoding This in a Text String, July 28, 2000 at
39 Simon Cox of Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. DCMI Point Encoding Scheme: A Point Location in Space, and Methods for Encoding This in a Text String, July 28, 2000 at
40 Tim Menzies, Department of Artificial Intelligence, University of New South Wales. KBS Methodologies: KADS and Others, technical report TR95-28, Department of Software Development, Monash University, 1995.
41 KADS: A Development Methodology for Knowledge-based Systems at
42 Philippe Martin, University of Adelaide (Australia) – Computer Sciences Department. KADS Top-level Ontology of Concept Types and Relations Types at,,
43 A. Th. Schreiber, J. M. Ackkermans, A. A. Anjewierden, R. de Hoog, N. R. Shadbolt, W. Van de Velde, and B. J. Wielinga. Knowledge Engineering and Management: The Common KADS Methodology at and
44 Kieron O'Hara, Artificial Intelligence Group, University of Nottingham, UK. A Representation of KADS-I Interpretation Models Using a Decompositional Approach in Proceedings of 3rd KADS Meeting, 1993 at
45 John Kingston AIAI, University of Edinburgh. Common KADS: Overview of Knowledge Engineering Methods at
46 I. Laresgoiti and A. Bernaras1 of LABEIN, Spain; A. Anjewierden, A. TH. Schreiber and B. J. Wielinga of University of Amsterdam, Department of Social Science Informatics, The Netherlands; and J. Corera of IBERDROLA, Spain. Ontologies as Vehicles for Reuse: A Mini-experiment, 1996 at
47 Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF) draft of proposed American National Standard (dpANS) NCITS.T2/98-004: A Framework for Comparing Methods for Using or Reusing Multiple Ontologies in an Application, 1998 at
48 Rational Corporation. Rational Reusable Asset Specification (1999 technical report: major contributors Grady Booch, Catapulse, CTO Peter Eeles, Rational, RSO UK; Luan Doan-Minh, Rational, SSO US; Kelli Houston, Rational, A&AF Senior Architecture Specialist; Ivar Jacobson, Rational, VP of Business Engineering; Wojtek Kozaczynski, Rational, Director of A⁡ Philippe Kruchten, Rational Fellow; Grant Larsen, Catapulse, Senior Architecture Specialist; Jon Lawrence, Rational, A&AF Product Manager; Davyd Norris, Rational Software, RSO Australia, Jim Rumbaugh, Rational Fellow, Bran Selic, Rational, Methodologist, Jim Thario, Rational, A&AF Senior Software Engineer).
Unified Modeling Language (UML)
49 Mike Lee, of Project Technology Inc. Object Oriented Analysis in the Real World, 1992.
50 Rational Software Corporation. UML Quick Reference for Rational Rose, 2001 at
Extended modeling language (XML)
51 XML Information Set W3C Working Draft March 16, 2001 and XML Information Set (second edition) W3C Recommendation, February 4, 2004 at
52 XML Schema Part 1: Structures, W3C Candidate Recommendation October 24, 2000 of the World Wide Web Consortium and XML Schema Part 1: Structures (second edition), W3C Recommendation, October 28, 2004 at
53 XML Schema Part 0: Primer, W3C Proposed Recommendation, March 16, 2000; editor David C. Fallside (IBM) at (World Wide Web Consortium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique, Keio University.)
54 XML Core Metamodel at and
55 XML 1.0 (second edition) W3C (MIT, INRIA, Keio), 2000 and XML 1.0 (third edition) W3C Recommendation February 4, 2004 at
Process/task/schedule management and models
56 Veryard Projects. Process Management Workflow, Workload, Work Control, 1995–2001 at
57 M. C. Tanuan, Software Engineering Manager of Waterloo EAServer QA, eBusiness Division, Sybase, Inc. An Introduction to Workflow and Business Process Modeling, December 2, 1997 at
58 Stephen Russell Jernigan, M. S. E. and K. S. Barber, The University of Texas at Austin. Distributed Search Method for Scheduling Flow Through a Factory Floor, 1966 at
59 Various practitioners and academics. Diverse manufacturing process summaries of Refereed Conference Papers of ICME 2000, 8th International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering in Sydney, August 27–30, 2000 at
60 S. R. Jernigan, S. Ramaswamy, and K. S. Barber, The Laboratory for Intelligent Processes and Systems, The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin. A Distributed Search and Simulation Method for Job Flow Scheduling November 30, 1995 at
61 Project Management Institute (PMI). A Guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK Guide 2000 edition. PMI web page is at
62 Jürgen Sauer and L. Jain, Intelligent Techniques in Industry, In Knowledge-Based Scheduling Techniques in Industry, CRC Press, 1998 (excerpts available at
Process algebras and techniques
63 Assaf Arkin of Intalio Inc. from the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) Consortium. Business Process Markup Language (BPML), Working Draft 0.4 3/8/2001 (the BPMI site is
64 Vitria Technology, Inc. Executive Overview: Value Chain Markup LanguageTM-VCMLTM. A Collaborative E-Business Vocabulary, 2001 (Vitria Technology Inc. home page at
65 Vitria Technology, Inc. Downloads: Value Chain Markup LanguageTM-VCMLTM. A Collaborative E-Business Vocabulary, 2001.
66 Alexander James Cowie, School of Computer and Information Science, University of South Australia. The Modeling of Temporal Properties in a Process Algebra Framework, 1999 at
67 Deepa Pandalai, Honeywell Technology Center, Honeywell Inc. Minneapolis, USA and Lawrence Holloway, Center for Robotics and Manufacturing Systems, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. Template Languages for Fault Monitoring of Concurrent and Non-Concurrent Discrete Event Processes, March 1997 at
68 Rajeev Alur and David Dill, Computer Science Department, Stanford University, CA, USA. A Theory of Timed Automata, 1994. Abstract available at and
69 Petri Nets at (Maintained by Armin Zimmermann Dr.-Ing., research assistant, Technische Universität Berlin.)
70 Graph Theory: Color Petrinet at (Maintained by Shinshu University, Japan.)
71 Graph Theory: CO Petrinet at
72 Srinivasan Ramaswamy, University of Southwestern Louisiana. Ph.D. thesis, Hierarchical Time-Extended Petri Nets (H-EPNs) for Integrated Control and Diagnostics of Multilevel Systems, 1994.
73 Vijay K. Garg, University of California, Berkely, CA, USA and M. T. Raghunath of the University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA. Concurrent Regular Expressions and their Relationship to Petri Nets, 1992 at
74 C. Ramchandani, Timed Petri nets, Technical Report 120, Project MAC, Massachusetts Institute Technology. A Study of Asynchronous Concurrent Systems, February 1974.
75 Calculi for Mobile Processes at
76 Marcus Lumpe at the University of Berne, Germany. A Pi-Calculus Based Approach to Software Composition, an inaugural dissertation, January 21, 1999 at
77 Lucian Wischik, University of Bologna. New Directions in Implementing Pi Calculus, August 30, 2002 at
78 J.-P. Courtiat, C. A. S. Santos, C. Lohr, and B. Outtaj of LAAS-CNRS, France and Ecole Mohamedia d'Ingénieurs, Rabat, Maroc. Experience with RT-LOTOS: A Temporal Extension of the LOTOS Formal Description Technique, in Computer Communications, 23, 1104–1123, 2000 at and
79 David Harel, On Visual Formalisms, Communications of the ACM, 31(5), 521–523, 527, May 1988.
80 Davis, Alan M., A Comparison of Techniques for the Specification of External System Behavior, Communications of the ACM, 31(9), 1105, 1988.
81 Harel, David and Pnueli, A., Department of Applied Mathematics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. On Development of Reactive Systems, 8–10, NATO ASI Series F, Vol. 13, SpringerVerlag, 1985.
82 Harel, David, On Visual Formalisms, Communications of the ACM, 31(5), 519, 1988.
83 Robert L. Jones III of Langley Research Center, VA, USA. NASA Technical Paper 3491, Design Tool for Multiprocessor Scheduling and Evaluation of Iterative Data Flow Algorithms, August 1998 at
84 Sergio Bandinelli, Alfonso Fuggetta, and Sandro Grigolli, Process Modeling in-the-large with SLANG at Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Software Process, 1993.
85 Mark E. Pitstick and William L. Garrison, Path Research Report UCB-ITS-PRR-91–7, Institute for Transportation Studies, University of California, Berkely, USA. Restructuring the Automobile Highway System for Lean Vehicles: The Scaled Precedence Activity Network (SPAN) Approach, April 1991.
86 Klaus Neumann and Welf G. Schneider, Dokumenteserver der Universitätsbibliothek Karlsruhe, in a 1997 Technical Report, Heuristic Algorithms for Job Shop Scheduling Problems with Stochastic Precedence Constraints, at
87 Liang, Bin-Shiang and Wang, Feng-Jiang, Institute of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan and Jenn-Nan Chen of Samar Electronics Corporation Ltd, Taiwan. A Project Model for Software Development, Journal of Science and Engineering, 16, 423–446, 2000 at
88 Workshop on Design of Algorithms, Dresden, Module 17 Design Algorithms Channel. A Matrix Calculus for the Analysis and Generation of Binary Relations: Generalizations and Applications, part 1, 1996 at
89 Oyvind Forsbak, Department of Informatics, University of Oslo. Graduate thesis, A Critical Review of Aggregation in Object Models, and a Proposal for New Aggregation Concepts in UML.
90 William Paul Rogers, Senior Engineering Manager and Application Architect, Lutris Technologies. Reveal the Magic Behind Subtype Polymorphism, Java World, April 2001 at
91 Eric Allen, Ph.D. graduate student, Programming Language Technology Group, Rice University. Behold The Power Of Parametric Polymorphism Java World, February 2000 at
92 R. Armstrong, D. Gannon, A. Geist, K. Keahey, S. Kohn, L. McInnes, S. Parker, and B. Smolinski at CCA Forum. Towards a Common Component Architecture for High-Performance Scientific Computing, 1999.
93 Grady Booch, Rational Software Corp.; Magnus Christerson, Rational Software Corp.; Matthew Fuchs, Commerce One Inc.; Jari Koistinen, Commerce One Inc. at the UML resource Center. UML for XML Schema Mapping Specification, August 12, 1999.
94 Dr. James Rumbaugh, OMT Papers, September 1995.
95 P. H. Aiken, Reverse Engineering of Data IBM, 1998 at
Demand and supply chains and standards
96 Bill Hakanson, Executive Director Supply Chain Council (SCC). Supply Chain Management: Where Today's Businesses Compete, December 2, 1997 at
97 Gaps in Common Knowledge Between Professions, Kenneth Kmack Associates August 2000 at
98 Stewart, Gordon, Supply Chain Operations Reference Model (SCOR): The First Cross Industry Framework for Integrated Supply Chain Management, Logistics Information Management, 10(2), 62–67, 1997.
99 QPR Software: SCOR Supply Chain Model from the Supply-Chain Council at
100 S95 Standard May 2001, Enterprise – Control System Integration Standard, ANSI / ISA S95.00.01–2000, May 2001 at
101 Dennis Brandl Director, Enterprise Initiative Sequencia Corporation, NC USA; Peter Owen, Eli Lilly & Co. A Tutorial on the SP95 Enterprise/Control Integration Standard at
102 Keith Unger of EnteGreat Inc. Integrate ERP with Control Systems Using the S95 model, Mountain Systems Inc, a presentation at the Mountain Systems Conference, May 13–17, 2002 at
103 Controls Definition and MES to Controls Data Flow Possibilities, MESA International White Paper Number 3, MESA International, Pittsburgh, PA, USA at
104 Paul Sawyer, PES Associates. CAPE Tools for the Design and Operation of Batch Processes presented on 13 August 2001 at CAPE-21 (a conference on Computer Aided Process Engineering Tools and Techniques for the twenty-first Century).
105 Brian A. Johnson, managing partner for strategy, research and thought leadership in the Cross Financial Services Solutions group, Accenture Corp. Fault Lines in CRM: New E-Commerce Business Models and Channel Integration Challenges, White Paper, January 15, 1999 at
106 Jagdish Sheth, Professor of Marketing, Goizueta Business School and Dr. Rajendra Sisodia Trustee Professor of Marketing, Bentley College Waltham MA. Marketing's Final Frontier – The Automation of Consumption, 2000 at and
107 Osman Turan, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech. Introduction to Supply Chain Management, 2000 at
108 QPR Software, Introduction to Supply Chain Management, 2000 at
109 Cyber M@rketing Services. Demand Chain Management: New Strategies for E-Business, IMA, 1998, 1999, 2000.
110 Jan Holmström, and Tiina Tissari, The ECOMLOG Research Program, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Helsinki University of Technology. IT Value Capture: Creating an Effective Demand–Supply Chain for IT Solutions, presented at Logistics Research Network (LRN) 5th Annual Conference, Cardiff, UK, September 2000 at
111 REM Associates of Princeton, Inc. Supply Chain Move Over, It's Time for Demand Chain (March 2000), 1999, 2000 at
112 Jim Noller, project consultant, Renaissance Worldwide. Integrating the Demand Chain and the Supply Chain: Technology and Trends, 1999 at Please register at register at: to access this site.
113 Holmstrom, Jan, Hoover, William E. Jr., Louhiluoto, Perttu, and Vasara, Antti, Mckinsey & Co. The Other End of the Supply Chain, McKinsey Quarterly, (1), 62–71, 2000.
114 Roberto Michel, Manufacturing Systems. Why Best Practices Make Perfect: CFAR and SCOR Initiatives Aim to Improve Supply Chain Operations, Manufacturing Business Technology, 1997 at
115 Elgar Fleisch and Hubert Oesterle, Institute of Information Management, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland. A Process Oriented Approach to Business Networking, Virtual Organization Net, 2(2), 2000 at or,2-1%20-%20A%20Process-oriented%20Approach%20to%20Business%20Networking.pdf (access through
116 Kevin Crowston, School of Business Administration, MIT Sloan Center for Coordination Science University of Michigan, Michigan, USA. A Taxonomy of Organizational Dependencies and Coordination Mechanisms, May 1999 at
117 R. Alexander Milowski, XML Architect and Ray Waldin, Senior XML Engineer Lexica LLC. iLingo – The Language of Insurance e-Business at
118 Prof. A. W. Scheer, Instutut Fur Wirtschaftinformatik der universitat des saarlander. ARIS Business Process Model at and
119 Lee, Hau L. and Billington, Corey, Managing Supply Chain Inventory: Pitfalls and Opportunities, Sloan Management Review, Cambridge 33(3), 1992.
120 Ranier Alt, Elgar Fleissch, and Hubert Osterle, Institute of Information Management, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland. Electronic Commerce and Supply Chain Management at ETA Fabriques d' Ebauches SA, 2000 at
121 Voluntary Interindustry Commerce Standards (VICS) Association. The CPFR Process Model at and
122 Voluntary Interindustry Commerce Standards (VICS) Association. The CPFR Data Model, 2002 at or (See also links to current papers at
123 Collaborative Practices Research Initiative Sponsored by The Neeley Supply and Value Chain Center, Texas Christian University. November 15, 2004 at
124 VICS, Process and Results Metrics. Measuring the Success of a Process-Driven Value Chain at
125 VICS CPFR XML Messaging Model standard draft, January 17, 2001 for public comment at
126 ICS/CPFR IDEF0 Format Model at See also
127 Rosettanet Standards at
128 Rosettanet PIP Directory at
129 Rosettanet PIPs at
130 Rosettanet Fundamental Business Data Entities at
131 Rosettanet Business Data Entities at
132 Rosettanet Business Properties at
133 David Sprott, Open Market Components, A CBDi Forum Report, January 2000 at
Financial accounting
134 AccountingSTUDY. comSM. Accounting Study Guide, 1999–2002 at
135 AccountingSTUDY.comSM. Accrual Basis vs. Cash Basis Accounting, 1999–2002 at
136 AccountingSTUDY.comSM. Introduction to Adjusting Journal Entries, 1999–2002 at
137 Wikipedia. US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles at
138 AccountingSTUDY.comSM. FASB Statements, Financial Accounting Standards Board, ARB, APB Opinions, American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States Index, 1999–2002 at
139, 1999–2003 at
140 Ratios for Financial Statement Analysis Web Site, Financial Ratios: Summary, 1999–2002 at
141 Ratios for Financial Statement Analysis Web Site, Financial Ratios: Index, 1999–2002 at
142 Annual Report Project Resources, 1999–2001 at
Software process
143 David Chappell of Chappell & Associates. The Next Wave: Component Software Enters the Mainstream, April 1997 at
144 Kruchten, Philippe of Rational Software Corp., Canada. The 4+1 View Model of Architecture, IEEE Software, 12(6), 42–50, 1995.
145 D. E. Perry and A. L. Wolf. Foundations for the Study of Software Architecture, ACM Software Engineering Notes, 40–52, October 1992.
146 Capability Maturity Model for Software (version 1.1), Publication TR 25 from Software Engineering Institute (SEI)
147 Carnegie Mellon University. CMMI Models, 2002 at
148 Michael Paulk, Carnegie Mellon University. A History of the Capability Maturity Model for Software at
149 Carnegie Mellon University. Concept of Operations for the CMMI, 2002 at
150 Bob Rassa of Raytheon Corporation and Clyde Chittister of the Software Engineering Institute. State of the CMMI: Improving Processes for Better Products, Carnegie Mellon University, 2002 at
151 Sarah A. Sheard of the Software Productivity Consortium. The Frameworks Quagmire: A Brief Look, at
152 S. Bandinelli, A. Fugetta, and S. Ghezzi, Software Processes as Real Time Systems: A Case Study Using High Level Petri Nets, in Proceedings of the International Phoenix Conference on Computers and Communications, Phoenix, AZ, April 1992, pp. 231–242.
153 Giancarlo Succi, University of Calgary, Canada and Luigi Benedicenti, Paolo Predonzani and Tullio Vernazza of University Di Genova, Italy. Standardizing the Reuse of Software Processes at
User interface standards
154 Microsoft Inductive User Interface Guidelines at
155 CSS2 Specification: Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 W3C Recommendation, May 12, 1998 at
Agile processes and adaptive software
156 Peter Norvig and David Cohn of Harlequin Incorporated. Adaptive Software at
157 Laura M. Meade of Automation and Robotics Research Institute's Enterprise Engineering Program, The University of Texas. Agile Process Design at
158 Scott W. Ambler, Agile Software Development at
159 Don Wells, Extreme Programming: A Gentle Introduction, 1999, 2000, 2001 at
160 Jim Dowling and Vinny Cahill of the Department of Computer Science, Trinity College, Dublin. K-Component Architecture Meta-model for Self-Adaptive Software at
161 Howard Smith, chief technology officer (Europe) of Computer Sciences Corporation and co-chair of the Business Process Management Initiative, and Peter Fingar, executive partner with the Greystone Group. The Next Fifty Years, Darwin, December 2002 at
162 Peyman Oreizy, Ph.D candidate, University of California, Irvine; Michael Gorlick, Research Scientist, Aerospace Corporation; Richard Taylor, Professor, Department of Information and Computer Science, UCI and Director of the Irvine Research Unit in Software; Dennis Heinsbigner, Research Associate Professor, University of Colorado, Boulder; Gregory Johnson, Member of Technical Staff, Concept Shopping Inc.; Nenad Medvidevic, Assistant Professor, Computer Science Department, University of Southern California; Alex Quilici, Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Hawaii, Manoa; David Rosenblum, Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science, UCI; and Alexander Wolf, Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado, Boulder. An Architecture Based Approach to Self-Adaptive Software at
163 Paul Robertson of Dynamic Language Labs, Andover, MA. Self-Adaptive Software, a white paper for the Workshop on New Visions for Software Design and Productivity at
164 Karyl Scott, Computer, Heal Thyself, InformationWeek, April 1, 2002 at or
Mathematical foundations: set theory, number theory, category theory, theory of functions, lambda calculus, spaces and their properties, borel sets and tensors
165 Mathematical and Logical Vocabulary, Cycorp 1996, 1997, 1998. Cycorp is based in Austin, Texas. The cycorp home page is at
166 Kyle Siegrist, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Alabama in Huntsville. Sets and Events, Virtual Laboratories in Probability and Statistics, 1997–2001. The tutorial is available at
167 Set theory at (Describes the basic axioms of set.)
168 Basic set theory from Wikipedia at
169 Axiom of choice at
170 Power set at
171 Axiom of regularity from Wikipedia at
172 Mathematical class from Wikipedia at
173 Category theory from Wikipedia at
174 John Baez, Professor of Mathematics, University of California, Riverside Categories, Quantization, and Much More, August 7, 1992 at
175 Chris Hillman, Ph.D., Mathematics, University of Washington. A Categorical Primer, a tutorial paper, July 2, 2001 at
176 Goldblatt. Topoii: The Categorical Analysis of Logic at
177 John Baez, Professor of Mathematics, University of California, Riverside. This Week's Finds in Mathematical Physics (Week 68) October 29, 1995 at
178 Steven Vickers, Department of Computing, Imperial College, London, UK. Topical Categories of Domains Mathematical Structures in Computer Science, Volume 11, Cambridge University Press, 1995 at
179 Heyting Algebra at
180 Masao Mori, Department of Information Systems, Interdisciplinary Graduate school of Engineering Science, and Yasuo Kawahara of Research Institute of Fundamental Information Science, both of Kyushu University, Japan. Heyting Algebra at
181 Robert Goldblatt, Topoii, Categorical Analysis of Logic, Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, Volume 98, New York, North Holland, 1984 at or
182 Andrew M. Pitts of Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, England. Non-trivial Power Types Can't be Subtypes of Polymorphic Types, a paper presented in Proceedings Fourth Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science, 6–13, Asilomar, CA, July 1989, IEEE Computer Society Press, 1989 at
183 Mathematical topos from Wikipedia at
184 John Baez, Professor of Mathematics, University of California, Riverside, January 3, 2001: Topos Theory in a Nutshell℗ John Baez at
185 Law of excluded middle from Wikipedia at
186 Functor from Wikipedia at
187 Monoid from Wikipedia at
188 Mathematical Group from Wikipedia at
189 Semigroup from Wikipedia at
190 Subgroup from Wikipedia at
191 Group Action from Wikipedia at
192 Mathematical Ring from Wikipedia at
193 Fundamental Group from Wikipedia at
194 Group representation Lie Algebra from Wikipedia at
195 Abelian group from Wikipedia at
196 Lie Group from Wikipedia at
197 Lie Algebra from Wikipedia at
198 Ring Ideal from Wikipedia at
199 Integral domain from Wikipedia at
200 Field from Wikipedia at
201 Finite Field from Wikipedia at
202 Countable at
203 Countably infinite at
204 Continuum hypothesis at
205 Cantors Diagonal argument at
206 Cardinal number at
207 Number from Wikipedia at
208 Dense from Wikipedia at
209 Jens Blanch, University of Gavle, Gavle, Sweden (1998): Domain representation of topological spaces at
210 Pascal Hitzler, Universität Tübingen February 1998: Scott Domains, Generalized Ultrametric Spaces and Generalized Acyclic Logic Programs (now at University of Karlsruhe)
211 Guy Davies, Decision Theory, Hösten 2000: Order and Value Assignment, a seminar series at ITE.
212 Ordinal at
213 Total Order at
214 Well-founded set at
215 Well-order at
216 Ordered field at
217 Partial order at
218 Lattice from Wikipedia at (Numbers, functions, and number theory.)
219 Natural number from Wikipedia at
220 Rational number from Wikipedia at
221 Irrational number from Wikipedia at
222 Real number from Wikipedia at
223 Complex number from Wikipedia at
224 Transcendental number at
225 Hyperreal numbers from Wikipedia at
226 Hypercomplex numbers from Wikipedia at
227 Octonions from Wikipedia at
228 Quaternions from Wikipedia at
229 Sedenions from Wikipedia at
230 P-adic numbers from Wikipedia at
231 Surreal numbers from Wikipedia at
232 Functions and Random Variables at
233 Function at
234 Injective, surjective and bijective functions from Wikipedia at,+surjective+and+functions
235 Cartesian product at
236 Direct Product from Wikipedia at
237 Recursion definition at
238 Transfinite induction at
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240 Lambda calculus at
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243 Andrew Myers, Cornell University. Advanced Programming Languages at
244 H. Zhang of Iowa University: Lambda Calculus at
245 M.-J. Dominus Church–Rosser Theorem, 1999 at
246 Chris Clack, Senior Lecturer and MSc. CS Course Director, Department of Computer Science, UCLA. The Lambda Calculus: A Deeper Look at
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250 Entscheidungsproblem at
251 First-order predicate calculus at
252 Manfred Kanka, A paper on Semantics, Manfred Krifka, Institut für deutsche Sprache und Linguistik, HU Berlin, WS 2000/2001at
253 Anthony J. Roy, Department of Computer Science, University of Keele, UK. A Comparison of Rough Sets, Fuzzy Sets and Non-monotonic Logic Technical Report TR99–11, June 1999 at
254 Functional programming at
255 Eric W. Weisstein, Space from Eric Weissensteinn's Treasure Trove of Science at
256 Tensor from Wikipedia at
257 Tensor/Old from Wikipedia at
258 Tensor at
259 Metric Tensor at
260 Vector space from Wikipedia at
261 Normed vector space from Wikipedia at
262 Topology from Wikipedia at
263 Pointless Topology at
264 Topology Glossary from Wikipedia at
265 Dr. Paul Cairns (principal Investigator) and Jeremy Gow (researcher) of Interaction Design Centre at the School of Computing Science, Middlesex University, UK. The definition of a metric space based on lecture notes by Peter Collins in Elements of Euclidean and Metric Topology of the Interactive, available at the Mathematical Proofs research (IMP) project (January 2001 to June 2002), funded by The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), UK at
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267 Bruce MacLennan, Computer Science Department University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Discrete Metric Space, 1996.
268 Manifold from Wikipedia at
269 Hausdorff space from Wikipedia at
270 Tychonoff space from Wikipedia at
271 Dimensional Analysis from Wikipedia at
272 Fundamental Dimensions from Wikipedia at
273 Hausdorff Dimension from Wikipedia at
274 Infimum from Wikipedia at
275 Hamel dimension from Wikipedia at
276 Connectedness from Wikipedia at
277 Simply Connected from Wikipedia at
278 Eric W. Weisstein, Distance at
279 Eric W. Weisstein, Metric at
280 Measure at
281 Thierry Coquand, How to Define Measures of Borel Sets at
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286 Jack Sarfatti, A Semi-Pop Non-Mathematical Tutorial on Hilbert Space in Quantum Mechanics at
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288 Buckingham's Pi Theorem, Academic Press Dictionary of Science, Editor Christopher Morris, Elsevier Science & Technology Books, December 1991.
289 Eric Weisstein, Buckingham's Pi Theorem, Eric Weisstein's World of Physics at
Information theory, chaos theory and miscellaneous publications
290 Information Theory from Wikipedia at
291 Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis from Wikipedia at
292 Chaos theory from Wikipedia at
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294 Ross, Ronald G., The Business Rule Book: Classifying, Defining and Modeling Rules, Database Research Group Inc, 1997.
295 Hammer, Michael and Champy, James, Reengineering The Corporation, Harper Collins, 1993.
296 Herzum, Peter and Sims, Oliver, Business Component Factory: A Comprehensive Overview of Component-Based Development for the Enterprise, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
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300 Scheer, August-Wilhelm, ARIS, Business Process Frameworks, Springer-Verlag, August 1999.
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303 Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (version 4) from the SSADM College Ltd, 1996 at
304 Fleming, Candace C. and Halle, Barbara, Handbook of Relational Database Design, Addisson Wesley, 1989.
305 Maisell, and Gnugnoli, of Science Research Associates.Simulation of Discrete Stochastic Systems, Published in 1972.
306 Finkel, Raphael, Functional Programming, Addison-Wesley, 1996: Chapter 4 at
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308 Finkbeiner, Daniel II, Kenyon College. Matrices and Linear Transformations, W. H. Freeman & Co., 1966, Chapter 1.
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310 Parzen, Emanuel, Stanford University.Modern Probability Theory and Its Applications, John Wiley, 1960, 1992.
311 Siegel, Sidney, Research Professor of Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University.Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, McGraw-Hill, Kogakusha Ltd, 1956, 1988.
312 Wagner, M. Harvey of Yale University.Principles of Operations Research with Applications to Managerial Decisions, Prentice Hall, 1969, 1975.
313 Gillett, Billy E., Professor of Computer Science, University of Missouri-Rolla.Introduction to Operations Research: A Computer Oriented Algorithmic Approach, McGraw-Hill, 1976.
314 Kreysig, Erwin, Professor of Mathematics, Ohio State University.Advanced Engineering Mathematics, John Wiley & Sons, 1967, 1999.
315 Goodman, A. W., University of South Florida.Modern Calculus with Analytic Geometry, New York:MacMillan, 1967, 1974.
316 Durell, William R., The Complete Guide To Data Modeling, Data Administration Inc.
317 Durell, W., Data Administration: A Practical Guide to Data Management, New York:McGraw-Hill, 1985.
318 Pagnoni, Anastasia, Project Engineering: Computer-Oriented Planning and Operational Decision Making, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1999.
319 Dymond, Kenneth M., A Guide to the CMM: Understanding the Capability Maturity Model for Software, Process Transition International Inc., 1995.
320 Jeanie, Daniel Duck, Senior Vice President, the Boston Consulting Group.The Change Monster, Random House, 2001.
321 Moore, Geoffrey, Crossing the Chasm, New York:HarperCollins, 2002.
322 Inmon, W. H., A Brief History of Data Base Design, John Wiley, 1999.
323 Tom Mullins, Department of Physics, University of Oxford; David Holton, Department of Hydrogeology, Harwell Laboratory; Robert May, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford; J. M. T. Thompson, Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Applications, University College of London; Peter L. Read, Department of Physics, University of Oxford; M. S. Child, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford; and Jonathan Keating, Department of Mathematics, University of Manchester. The Nature of Chaos, Oxford University Press, 1993.
324 Chamberlin, G. J. and Chamberlin, D. G., Colour: Its Measurement, Computation and Application, Heyden & Sons, 1980.
325 Pekelis, V., Cybernetics A to Z, English translation, Moscow:Mir, 1974.
326 Aburdene, Maurice, Bucknell University.Computer Simulation of Dynamic Systems, Dubuque, Iowa:William C. Brown, 1988.
327 Law, Averill, President, Simulation Modeling and Analysis Company, Tucson, Arizona, USA and Professor of Decision Sciences, University of Arizona and W. Kelton, Associate Professor of Operations Research and Management Science, University of Minnesota.Simulation Modeling and Analysis, second edition, McGraw Hill, 1991.
328 Bertrand Meyer, Object-Oriented Software Construction Interactive, Software Engineering, Inc., 1993–2001. Key extracts are available at
329 Fowler, Martin and Scott, Kendall, UML Distilled: Applying the Standard Object Modeling Language, Addison-Wesley Longman Inc., 1999.
330 Douglass, Bruce Powel, Real-Time UML: Developing Efficient Objects for Embedded Systems, Second Edition, Addison-Wesley Longman Inc., 1997.
331 Rumbaugh, James, Jacobson, Ivar, and Booch, Grady, The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual, Addison-Wesley Longman Inc., 2004.
332 Booch, Grady, Rumbaugh, James, and Jacobson, Ivar, The Unified Modeling Language User Guide, Addison-Wesley Longman Inc., 1998.
333 Muller, Pierre-Alain, Instant UML, Birmingham, UK: Wrox Press Ltd, 1997.
334 Eugene Blanchard (Edited by Joshua Drake, Bill Randolph, and Phuong Ma), Introduction to Networking and Data Communications, Commandprompt, Inc and Copyright, 2001 at
335 Smith, Howard and Fingar, Peter, Business Process Management: The Third Wave, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2003.
336 The New Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th Edition, Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 1988.
337 Mitra, Amit and Gupta, Amar, Agile Systems with Reusable Patterns of Business Knowledge: A Component Based Approach, Artech House, 2005.
338 Martin, James, After the Internet: Alien Intelligence, Regenery Publishing Inc., 2000.
339 Mitra, Amit and Gupta, Amar, Knowledge Reuse and Agile Processes: Catalysts for Innovation, The Idea Group, 2006.


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