1.Comparing the incidence of lower extremity amputations across the world: the Global Lower Extremity Amputation Study. Diabet Med 1995;12:14–18.
2. , , , et al. Epidemiological study of lower limb amputation in England between 2003 and 2008. Br J Surg 2010;97:1348–53.
3. , , , Diabetes- and nondiabetes-related lower extremity amputation incidence before and after the introduction of better organized diabetes foot care: continuous longitudinal monitoring using a standard method. Diabet Care 2008;31:459–63.
4. , , , et al. Survival following lower-limb amputation in a veteran population. J Rehabil Res Dev 2001;38:341–5.
5. , Neurologic complications of neuraxial blockade. In: , , , eds., Cousins and Bridenbaugh's Neural Blockade in Clinical Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 4th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008, 296–315.
6. , , , Perioperative and long-term morbidity and mortality after above-knee and below-knee amputations in diabetics and nondiabetics. Anesth Analg 2005;100:1241–7.
7. , , , et al. Mortality and hospitalization in patients after amputation: a comparison between patients with and without diabetes. Diabet Care 2006;29:2252–6.
8. , , Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention. Lancet 2006;367:1618–25.
9. , Phantom limb pain. Br J Anaesth 2001;87:107–16.
10. , , , Non-painful phantom limb phenomena in amputees: incidence, clinical characteristics and temporal course. Acta Neurol Scand 1984;70:407–14.
11. , , , Phantom limb, phantom pain and stump pain in amputees during the first 6 months following limb amputation. Pain 1983;17:243–56.
12. , , , , Phantom pain, residual limb pain, and back pain in amputees: results of a national survey. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:1910–19.
13. , , Psychological factors influencing chronic phantom limb pain: an analysis of the literature. Pain 1987;28:285–95.
14. , Ongoing activity in peripheral nerves: the physiology and pharmacology of impulses originating from a neuroma. Exp Neurol 1974;43:580–93.
15. , Sensory afferent impulses originate from dorsal root ganglia as well as from the periphery in normal and nerve injured rats. Pain 1983;17:321–39.
16. , Hyperexcitability at sites of nerve injury depends on voltage-sensitive Na+ channels. J Neurophysiol 1994;72:349–59.
17. Evidence for a central component of post-injury pain hypersensitivity. Nature 1983;306:686–8.
18. , The induction and maintenance of central sensitization is dependent on N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor activation; implications for the treatment of post-injury pain hypersensitivity states. Pain 1991;44:293–9.
19. Maladaptive plasticity, memory for pain and phantom limb pain: review and suggestions for new therapies. Expert Rev Neurother 2008;8:809–18.
20. , Pre-emptive analgesia for chronic limb pain after amputation for peripheral vascular disease: a systematic review. Ann Vasc Surg 2010;24:1139–46.
21. , , Perioperative intravenous ketamine infusion for the prevention of persistent post-amputation pain: a randomized, controlled trial. Anaesth Intens Care 2004;32:330–8.
22. , , , A randomised double blind trial of the effect of pre-emptive epidural ketamine on persistent pain after lower limb amputation. Pain 2008;135:108–18.
23. , , , et al. A randomized study of the effects of gabapentin on postamputation pain. Anesthesiology 2006;105:1008–15.
24. , , A survey of current phantom limb pain treatment in the United States. Pain 1980;8:85–99.
25. , , Neuropathic pain: diagnosis, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment. Lancet Neurol 2010;9:807–19.
26. , , , et al. Pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain: evidence-based recommendations. Pain 2007;132:237–51.
27. , , , , Algorithm for neuropathic pain treatment: an evidence-based proposal. Pain 2005;118:289–305.
28. , The number needed to treat: a clinically useful measure of treatment effect. BMJ 1995 310:452–4.
29. , , , et al. Trial of amitriptyline for relief of pain in amputees: results of a randomized controlled study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:1–6.
, , Gabapentin in postamputation phantom limb pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study
. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2002