There is very little that aligns the current design of international copyright law with the requirements for economic development. This chapter advances the proposition that copyright limitations and exceptions (L&Es) needed to promote economic development differ in important respects from the set of L&Es around which there is international consensus. Existing international copyright L&Es do not allow access to copyrighted works at a scale, or on terms, needed for economic development progress; they also insufficiently enable key stakeholders, such as educational institutions and libraries, to facilitate access to knowledge in support of human capital formation. The chapter highlights the need to orient the international copyright framework toward development concerns, while safeguarding local systems of cultural production. The changes suggested underscore the importance, for all countries, of new L&Es that support development and strengthening those L&Es traditionally understood to reflect the public interest.