Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: December 2009


Anderson, J. L. 1967. Principles of Relativity Physics, New York: Academic Press.
Anderson, R., Vetharaniam, I., and Stedman, G. E. 1998. “Conventionality of Synchronisation, Gauge Dependence and Test Theories of Relativity,” Physics Reports 295, 93–180.
Aspray, W. and Kitcher, P. (eds.) 1988. History and Philosophy of Modern Mathematics, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Mathematics 11, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Ayer, A. J. 1936. “Truth by Convention: A Symposium,” Analysis 4, 17–22.
Ayer, A. J. 1936a. Language, Truth and Logic, 2nd ed., 1946, London: Victor Gollancz.
Ayer, A. J. (ed.) 1959. Logical Positivism, New York: Free Press.
Babak, S. V. and Grishchuk, L. P. 2000. “The Energy Momentum Tensor for the Gravitational Field,” Physical Review D 61 024038.
Baker, G. P. and Hacker, P. M. S. 1984. Scepticism, Rules and Language, Oxford: Blackwell.
Barbour, J. B. and Pfister, H. (eds.) 1995. Mach's Principle, Berlin: Birkhäuser.
Bar-Elli, G. 1996. The Sense of Reference, Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.
Barrett, R. B. and Gibson, R. F. (eds.) 1990. Perspectives on Quine, Oxford: Blackwell.
Bekenstein, J. D. 2001. “The Limits of Information,” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 32, 511–24.
Bell, D. and Vossenkuhl, W. (eds.) 1992. Wissenschaft und Subjektivität/Science and Subjectivity, Berlin: Akademie Verlag.
Belnap, N. 1962. “Tonk, Plonk and Plink,” Analysis 22, 130–4.
Benacerraf, P. 1973. “Mathematical Truth,” Journal of Philosophy 70, 661–79.
Benacerraf, P. 1985. “Skolem and the Skeptic,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volume 59, 85–115. Also in Shapiro 1996, 419–50.
Benacerraf, P. and Putnam, H. (eds.) 1983. Philosophy of Mathematics, Selected Writings, 2nd ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ben-Menahem, Y. 1993. “Struggling with Causality: Einstein's Case,” Science in Context 12, 291–310.
Ben-Menahem, Y. 1995. “Pragmatism and Revisionism: James's Conception of Truth,” International Journal of Philosophical Studies 3, 270–89.
Ben-Menahem, Y. 1998. “Explanation and Description: Wittgenstein on Convention,” Synthese 115, 99–130.
Ben-Menahem, Y. 2001. “Convention: Poincaré and Some of His Critics,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52, 471–513.
Ben-Menahem, Y. 2001a. “Direction and Description,” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 32, 621–35.
Ben-Menahem, Y. (ed.) 2005. Hilary Putnam,Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ben-Menahem, Y. 2005a. “Putnam on Skepticism,” in Ben-Menahem 2005, 125–55.
Bergsrom, L. 1990. “Quine on Underdetermination,” in Barrett and Gibson 1990, 38–52.
Bergsrom, L. 1993. “Quine, Underdetermination and Skepticism,” Journal of Philosophy 90, 331–58.
Bernays, P. 1930. “Die Philosophie der Mathematik und die Hilbertsche Beweistheorie,” Blätter für deutsche Philosophie 4, 326–67. Also in Bernays 1976, 17–61.
Bernays, P. 1967. “What Do Some Recent Results in Set Theory Suggest?” in Lakatos 1967, 109–12.
Bernays, P. 1976. Abhandlungen zur Philosophie der Mathematik, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
Berry, G. D. W. 1953. “On the Ontological Significance of the Löwenheim-Skolem Theorem,” in White, M. (ed.), Academic Freedom, Logic and Religion, Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, University of Pennsylvania Press, 39–55.
Beth, E. W. 1953. “On Padoa's Method in the Theory of Definition,” Indagationes Mathematicae 15, 330–9.
Beth, E. W. 1959. The Foundations of Mathematics, Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Beth, E. W. 1963. “Carnap's Views on the Advantages of Constructed Systems over Natural Languages in the Philosophy of Science,” in Schilpp 1963, 469–502.
Black, M. 1936. “Truth by Convention: A Symposium,” Analysis 4, 28–32.
Black, M. 1942. “Conventionalism in Geometry and the Interpretation of Necessary Statements,” Philosophy of Science 9, 335–49.
Boghossian, P. and Peacocke, C. 2000. New Essays on the A Priori, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Braithwaite, R. B. (1955). Scientific Explanation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brenner, A. A. 1990. “Holism a Century Ago: The Elaboration of Duhem's Thesis,” Synthese 83, 325–35.
Buchdahl, H. A. 1981. Seventeen Simple Lectures on General Relativity Theory, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Burali-Forti, C. 1901. “Sur les différentes méthodes logiques pour la définition du nombre réel,” Bibliothèque du Congrès international de philosophie 3, Paris: A. Colin, 289–308.
Buzaglo, M. 2002. The Logic of Conceptual Expansion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Capek, M. 1971. Bergson and Modern Physics,Cohen, R. S. and Wartofsky, M. W. (eds.), Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 7, Dordrecht: Reidel.
Carnap, R. 1922. Der Raum. Ein Beitrag zur Wissenschaftslehre, Kant-Studien. Ergänzungshefte 56, Berlin: Reuther & Reichard.
Carnap, R. 1923. “Über die Aufgabe der Physik und die Anwendung des Grundsatzes der Einfachheit,” Kant-Studien 28, 90–107.
Carnap, R. 1924. “Dreidimensionalität des Raumes und Kausalität,” Annalen der Philosophie und philosophischen Kritik 4, 105–30.
Carnap, R. 1927. “Eigentliche und uneigentliche Begriffe,” Symposion: Philosophische Zeitschrift für Forschung und Aussprache 1, 355–74.
Carnap, R. [1928] 1967. Der logische Aufbau der Welt, Berlin: Weltkreis; trans. R. George as The Logical Structure of the World, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Carnap, R. 1930. “Die alte und die neue Logik,” Erkenntnis 1, 12–26; trans. Isaac Levi as “The Old and the New Logic,” in Ayer 1959, 133–46.
Carnap, R. 1930a. “Die Mathematik als Zweig der Logik,” Blätter für Deutsche Philosophie 4, 298–310.
Carnap, R. 1931. “Überwindung der Metaphysik durch logische Analyse der Sprache,” Erkenntnis 2, 219–41; trans. A. Pap as “The Elimination of Metaphysics through Logical Analysis of Language,” in Ayer 1959, 60–82.
Carnap, R. [1932] 1934. “Die physikalische Sprache als Universalsprache der Wissenschaft,” Erkenntnis 2, 432–65; trans. and with an introduction by Max Black as The Unity of Science, London: Kegan Paul, revised by Carnap for the English edition.
Carnap, R. [1934] 1937. Logische Syntax der Sprache, Vienna: Julius Springer; trans. A. Smeaton as The Logical Syntax of Language, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Carnap, R. 1935. Philosophy and Logical Syntax, London: Kegan Paul.
Carnap, R. 1936–7. “Testability and Meaning,” Philosophy of Science 3, 420–71; 4, 2–40.
Carnap, R. 1942. Introduction to Semantics, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Carnap, R. 1950Empiricism, Semantics and Ontology,” Revue International de Philosophie 4, 20–40. Also in Carnap 1956, 205–21.
Carnap, R. 1956. Meaning and Necessity, 2nd ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Carnap, R. 1963. “Carnap's Intellectual Autobiography,” in Schilpp 1963, 1–84.
Carnap, R. 1963a. “W. V. Quine on Logical Truth,” in Schilpp 1963, 915–21.
Carnap, R. 1963b. “E. W. Beth on Constructed Language Systems,” in Schilpp 1963, 927–32.
Carnap, R. 1966. Philosophical Foundations of Physics: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, New York: Basic Books.
Carroll, L. 1895. “What the Tortoise Said to Achilles,” Mind 4, 278–80.
Cartwright, N. 1983. How the Laws of Physics Lie, Oxford: Clarendon.
Ciufolini, I.Dominici, D., and Lusanna, L. (eds.) 2003. 2001: A Relativistic Spacetime Odyssey, Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific.
Clark, P. and Hale, B. (eds.) 1994. Reading Putnam, Oxford: Blackwell.
Coffa, A. J. 1979. “Effective Affinities,” in Salmon 1979, 267–304.
Coffa, A. J. 1986. “From Geometry to Tolerance: Sources of Conventionalism in Nineteenth-Century Geometry,” in Colodny, R. G. (ed.), From Quarks to Quasers: Philosophical Problems of Modern Physics, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 3–70.
Coffa, A. J. 1987. “Carnap, Tarski, and the Search for Truth,” Noûs 21, 547–72.
Coffa, A. J. 1991. The Semantic Tradition from Kant to Carnap: To the Vienna Station, ed. Wessels, L., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Conant, J. 1992. “The Search for Logically Alien Thought: Descartes, Kant, Frege, and the Tractatus,” Philosophical Topics 20, 115–80.
Conant, J. 2000. “Elucidation and Nonsense in Frege and Early Wittgenstein,” in Crary and Read 2000, 174–217.
Corcoran, J. 1971. “A Semantic Definition of Definition,” Journal of Symbolic Logic 36, 366–7.
Corcoran, J. 1980. “Categoricity,” History and Philosophy of Logic 1, 137–207.
Cornu, A. 1891. “Sur une expérience récente, déterminant la direction de la vibration dans la lumière polarisée,” Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences 112, 186–9.
Corry, L. 2004. David Hilbert and the Axiomatization of Physics 1898–1918: From Grundlagen der Geometrie to Grundlagen der Physik, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Crary, A. and Read, R. (eds.) 2000. The New Wittgenstein, London: Routledge.
Creath, R. 1987. “The Initial Reception of Carnap's Doctrine of Analyticity,” Noûs 21, 477–99.
Creath, R. (ed.) 1990. Dear Carnap, Dear Van: The Quine-Carnap Correspondence and Related Work, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Creath, R. 1992. “Carnap's Conventionalism,” Synthese 93, 141–65.
Curry, H. B. 1954. “Remarks on the Definition and Nature of Mathematics,” in Benacerraf and Putnam 1983, 202–6.
Davidson, D. 1984. “On the Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme,” in Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation, Oxford: Clarendon, 183–98.
Davidson, D. 1995. “Pursuit of the Concept of Truth,” in Leonardi and Santambrogio 1995, 7–21.
Dedekind, J. W. R. [1888] 1932. “Was sind und was sollen die Zahlen?” Gesammelte mathematische Werke, ed. Fricke, R, Noether, E., and Ore, O., Braunschweig: F. Vieweg & Sohn, 3:335–91; trans. W. W. Beman in Ewald 1996, 2:790–833.
Diamond, C. 1991. The Realistic Spirit: Wittgenstein, Philosophy and the Mind, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Diamond, C. 1991a. “Throwing Away the Ladder: How to Read the Tractatus,” in Diamond 1991, 179–204.
Diamond, C. 1991b. “The Face of Necessity,” in Diamond 1991, 243–66.
Dieks, D. 1987. “Gravitation as a Universal Force,” Synthese 73, 381–97.
Dingler, H. 1913. Grundlagen der Naturphilosophie, Leipzig: Verlag Unesma.
Dreben, B. 1990. “Quine,” in Barrett and Gibson 1990, 81–95.
Dreben, B. and Floyd, J. 1991. “Tautology: How Not to Use a Word,” Synthese 87, 23–49.
Duhem, P. 1892. “Quelques réflexions au sujet des théories physiques,” Revue des Questions Scientifiques 31 (2nd series), 139–77; trans. R. Ariew and P. Baker as “Some Reflections on the Subject of Physical Theories,” in Duhem 1996, 1–28.
Duhem, P. 1893. “Review of Poincaré 1892, vol. 2,” Revue des Questions Scientifiques 33 (2nd series), 257–9.
Duhem, P. 1894. “Quelques réflexions au sujet de la physique expérimentale,” Revue des Questions Scientifiques 36 (2nd series), 179–229; trans. R. Ariew and P. Baker as “Some Reflections on the Subject of Experimental Physics,” in Duhem 1996, 75–111.
Duhem, P. 1894a. “Les théories de l'optique,” Revue des Deux Mondes 123, 94–125.
Duhem, P. [1903] 1980. L'Evolution de la méchanique, Paris: Joanin; trans. M. Cole as The Evolution of Mechanics, Alphen aan den Rijn, Nederlans: Sijthoff and Noordhoff.
Duhem, P. [1906] 1954. La Théorie physique: son objet, sa structure, 2nd ed., Paris: M. Rivière & Cie, 1914; trans. P. P. Wiener as The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Duhem, P. [1908] 1969. ΣΩZEIN TA ØAINOMENA, Paris: A. Hermann; trans. E. Doland and C. Maschler as To Save the Phenomena, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Duhem, P. 1913–1959. Le Système du monde, histoire des doctrines cosmologiques de Platon à Copernic, 10 vols., Paris: Herman.
Duhem, P. 1996. Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science, ed. and trans. Ariew, R. and Barker, P., Indianapolis: Hackett.
Dummett, M. 1978. Truth and Other Enigmas,Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dummett, M. 1978a. “The Significance of Quine's Indeterminacy Thesis,” in Dummet 1978, 375–419.
Dummett, M. 1978b. “Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Mathematics,” in Dummett 1978, 166–85.
Dummett, M. 1991. The Logical Basis of Metaphysics, London: Duckworth.
Earman, J. 1989. World Enough and Space-Time, Cambridge, MA: Bradford.
Earman, J. and Norton, J. D. 1987. “What Price Spacetime Substantivalism? The Hole Story,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38, 515–25.
Ebbs, G. 1997. Rule-Following and Realism, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Eddington, A. 1920. Space, Time and Gravitation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Eddington, A. 1928. The Nature of the Physical World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Eddington, A. 1939. The Philosophy of Physical Science, New York: Macmillan.
Ehlers, J., Pirani, F. A. E., and Schild, A. 1972. “The Geometry of Free Fall and Light Propagation,” in O'Raifeartaigh 1972, 63–84.
Einstein, A. 1912. “Lichtgeschwindigkeit und Statik des Gravitationfeldes,” Annalen der Physik 38, 355–69. Also in Einstein 1996, document 3, 129–43; trans. as “The Speed of Light and the Statics of the Gravitational Field” in Einstein 1996a, 95–106.
Einstein, A. 1916. “Die Grundlagen der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie,” Annalen der Physik 49, 769–822. Also in Einstein 1997, document 30, 283–339; trans. as “The Foundations of the General Theory of Relativity” in Einstein 1997a, 147–200.
Einstein, A. [1917] 1920. Über die spezielle und die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie, Braunschweig: F. Vieweg & Sohn; trans. R. W. Lawson as Relativity: The Special and the General Theory, London: Methuen.
Einstein, A. 1920. “Äther und Relativitätstheorie,” Berlin: Julius Springer. Also in Einstein 2002, document 38, 306–23; trans. as “Ether and the Theory of Relativity” in Einstein 2002a, 161–82.
Einstein, A. 1920a. Discussions of Bad Nauheim lectures. Physikalische Zeitschrift 21, 650–1, 662, 666–8. Also in Einstein 2002, document 46, 350–9.
Einstein, A. 1921. “Geometrie und Erfahrung,” Sitzungsberichte der preuss. Akad. der Wissenschaften 1, 123–30. Also in Einstein 2002, document 52, 383–405; trans. S. Bargmann as “Geometry and Experience” in Einstein 1954, 232–45 and in Einstein 2002a, 208–22.
Einstein, A. 1922. The Meaning of Relativity, 5th ed., 1956, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Also in Einstein 2002, document 47, 497–589.
Einstein, A. 1927. “Newtons Mechanik und ihr Einfluss auf die Gestaltung der theoretischen Physik,” Die Naturwissenschaften 15, 273–6; trans. S. Bargmann as “The Mechanics of Newton and Their Influence on the Development of Theoretical Physics” in Einstein 1954, 253–61.
Einstein, A. 1933. “On the Method of Theoretical Physics. The Herbert Spencer Lecture, delivered at Oxford, 10 June 1933,” Oxford: Clarendon; new trans. S. Bargmann in Einstein 1954, 270–6.
Einstein, A. 1934. Mein Weltbild, Amsterdam: Querido Verlag.
Einstein, A. 1936. “Physics and Reality,” Journal of the Franklin Institute 221, 313–47. Also in Einstein 1954, 290–322.
Einstein, A. 1949. “Reply to Criticisms,” in Schilpp 1949, 663–8.
Einstein, A. 1950. “On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation,” Scientific American 182/4, 13–17. Also in Einstein 1954, 341–55.
Einstein, A. 1954. Ideas and Opinions, New York: Crown.
Einstein, A. 1996. The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, vol. 4, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Einstein, A. 1996a. English supplement to Einstein 1996; trans. Anna Beck.
Einstein, A. 1997. The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, vol. 6, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Einstein, A. 1997a. English supplement to Einstein 1997; trans. Alfred Engel.
Einstein, A. 2002. The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, vol. 7, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Einstein, A. 2002a. English supplement to Einstein 2002; trans. Alfred Engel.
Einstein, A.Infeld, L., and Hoffmann, B. 1938. “Gravitational Equations and the Problem of Motion,” Annals of Mathematics 39, 65–100.
Elkana, Y. 1974. The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy, London: Hutchinson.
Ewald, W. B. (ed.) 1996. From Kant to Hilbert, A Source Book in the Foundations of Mathematics, 2 vols., Oxford: Clarendon.
Feigl, H. 1975. “Homage to Rudolf Carnap,” in Hintikka 1975, ⅹⅲ–ⅹⅶ.
Feigl, H. and Maxwell, G. (eds.) 1962. Scientific Explanation, Space and Time, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science 3, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Feyerabend, P. 1962. “Explanation, Reduction and Empiricism,” in Feigl and Maxwell 1962, 28–97.
Feynman, R. P. 1971. Lectures on Gravitation, ed. Morinigo, F. B. and Wagner, W. G., Pasadena: California Institute of Technology.
Field, H. H. bt980. Science Without Numbers, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Fine, A. 1971. “Reflections on a Relational Theory of Space,” Synthese 22, 448–81.
Fine, A. 1986. “Unnatural Attitudes: Realist and Instrumentalist Attachments to Science,” Mind 95, 149–79.
Floyd, J. 2001. “Number and Ascriptions of Number in Wittgenstein's Tractatus,” in Floyd and Shieh 2001, 145–91.
Floyd, J. and Shieh, S. (eds.) 2001. Future Pasts, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fock, V. [1955] 1966. The Theory of Space, Time and Gravitation, 2nd revised ed.; trans. from the Russian by N. Kemmer, Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Fraenkel, A. A., Bar Hillel, Y., and Levy, A. 1973. Foundations of Set Theory, 2nd ed., Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Frege, G. 1884. Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik,Breslau: W. Koebner; trans. J. Austin as The Foundations of Arithmetic, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1950.
Frege, G. 1893. Grundgesetze der Artithmetik, Jena: Verlag Hermann Pohle; trans. M. Furth as The Basic Laws of Arithmetic, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1964.
Frege, G. 1903. “Über die Grundlagen der Geometrie” (Erste Serie), Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung 12, 319–24 (part I), 368–75 (part II), in Frege 1967, 262–72; trans. E. H. W. Kluge as “On the Foundations of Geometry” (First Series) in Kluge 1971, 22–37.
Frege, G. 1906. “Über die Grundlagen der Geometrie” (Zweite Serie), Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung 15, 293–309 (part I), 377–403 (part II), 423–30 (part III), in Frege 1967, 281–323; trans. E. H. W. Kluge as “On the Foundations of Geometry” (Second Series) in Kluge 1971, 49–112.
Frege, G. 1967. Kleine Schriften, ed. Angelelli, I., Hildesheim: Georg Olms.
Frege, G. 1967a. Unbekannte Briefe Freges über die Grundlagen der Geometrie und Antwortbrief Hilberts an Frege, in Frege 1967, 407–18; trans. E. H. W. Kluge as “Correspondence with Hilbert” in Frege 1971, 6–21.
Frege, G. 1971. On the Foundations of Geometry and Formal Theories of Arithmetic, ed. and trans. Kluge, E. H. W., New Haven; CT: Yale University Press.
Friedman, M. 1983. Foundations of Space-Time Theories, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Friedman, M. 1992. Kant and the Exact Sciences, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Friedman, M. 1996. “Poincaré's Conventionalism and the Logical Positivists,” in Greffe et al. 1996, 333–44.
Friedman, M. 1999. Reconsidering Logical Positivism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gergonne, J. D. 1818. “Essai sur la théorie des définitions,” Annales de Mathématiques 9, 1–35.
Giannoni, C. B. 1971. Conventionalism in Logic, The Hague: Mouton.
Gibson, R. F. Jr. 1986. “Translation, Physics and Facts of the Matter,” in Hahn and Schilpp 1986, 139–54.
Giedymin, J. 1982. Science and Convention, Oxford: Pergamon.
Giedymin, J. 1991. “Geometrical and Physical Conventionalism of Henri Poincaré in Epistemological Formulation,” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 22, 1–22.
Giere, R. N. and Richardson, A. W. (eds.) 1996. Origins of Logical Empiricism, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science 16, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Glymour, C. 1971. “Theoretical Realism and Theoretical Equivalence,” in Buck, R. C. and Cohen, R. S. (eds.), Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8, Dordrecht: Reidel, 275–88.
Glymour, C. 1972. “Topology, Cosmology and Convention,” Synthese 24, 195–218.
Glymour, C. 1980. Theory and Evidence, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gödel, K. 1930. “Die Vollständigkeit der Axiome des logischen Funktionenkalküls, Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik 37, 349–60; trans. S. Bauer-Mengelberg as “The Completeness of the Axioms of the Functional Calculus of Logic,” in van Heijenoort 1967, 582–91.
Gödel, K. 1931. “Über formal unentscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme, I,” Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik 38, 178–98; trans. J. van Heijenoort as “On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems,” in van Heijenoort 1967, 596–616.
Gödel, K. 1953. “Is Mathematics Syntax of Language?” in Gödel 1995, 335–62.
Gödel, K. 1961. “The Modern Developments of the Foundations of Mathematics in the Light of Philosophy,” in Gödel 1995, 375–88.
Gödel, K. 1995. Kurt Godel: Collected Works, ed. Feferman, S.., vol. 3, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Goldfarb, W. D. 1988. “Poincaré against the Logicists,” in Aspray and Kitcher 1988, 61–81.
Goldfarb, W. D. 1995. “Introductory Note to Gödel (1953),” in Gödel 1995, 324–34.
Goldfarb, W. D. 1996. “The Philosophy of Mathematics in Early Positivism,” in Giere and Richardson 1996, 213–30.
Goldfarb, W. and Ricketts, T. 1992. “Carnap and the Philosophy of Mathematics,” in Bell and Vossenkuhl 1992, 61–78.
Gould, C. C. and Cohen, R. S. (eds.) 1994. Artifacts, Representations and Social Practice, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Grayling, A. C. 1998. An Introduction to Philosophical Logic, 3rd ed., Oxford: Blackwell.
Grassmann, H. 1844. Die lineale Ausdehnungslehre, Leipzig: Otto Wigand Verlag; trans. in Grassmann 1995, 9–297.
Grassmann, H. 1995. A New Branch of Mathematics, The Ausdehnungslehre of 1844 and Other Works; trans. L. C. Kannenberg, Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court.
Greene, B. 1999. The Elegant Universe, New York: W. W. Norton.
Greene, B. 2004. The Fabric of the Cosmos,New York: Knopf.
Greffe, J. L., Heinzmann, G. and Lorenz, K. (eds.) 1996. Henri Poincaré, Science and Philosophy, International Congress Nancy 1994, Berlin: Akademie Verlag; Paris: Albert Blanchard.
Grünbaum, A. 1962. “Geometry, Chronometry, and Empiricism,” in Feigl and Maxwell 1962, 405–526.
Grünbaum, A. 1968. Geometry and Chronometry, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Grünbaum, A. 1973. Philosophical Problems of Space and Time, 2nd ed., Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 12, Dordrecht: Reidel.
Grünbaum, A. 1976. “The Duhemian Argument,” in Harding 1976, 116–31.
Hacker, P. M. S. 1992. “Wittgenstein on Frazer's “Golden Bough,” Iyyun 41, 277–300.
Hahn, L. E. and Schilpp, P. A. (eds.) 1986. The Philosophy of W. V. Quine, Library of Living Philosophers 18, La Salle, IL: Open Court.
Hale, B. and Wright, C. 2000. “Implicit Definition and the A Priori,” in Boghossian and Peacocke 2000, 286–319.
Harding, S. (ed.) 1976. Can Theories Be Refuted?Dordrecht: Reidel.
Hawking, S. W. and Israel, W. (eds.) 1979. General Relativity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Healey, R. 1987. “Critical Review of Michael Friedman's Foundations of Space-Time Theories,” Noûs 21, 595–601.
Held, A. (ed.) 1980. General Relativity and Gravitation: One Hundred Years after the Birth of Albert Einstein, New York: Plenum.
Hellman, G. 1989. Mathematics without Numbers, Oxford: Clarendon.
Helmholtz, H.. [1847] 1882. “Über die Erhaltung der Kraft,” in Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, 1, Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth, 12–75.
Helmholtz, H.. 1876. “The Origin and Meaning of Geometrical Axioms,” Mind 1, 301–21. Also in Ewald 1996, vol. 2, 663–85.
Hempel, C. G. 1958. “The Theoretician's Dilemma: A Study in the Logic of Theory Construction,” in Hempel, Aspects of Scientific Explanation,New York: Free Press, 1965, 173–226.
Henkin, L. 1950. “Completeness in the Theory of Types,” Journal of Symbolic Logic 15, 81–91.
Hertz, H. [1894] 1956. Die Principien der Mechanik, Leipzig: Barth; trans. D. E. Jones and J. T. Walley as The Principles of Mechanics, New York: Dover.
Hilbert, D. [1899] 1902. “Grundlagen der Geometrie,” in Festschrift zur Feier der Enthüllung des Gauss-Weber Denkmals in Göttingen,Leipzig: Teubner; trans. E. J. Townsend as The Foundations of Geometry, Chicago: Open Court.
Hilbert, D. [1899a] 1971. Grundlagen der Geometrie, 10th ed., Leipzig: Teubner; trans. Leo Unger as Foundations of Geometry, 2nd ed. revised and expanded by Paul Bernays, La Salle, IL: Open Court.
Hilbert, D. 1905. “Über die Grundlagen der Logik und der Arithmetik,” Verhandlungen des Dritten Internationalen Mathematiker-Kongresses vom 8 bis 13 August 1904,Leipzig: Teubner, 174–85; trans. Beverly Woodward as “On the Foundations of Logic and Arithmetic” in van Heijenoort 1967, 130–8.
Hilbert, D. 1922. “Neubegründung der Mathematik; Erste Mitteilung,” in Gesammelte Abhandlungen, Berlin: Springer, 1932–5, 3, 157–77; trans. W. Ewald as “The New Grounding of Mathematics” in Ewald 1996, 2, 1115–34.
Hilbert, D. 1926. “Über das Unendliche,” Mathematische Annalen 95, 161–90; trans. S. Bauer-Mengelberg as “On the Infinite” in van Heijenoort 1967, 367–92.
Hintikka, J. (ed.) 1975. Rudolf Carnap, Logical Empiricist, Synthese Library 83, Dordrecht: Reidel.
Hintikka, J. 1990. “Quine as a Member of the Tradition of the Universality of Language,” in Barrett and Gibson 1990, 159–74.
Hintikka, J. 1992. “Carnap's Work in the Foundations of Logic and Mathematics in a Historical Perspective,” Synthese 93, 167–89.
Hintikka, J. 1993. “Ludwig's Apple Tree: On the Philosophical Relations between Wittgenstein and the Vienna Circle,” in Stadler 1993.
Hintikka, J. 2001. “Ernst Mach at the Crossroads of Twentieth-Century Philosophy,” in Floyd and Shieh 2001, 81–100.
Hintikka, M. B. and Hintikka, J. 1986. Investigating Wittgenstein, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Hiskes, A. L. 1986. “Friedman on the Foundations of Space-Time Theories,” Erkenntnis 25, 111–26.
Hoefer, C. 1994. “Einstein's Struggle for a Machian Gravitation Theory,” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 25, 287–335.
Horwich, P. 1997. “Implicit Definition, Analytic Truth, and Apriori Knowledge,” Noûs 31, 423–40.
Howard, D. 1990. “Einstein and Duhem,” Synthese 83, 363–84.
Howard, D. 1994. “Einstein, Kant, and the Origins of Logical Empiricism,” in Salmon and Wolters 1994, 45–105.
Howard, D. 1996. “Relativity, Eindeutigkeit, and Monomorphism: Rudolf Carnap and the Development of the Categoricity Concept in Formal Semantics,” in Giere and Richardson 1996, 115–64.
Howard, D. and Stachel, J. (eds.) 1989. Einstein and the History of General Relativity, Einstein Studies 1, Boston and Berlin: Birkhaüser.
Hylton, P. 2001 “‘The Defensible Province of Philosophy’: Quine's 1934 Lectures on Carnap,” in Floyd and Shieh 2001, 257–76.
James, W. [1907–9] 1955. Pragmatism, Cleveland: Meridian.
Kreisel, G. 1958. “Wittgenstein's Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 9, 135–58.
Kretschmann, E. 1917. “Über den physikalischen Sinn der Relativitätspostulate, A. Einsteins neue und seine ursprüngliche Relativitätstheorie,” Annalen der Physik 53, 575–614.
Kripke, S. 1980. Naming and Necessity, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kripke, S. 1982. Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language,Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Kuhn, T. S. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.
Lakatos, I. (ed.) 1967. Problems in the Philosophy of Mathematics, Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Lakatos, I. 1981. Proofs and Refutations: The Logic of Mathematical Discovery, ed. Worrall, J. and Zahar, E., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Laudan, L. 1976. “Grünbaum on ‘The Duhemian Argument,’” in Harding 1976, 155–61.
Laudan, L. 1977. Progress and Its Problems, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Laudan, L. 1990. Science and Relativism, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Laudan, L. and Leplin, J. 1991. “Empirical Equivalence and Underdetermination,” Journal of Philosophy 88, 449–72.
Leonardi, P. and Santambrogio, M. (eds.) 1995. On Quine, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Levin, Y. 1995. “Synthetic Apriority,” Erkenntnis 43, 137–50.
Lewis, C. I. and Langford, C. H. 1932. Symbolic Logic, New York: Century.
Lewis, D. 1969. Convention, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Longino, H. E. 2002. The Fate of Knowledge, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Löwenheim, L. 1915. “Über Möglichkeiten im Relativkalkül,” Mathematische Annalen 76, 447–70; trans. S. Bauer-Mengelberg as “On Possibilities in the Calculus of Relatives” in van Heijenoort 1967, 228–51.
Maiocchi, R. 1990. “Pierre Duhem's The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory: A Book against Conventionalism,” Synthese 83, 385–400.
Malament, D. B. 1977. “Causal Theories of Time and the Conventionality of Simultaneity,” Nous 11, 293–300.
Malament, D. B. (ed.) 2002. Reading Natural Philosophy, Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court.
Margalit, A. 1992. “Wittgenstein on The Golden Bough,” Iyyun 41, 301–18.
Martin, R. N. D. 1982. “Darwin and Duhem” [Review of Paul 1979], History of Science 20, 64–75.
Martin, R. N. D. 1990. “Duhem and the Origins of Statics: Ramifications of the Crisis of 1903–4,” Synthese 83, 337–55.
Mates, B. 1972. Elementary Logic, 2nd ed., New York: Oxford University Press.
Mauthner, F. 1923. Beiträge zu einer Kritik der Sprache, 3 vols., 3rd ed., Leipzig: F. Meiner Verlag.
McDowell, J. 1998. Mind, Value and Reality, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McMullin, E. 1990. “Comment: Duhem's Middle Way,” Synthese 83, 421–30.
Misner, W. C., Thorne, K. S., and Wheeler, J. A. 1973. Gravitation, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
Monk, R. 1990. Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius, London: Vintage.
Moore, G. E. 1921–2. “External and Internal Relations,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 20, 40–62. Also in Moore, Philosophical Studies, London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1922, 276–309.
Moore, G. E. 1954. “Wittgenstein's Lectures in 1930–33,” Mind 63, 1–15, 289–315; 64 1–27. Also in Wittgenstein 1993, 46–114.
Morrison, M. 2000. Unifying Scientific Theories,Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mueller, A. and Fine A. 2005. “Realism, Beyond Miracles,” in Ben-Menahem 2005, 83–124.
Myhill, T. R. 1953. “On the Ontological Significance of the Löwenheim-Skolem Theorem,” in White, M. (ed.), Academic Freedom, Logic and Religion, APA Eastern Division Meeting, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 57–70.
Nagel, E. 1939. “The Formation of Modern Conceptions of Formal Logic in the Development of Geometry,” Osiris 7, 142–224.
Nagel, E. 1961. The Structure of Science, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Narlikar, J. V. and Padmanabhan, T. 1986. Gravity, Gauge Theories and Quantum Cosmology, Dordrecht: Reidel.
Norton, J. 1989. “What Was Einstein's Principle of Equivalence?” in Howard and Stachel 1989, 5–47.
Norton, J. 1993. “General Covariance and the Foundations of General Relativity: Eight Decades of Dispute,” Reports of Progress in Physics 56, 791–858.
Norton, J. (1995). “Did Einstein Stumble? The Debate over General Covariance,” Erkenntnis 42, 223–45.
Nye, M. J. 1976. “The Moral Freedom of Man and the Determinism of Nature: The Catholic Synthesis of Science and History in the Revue des Questions Scientifiques,” British Journal for the History of Science 9, 274–92.
O'Raifeartaigh, L. (ed.) 1972. General Relativity: Papers in Honour of J. L. Synge, Oxford: Clarendon.
Padoa, A. 1901. “Essai d'une théorie algébrique des nombres entiers, précédé d'une introduction logique à une théorie déductive quelconque,” Bibliothèque du Congrès international de philosophie, 3, Paris: A Colin, 309–65; trans. J. van Heijenoort in van Heijenoort 1967, 118–23.
Pais, A. 1982. Subtle Is the Lord: The Science and Life of Albert Einstein, Oxford: Clarendon.
Parsons, C. 1990. “The Structuralist View of Mathematical Objects,” Synthese 84, 303–46.
Parsons, C. 1992. “The Transcendental Aesthetic,” in Guyer, P. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Kant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 62–100.
Parsons, C. 1995. “Quine and Godel on Analyticity,” in Leonardi and Santambrogio 1995, 297–313.
Pasch, M. 1882. Vorlesungen über neuere Geometrie, 2nd ed., 1912, Leipzig: Teubner.
Pasch, M. 1892. “Über die Einführung der irrationalen Zahlen,” Mathematische Annalen 40, 149–52.
Paul, H. W. 1979. The Edge of Contingency, Gainesville: University of Florida Press.
Peano, G. 1889. I Principii di Geometria logicamente esposti,Torino: Fratelli Bocca.
Pears, D. 1987. The False Prison,Oxford: Clarendon.
Penrose, R. 2004. The Road to Reality, London: Jonathan Cape.
Pieri, M. 1901. “Sur la géométrie envisagée comme un système purement logique,” In Bibliothèque du Congrès international de philosophie, 3, Paris: A Colin, 367–404.
Pitowsky, I. 1984. “Unified Field Theory and the Conventionality of Geometry,” Philosophy of Science 51, 685–9.
Pitowsky, I. 1994. “On the Concept of Proof in Modern Mathematics,” unpublished.
Poincaré, H. 1891. “Sur l'expérience de M.Wiener,” Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des sciences 112, 325–9.
Poincaré, H. 1892. Théorie mathématique de la lumière, 2 vols., Paris: G. Carré.
Poincaré, H. 1898. “On the Foundations of Geometry,” The Monist 9, 1–43.
Poincaré, H. 1898a. “De la mesure du temps,” Revue de métaphysique et de morale 6, 1–13.
Poincaré, H. 1899. “Des fondements de la géométrie,” Revue de métaphysique et de morale 7, 251–79.
Poincaré, H. 1900. “Du rôle de l'intuition et de la logique en mathématiques,” in Compte rendu du deuxième Congrès international des mathématiques tenu à Paris du 6 au 12 août 1900,Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 115–30; trans. G. B. Halsted as “Intuition and Logic in Mathematics” in Ewald 1996, vol. 2, 1012–20.
Poincaré, H. 1901. Électricité et optique, Paris: Gauthier-Villars.
Poincaré, H. [1902] 1952. La Science et l'hypothèse, Paris: Flammarion; trans. W. S. Greenstreet as Science and Hypothesis, New York: Dover.
Poincaré, H. 1902a. “Compte rendu et analyses” [Review of Hilbert 1899], Bulletin des Sciences Mathematiques, 2 ser. 26, 249–72; trans. E. Huntington in Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 10, 1903, 1–23.
Poincaré, H. 1905–6. “Les Mathématiques et la logique,” Revue de métaphysique et de morale 13, 815–35; 14, 17–34, 294–317; trans. G. B. Halsted as “Mathematics and Logic” in Ewald 1996, vol. 2, 1021–1074.
Poincaré, H. 1905a. “The Principles of Mathematical Physics,” The Monist 15, 1–24.
Poincaré, H. [1908] 1956. Science et méthode, Paris: Flammarion; trans. F. Maitland as Science and Method, New York: Dover.
Poincaré, H. 1913. The Foundations of Science, Lancaster, PA: Science Press.
Poincaré, H. [1913a] 1963. Dernières pensées, Paris: Flammarion; trans. Bolduc, J. W. as Mathematics and Science: Last Essays, New York: Dover.
Pollock, J. L. 1967. “Mathematical Proof,” American Philosophical Quarterly 4, 238–44.
Popper, K. [1934] 1959. Logik der Forschung, Vienna: Julius Springer Verlag, 1935; trans. by the author as The Logic of Scientific Discovery,London: Hutchinson.
Popper, K. 1963. “Science: Conjectures and Refutations,” in Conjectures and Refutations, New York: Harper & Row, 33–65.
Prior, A. N. 1960. “The Runabout Inference-Ticket,” Analysis 21, 38–9.
Proust, J. 1987. “Formal Logic as Transcendental in Wittgenstein and Carnap,” Nous 21, 500–20.
Putnam, H. 1963. “An Examination of Grünbaum's Philosophy of Space and Time,” in Baumrin, B. (ed.), The Delaware Seminar in Philosophy of Science, New York: Interscience Publishers, 205–55, reprinted as “An Examination of Grünbaum's Philosophy of Geometry” in Putnam 1975, 93–129.
Putnam, H. 1965. “Trial and Error Predicates and the Solution to a Problem of Mostowski,” Journal of Symbolic Logic 30, 49–57.
Putnam, H. 1967. “Mathematics Without Foundations,” Journal of Philosophy 64, 5–22. Also in Putnam 1975, 43–59.
Putnam, H. 1973. “Explanation and Reference,” in Pearce, G. and Maynard, P. (eds.), Conceptual Change, Dordrecht: Reidel, 199–221. Also in Putnam 1975a, 196–214.
Putnam, H. 1974. “The Refutation of Conventionalism,” Noûs 8, 25–40; revised version in Putnam 1975a, 153–91.
Putnam, H. 1975. Mathematics, Matter and Method, Philosophical Papers, vol. 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Putnam, H. 1975a. Mind, Language and Reality, Philosophical Papers, vol. 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Putnam, H. 1975b. “The Meaning of ‘Meaning,’” in Gunderson, K. (ed.), Language, Mind and Knowledge, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science 7, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 131–93. Also in Putnam 1975a, 215–71.
Putnam, H. 1978. Meaning and the Moral Sciences, London: Routledge.
Putnam, H. 1979. “Analyticity and Apriority: Beyond Wittgenstein and Quine,” in French, P., Uehling, T., and Wettstein, H. (eds.), Midwest Studies in Philosophy 4, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 423–41. Also in Putnam 1983, 98–114.
Putnam, H. 1980. “Models and Reality,” Journal of Symbolic Logic 45, 464–82. Also in Putnam 1983, 1–24.
Putnam, H. 1981. Reason, Truth and History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Putnam, H. 1983. Realism and Reason, Philosophical Papers, vol. 3, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Putnam, H. 1994. “Rethinking Mathematical Necessity,” in Words and Life, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 245–63.
Putnam, H. 2004. Ethics without Ontology, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Quine, W. V. 1934. “Lectures on Carnap,” in Creath 1990, 47–103.
Quine, W. V. [1936] 1966. “Truth by Convention,” in Lee, O. H. (ed.), Philosophical Essays for A. N. Whitehead, New York: Longmans, 90–124. Also in Quine 1966, 70–99.
Quine, W. V. 1937. “Is Logic a Matter of Words?” MS 102–61–05, Carnap Collection, Archives of Scientific Philosophy, University of Pittsburgh.
Quine, W. V. 1948. “On What There Is,” Review of Metaphysics 2, 21–38. Also in Quine 1953a, 1–19.
Quine, W. V. 1951Two Dogmas of Empiricism,” Philosophical Review 60, 20–43. Also in Quine 1953a, 20–46.
Quine, W. V. 1951a. “Carnap's Views on Ontology,” Philosophical Studies 2, 65–72. Also in Quine 1966, 126–34.
Quine, W. V. 1953. “Mr. Strawson on Logical Theory,” Mind 62, 433–51. Also in Quine 1966, 135–55.
Quine, W. V. 1953a. From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Quine, W. V. 1960. “Carnap and Logical Truth,” Synthese 12, 350–74. Also in Schilpp 1963, 385–406 and Quine 1966, 100–125.
Quine, W. V. 1960a. Word and Object, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Quine, W. V. 1963. “On Simple Theories of a Complex World,” Synthese 15, 107–111. Also in Quine 1966, 242–5.
Quine, W. V. 1964. “Necessary Truth,” in Quine 1966, 48–56.
Quine, W. V. 1964a. “Implicit Definition Sustained,” Journal of Philosophy 61, 71–74. Also in Quine 1966, 195–8.
Quine, W. V. 1966. The Ways of Paradox, New York: Random House.
Quine, W. V. 1968. “Ontological Relativity,” Journal of Philosophy 65, 185–212. Also in Quine 1969, 26–68.
Quine, W. V. 1969. Ontological Relativity and Other Essays, New York: Columbia University Press.
Quine, W. V. 1969a. “Epistemology Naturalized,” in Quine 1969, 69–89.
Quine, W. V. 1970. Philosophy of Logic, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Quine, W. V. 1970a. “On the Reasons for Indeterminacy of Translation,” Journal of Philosophy 67, 178–83.
Quine, W. V. 1975. “On Empirically Equivalent Systems of the World,” Erkenntnis 9, 313–28.
Quine, W. V. 1981. Theories and Things, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Quine, W. V. 1986. “Reply to Roger F. Gibson, Jr,” in Hahn and Schilpp 1986, 155–8.
Quine, W. V. 1990 “Three Indeterminacies,” in Barrett and Gibson 1990, 1–16.
Quine, W. V. 1990a. “Comment on Hintikka,” in Barrett and Gibson 1990, 176–7.
Quine, W. V. 1991. “Two Dogmas in Retrospect,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 21, 265–74.
Quine, W. V. 1992. Pursuit of Truth, 2nd ed., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Quine, W. V. 1995. From Stimulus to Science, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Quine, W. V. 1995a. “Reactions,” in Leonardi and Santambrogio 1995, 347–61.
Ramsey, F. P. 1931. The Foundation of Mathematics and Other Logical Essays, London: Kegan Paul.
Reichenbach, H. [1920] 1965. Relativitätstheorie und Erkenntnis Apriori,Berlin: Springer; trans. M. Reichenbach as The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge, Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Reichenbach, H. [1922] 1978. Der gegenwärtige Stand der Relativitätsdiskussion, Logos 10, 316–78; trans. M. Reichenbach as “The Present State of the Discussion on Relativity: A Critical Investigation,” in Hans Reichenbach; Selected Writings 1909–1953, vol. 2, ed. M. Reichenbach and R. Cohen, Dordrecht: Reidel, 3–47.
Reichenbach, H. [1928] 1958. Philosophie der Raum-Zeit-Lehre,Berlin: de Gruyter; trans. M. Reichenbach and J. Freund as The Philosophy of Space and Time, New York: Dover.
Reichenbach, H. 1938. Experience and Prediction, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Reichenbach, H. 1949. “The Philosophical Significance of the Theory of Relativity,” in Schilpp 1949, 287–312.
Reichenbach, H. 1971. The Direction of Time, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ricketts, T. G. 1985. “Frege, the Tractatus and the Logocentric Predicament,” Noûs 19, 3–15.
Ricketts, T. G. 1994. “Carnap's Principle of Tolerance, Empiricism and Conventionalism,” in Clark and Hale 1994, 176–200.
Ricketts, T. G. 1996. “Carnap: From Logical Syntax to Semantics,” in Giere and Richardson 1996, 231–50.
Riemann, B. G. F. 1868. “Über die Hypothesen, welche der Geometrie zu Grunde liegen,” in Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, 13; trans. W. K. Clifford as “On the Hypotheses which Lie at the Foundation of Geometry,” in Ewald 1996, vol. 2, 652–61.
Robinson, A. 1956. “On Beth's Test in the Theory of Definitions,” Journal of Symbolic Logic 21, 220–1.
Russell, B. 1897. An Essay on the Foundation of Geometry, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Russell, B. 1898. “Les axiomes propres à Euclide: sont-ils empiriques?Revue de métaphysique et de morale 6, 759–76.
Russell, B. 1899. “Sur les axiomes de la géométrie,” Revue de métaphysique et de morale 7, 684–707.
Russell, B. 1919. Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy, London: George Allen and Unwin.
Ryckman, T. A. 1992. “P(oint) C(oincidence) Thinking: The Ironic Attachment of Logical Empiricism to General Relativity,” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 23, 471–97.
Ryckman, T. A. 1994. “Weyl, Reichenbach and the Epistemology of Geometry,” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 25, 831–70.
Ryckman, T. A. 1999. “World Geometries: Weyl and Eddington,” paper presented at the Bar-Hillel Colloquium for the History, Philosophy and Sociology of Science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, May 26, 1999.
Ryckman, T. A. 2005. The Reign of Relativity, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Salmon, W. (ed.) 1979. Hans Reichenbach: Logical Empiricist, Dordrecht: Reidel.
Salmon, W. and Wolters, G. (eds.) 1994. Language, Logic, and the Structure of Scientific Theories, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press; Konstanz: Universitätsverlag.
Sarkar, S. 1992. “‘The Boundless Ocean of Unlimited Possibilities’: Logic in Carnap's Logical Syntax of Language,” Synthese 93, 191–237.
Schilpp, P. A. (ed.) 1949. Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, Library of Living Philosophers, La Salle, IL: Open Court.
Schilpp, P. A. (ed.) 1963. The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap, Library of Living Philosophers, La Salle, IL: Open Court.
Schlick, M. [1917] 1920. Raum und Zeit in der gegenwärtigen Physik, 3rd ed., Berlin: Springer; trans. H. L. Brose as Space and Time in Contemporary Physics, Oxford: Clarendon.
Schlick, M. [1925] 1974. Allgemeine Erkenntnislehre, 3rd ed., Berlin: Julius Springer; trans. A. E. Blumberg as General Theory of Knowledge, Vienna and New York: Springer.
Schlick, M. 1979. Philosophical Papers, ed. Mulder, H. I. and Velde, B. F. B., trans. P. Heath, W. Sellars, H. Feigl, and M. Brodbeck, 2 vols., Dordrecht: Reidel.
Schrödinger, E. 1950. Space-Time Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Shanker, S. G. 1987. Wittgenstein and the Turning-Point in the Philosophy of Mathematics, Albany: SUNY Press.
Shapiro, S. 1985. “Second-Order Languages and Mathematical Practice,” Journal of Symbolic Logic 50, 714–42. Also in Shapiro 1996, 89–118.
Shapiro, S. (ed.) 1996. The Limits of Logic, Aldershot, England and Brookfield VT: Dartmouth.
Sher, G. 1996. “Did Tarski Commit ‘Tarski's Fallacy’?Journal of Symbolic Logic 61, 653–86.
Sher, G. 1998–9. “On the Possibility of a Substantive Theory of Truth,” Synthese 117, 133–92.
Sieg, W. 2002. “Beyond Hilbert's Reach,” in Malament 2002, 363–405.
Sklar, L. 1974. Space, Time, and Spacetime, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Sklar, L. 1985. Philosophy and Spacetime Physics, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Skolem, Th. 1920. “Logische-kombinatorische Untersuchungen über die Erfüllbarkeit und Beweisbarkeit mathematischer Sätze nebst einem Theorem über dichte Mengen,” in Skolem 1970, 103–36; trans. S. Bauer-Mengelberg as “Logico-combinatorial investigations in the satisfiability or provability of mathematical propositions: A simplified proof of a theorem by L. Löwenheim and generalizations of the theorem,” in van Heijenoort 1967, 254–63.
Skolem, Th. 1922. “Einige Bemerkungen zur axiomatischen Begründung der Mengenlehre,” in Skolem 1970, 137–52; trans. S. Bauer-Mengelberg as “Some remarks on axiomatised set theory” in van Heijenoort 1967, 290–301.
Skolem, Th. 1929. “Über die Grundlagendiskussionen in der Mathematik,” in Skolem 1970, 207–25.
Skolem, Th. 1970. Selected Works in Logic, ed. Fenstad, J. E., Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Smolin, L. 2001. Three Roads to Quantum Gravity, New York: Basic Books.
Sorabji, R. 2000. Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stachel, J. 1989. “Einstein's Search for General Covariance,” in Howard and Stachel 1989, 63–100.
Stachel, J. 1994. “Changes in the Concepts of Space and Time Brought About by Relativity,” in Gould and Cohen 1994, 141–62.
Stachel, J. 2002. “‘The Relations between Things’ versus ‘The Things between Relations’: The Deeper Meaning of the Hole Argument,” in Malament 2002, 231–66.
Stachel, J. 2002a. Einstein from ‘B’ to ‘Z,’Berlin: Birkhäuser.
Stachel, J. 2003. “A Brief History of Space-Time,” in Ciufolini et al. 2003, 15–34.
Stadler, F. (ed.) 1993. Scientific Philosophy: Origins and Developments, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Stein, H. 1977. “Some Philosophical Prehistory of General Relativity,” in Earman, J., Glymour, C., and Stachel, J. (eds.) Foundations of Spacetime Theories, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 3–49.
Stein, H. 1988. “Logos, Logic, and Logistiké: Some Philosophical Remarks on Nineteenth-Century Transformation of Mathematics,” in Aspray and Kitcher 1988, 238–59.
Stein, H. 1992. “Was Carnap Entirely Wrong, After All?Synthese 93, 275–95.
Steiner, M. 1996. “Wittgenstein: Mathematics, Regularities, Rules,” in Morton, A. and Stich, S. P. (eds.), Benacerraf and His Critics,Oxford: Blackwell, 190–212.
Steiner, M. 1998. The Applicability of Mathematics as a Philosophical Problem, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Steiner, M. 2001. “Wittgenstein as His Own Worst Enemy: The Case of Godel's Theorem,” Philosophia Mathematica (ser. 3) 9, 257–79.
Steiner, M. (2005). “Empirical Regularities in Wittgenstein,” unpublished manuscript.
Stroud, B. 1965. “Wittgenstein and Logical Necessity,” Philosophical Review 74, 504–18.
Stroud, B. 1969. “Conventionalism and the Indeterminacy of Translation,” in Davidson, D. and Hintikka, J. (eds.), Words and Objections,Dordrecht: Reidel.
Synge, J. L. 1960. Relativity: The General Theory, Amsterdam: North Holland.
Tarski, A. 1940. “The Completeness of Elementary Algebra and Geometry,” in Tarski 1986, vol. 4, 289–346.
Tarski, A. 1951. A Decision Method for Elementary Algebra and Geometry, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Tarski, A. 1956. Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tarski, A. 1986. Collected Papers, ed. Givant, S. R. and McKenzie, R. N., Basel: Birkhäuser.
Tharp, L. H. 1975. “Which Logic Is the Right Logic?Synthese 31, 1–21. Also in Shapiro 1996, 47–68.
Thorne, K. S. 1996. Black Holes and Time Warps, New York: W. W. Norton.
Thorne, K. S., LeeD. L., D. L., and Lightman, A. P. 1973. “Foundations for a Theory of Gravitation Theories,” Physical Review D7 3563–78.
Torretti, R. 1978. Philosophy of Geometry from Riemann to Poincaré, Dordrecht: Reidel.
Torretti, R. [1983] 1996. Relativity and Geometry, 1st ed., Oxford: Pergamon; 2nd ed., New York: Dover.
Trautman, A. 1980. “Fiber Bundles, Gauge Fields, and Gravitation,” in Held 1980, vol. 1, 287–308.
Tymoczko, T. 1989. “In Defense of Putnam's Brains,” Philosophical Studies 57, 281–97.
Van Fraassen, B. C. 1997. “Putnam's Paradox: Metaphysical Realism Revamped and Evaded,” in Tomberlin, J. E. (ed.), Mind, Causation and World, Philosophical Perspectives, 11, Oxford: Blackwell, 17–42.
Heijenoort, J. (ed.) 1967. From Frege to Gödel, A Source Book in Mathematical Logic 1879–1931, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Veblen, O. 1904. “A System of Axioms for Geometry,” Transactions of the American Mathematical Society 5, 343–84.
Veronese, G. 1894. Grundzüge der Geometrie, Leipzig: B. G. Trubner.
Wright, G. H. 1971. Explanation and Understanding, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Waismann, F. 1979. Ludwig Wittgenstein and the Vienna Circle, ed. B. McGuinness; tr. J. Schulte and B. McGuinness, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Wang, H. 1970. “A Survey of Skolem's Work in Logic,” in Skolem 1970, 17–52.
Weinberg, S. 1972. Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Weinberg, S. 2001. “Can Science Explain Everything? Anything?New York Review of Books, vol. 48, no. 9.
Weingard, R. and Smith, G. 1986. “Critical Notice: Michael Friedman's Foundations of Space-Time Theories,” Philosophy of Science 53, 286–99.
Weyl, H. [1921] 1952. Raum-Zeit-Materie, 4th ed., Berlin: Springer; trans. Brose, H. L. as Space-Time-Matter, London: Methuen; New York: Dover.
Weyl, H. 1922. “Die Relativitätstheorie auf der Naturforscherversammlung in Bad Nauheim,” Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung 31, 51–63.
Wheeler, J. A. 1962. Geometrodynamics, New York: Academic Press.
Whitely, C. I. 1936. “Truth by Convention: A Symposium,” Analysis 4, 22–28.
Wiener, O. 1890. “Stehende Lichtwellen und die Schwingungsrichtung polarisierten Lichtes,” Wiedemann's Annalen 40, 203–13.
Will, C. M. 1979. “The Confrontation between Gravitation Theory and Experiment,” in Hawking and Israel 1979, 24–89.
Will, C. M. 1993. Theory and Experiment in Gravitational Physics, rev. ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wittgenstein, L. [1921] 1961. “Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung,” Annalen der Naturphilosophie 14, 184–262; trans. C. K. Ogden and F. P. Ramsey as Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1922; trans. D. F. Pears and B. F. McGuinness, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Wittgenstein, L. 1953. Philosophical Investigations (PI); trans. G. E. M. Anscombe, ed. Anscombe, G. E. M. and Rhees, R., Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Wittgenstein, L. [1956] 1978. Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics (RFM), ed. Wright, G. H., Rhees, R., and Anscombe;, G. E. M. trans. G. E. M. Anscombe, Oxford: Basil Blackwell; 3rd rev. edition 1978.
Wittgenstein, L. 1961. Notebooks 1914–16, ed. Wright, G. H. and Anscombe, G. E. M., Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Wittgenstein, L. 1974. Philosophical Grammar (PG), ed. Rhees, R.; trans. A. Kenny, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Wittgenstein, L. 1976. Lectures on the Foundations of Mathematics (LFM), ed. Diamond, C., Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Wittgenstein, L. 1977. On Certainty, ed. Anscombe, G. E. H. and Wright, G. H.; trans. D. Paul and G. E. M. Anscombe, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Wittgenstein, L. 1979. Remarks on Frazer's Golden Bough, ed. Rhees, R., Retford: Brynmill. Also in Wittgenstein 1993, 119–55.
Wittgenstein, L. 1979a. Wittgenstein's Lectures, Cambridge, 1932–1935, ed. Ambrose, A., Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Wittgenstein, L. 1980. Culture and Value; trans. P. Winch, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wittgenstein, L. 1993. Philosophical Occasions (PO), ed. Klagge, J. and Nordmann, A., Indianapolis: Hackett.
Wittgenstein, L. 1993a. “Philosophy,” in Wittgenstein 1993, 160–99.
Wittgenstein, L. 1993b. “Notes for the ‘Philosophical Lecture,’” in Wittgenstein 1993, 447–58.
Wright, C. 1980. Wittgenstein on the Foundations of Mathematics, London: Duckworth.
Zahar, E. G. 1997. “Poincaré's Philosophy of Geometry, or Does Geometric Conventionalism Deserve its Name?Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 28, 183–218.
Zahar, E. G. 2001. Poincaré's Philosophy, Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court.