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  • Conservation Research, Policy and Practice
  • Online publication date: April 2020
  • pp 329-336

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Index

active knowledge exchange mechanisms, 134
case studies
EKLIPSE mechanism, 135
management of the Wadden Sea, 135
UK Parliamentary Office for Science and Technology and EU Scientific Advice Mechanism, 136
costs, 138
Advocacy Coalition Framework, 235
afforestation, 198199
African Biodiversity Network, 85
alternative livelihood projects, 64, 7475, 78
sharkfishers in Tanjung Luar, 7678
Vijana na Mazingira, 7174
Anderson, Gillian, 279
Antarctic Science Scan and Roadmap Challenges Exercise, The, 30, 3536
Australasian Joint Agencies Scanning Network, 41
Australian Centre of Excellence for Risk Analysis (ACERA), 223, 226
Australian Cooperative Research Centres Association programme, 222
Australian Environmental Offsets Policy, 165167
Australian Research Council (ARC) linkage funding scheme, 222
Bat Synopsis, 5557
bats, impact of roads on, 48, 5051
evidence synthesis, 5556
road underpasses, 5457
mitigation using bat gantries, 5154
promoting the evidence, 5758
BBC Radio 4 charity appeal, 284285
bear bile trade, 289
behavioural change, 7273, 293, 327, See also social marketing
asking questions, 6467
campaigning for, 280282, 286
design of economic incentives, 302304
effects of choice architecture, nudging, and effort, 301302
importance of behaviour, over values, attitudes, and beliefs, 296297
importance of context, 295
importance of non-conscious processes, 295296
influence of regulation, 294
information provision, 294
recognition of inner motives, 298299
social marketing and attitudinal campaigns, 294
Theory of Change, 64
understanding the effect of peer influence, 299301
use of economic levers, 294
benchmarking, 190193
Bengal florican (Houbaropsis bengalensis), 6567
Big Life Foundation, 289
biodiversity
assessing impacts on, 202203
international policy. See Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD);Intergovernmental Science–Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)
biofuel policy, 5
biosecurity
risk analysis, 223227
use of horizon scanning for intelligence gathering, 38
Birdlife International, 152
black rhino, 287
black-necked grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), 185
Blue Carbon Projects, 171
Blue Planet II (BBC), 278
Bonaire parrot (Save the Lora) campaign, 312314, 318
Bonham-Carter, Helena, 279
boomerang effects, 289
Borana Conservancy, 284
Born Free Foundation, 287
British Ecological Society (BES), 4
campaigning, 7, 277, 294, 327, See also social marketing
appropriateness of, 277279
awareness-raising, 281
future directions, 290
planning, 279280
potential pitfalls
bias, 287288
conflicting views, 288
inappropriate use of emotion, 288289
lack of a strong evidence base, 285286
over-stated claims of success, 286
risk of unintended consequences, 289290
those involved in, 279
to bring about policy change, 282283
to change behaviour, 280282, 286
to raise funds, 283285
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, 257
Cecil the Lion case, 287
Centre of Excellence for Biosecurity Risk Analysis (CEBRA), 7, 223227
Centres of Excellence, 222
Chesapeake Bay, 285
Chi campaign (TRAFFIC), 282, 315316
choice architecture, 301302
Christie, Julie, 279
Cochrane Collaboration, 55, 115, 120
Cochrane, Archie, 49
co-existence with large carnivores protect (Costa Rica), 167168
Collaboration for Environmental Evidence, 115, 121, 123, 130, 159
collaborative conservation
approaches, 84
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), 200
evidence use failure, 6
common pochard (Aythya ferina), 185
common scoter (Melanitta nigra), 185
communication
between scientists and citizens, 273274
mediated environmental and, 266269
of environmental sciences, 269271
strategies to improve, 271273
transmission model of, 270
Community-Based Monitoring and Information Systems, 89
conflict management, 230231
approaches to, 231234
issues of trust, bias and power, 236237
limitations and challenges to, 234236
worldviews on the state of nature and, 237238
Conservation Evidence, 55, 130131
Conservation International, 316
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), 17, 85, 241, 244247, 251
13th Conference to the Parties (COP), 255
achievements, 257
Aichi Biodiversity Targets, 246247, 257
incorporation of biodiversity into national accounting (2), 137
traditional knowledge (18), 89
links with UN Sustainable Development Goals, 253254
role of science and evidence, 254
Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA), 254
Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES), 278
Cool Farm Tool, 133
coot (Fulica atra), 185
co-production model, 20, 2223
corporate social responsibility investments, 203
cost–benefit analysis, 294
cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus), 285
Critically Endangered (CE) species, 188
Customer Contractor Principle, 222
Data Deficient (DD) species, 188189
DDT, 3
decision-making, 327
day-to-day, 148, 152153
effective engagement with scientists, 162164
acknowledgement of multiple knowledge(s), perspectives and worldviews, 173
acknowledgement of power disparities, 173174
developing a code of conduct for marine conservation, 169171
development of the Australian Environmental Offsets Policy, 165167
early engagement and definition of aims, 172
ease of participation, 173
engaging local communities, 167168
identifying the decision-makers, 164165, 172
importance of good facilitation, 174
importance of learning new skills, 174175
importance of mutual trust, 174
importance of persistence, 176177
key factors, 170171
making use of existing spaces and opportunities, 175
Tai Timu Tai Pari marine spatial planning process, 168169
governmental processes, 910
importance of scientific advice, 157158
incorporating evidence and, 67
increasing the use of scientific evidence, 158160
information monitoring, 153154
information used to inform, 154157
made by practitioners, 145146
site-level management planning processes, 146
Features–Attributes–Factors framework, 152
Pressure–State–Response framework, 152
procedures, 148151
used by RSPB, 149
used by the New Zealand Department of Conservation (DOC), 149150
spatial scaling and targeting, 205
strategic level, 146
trade-offs and valuations, 199
assessing impacts on biodiversity, 202203
challenge across non-commensurate metrics, 200202
challenge of across integrated systems, 199200
decision support systems/tools, 133134
costs, 138
Defra, 11, 57, 58
Delphi Method, 34
Dewey, John, 273
digital communication, 7
digital media, 272
Driver–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR) framework, 131
ecological advice, 155157, 159
ecological consultants, 59
ecosystem services, 196, 197199, See also Intergovernmental Science–Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (PBES)
assessments, 137139, See also National Ecosystem Assessment (NEA)
payer–provider payment mechanisms, 203205
elephants
campaigns to save, 283, 288
hunting of, 287
Endangered (EN) species, 188
epistemic uncertainty, 185
ethical investments, 301, 302
ethics, in social marketing, 313, 317
EUROBATS agreement, 5051
European Union Scientific Advice Mechanism, 136
evidence generation failure, 5
evidence in conservation, 48
improvement of, 5960
need for, 4850
probabilistic, qualified, 186187
promotion of, 5758
why it is ignored, 5859
evidence synthesis, 5456, 114115
alignment of methods with policy and practice needs, 130132
barriers to the efficacy of, 121
computer-assisted approaches, 122
cost of alignment mechanisms, 139
knowledge platforms, 123125
mainstreaming for decision support, 122125
national and international scientific assessments, 136139
role of informing decisions in conservation policy and practice, 115118
systematic maps, 118, 121, 123, 124125, 130
systematic reviews, 55, 116117, 118121, 123, 125, 132, 159, 191
evidence use failure, 56
exchange programmes, 221
Fearnley-Whittingstall, Hugh, 279, 283
Features–Attributes–Factors framework, 152
flagship species, 316
flood control, 200
focus groups, 6870, 71
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 251
fossil fuels, 265
friction costs, 301
fundraising campaigns, 283285
Fundraising Regulator (UK), 283
Future Earth, 251
Global Biodiversity Outlook (Convention on Biological Diversity), 247, 254, 255
Global Dialogue on Human Rights and Biodiversity Conservation, 104105
Global Environment Facility Blue Carbon Project (GEF, 2017), 171
Global March for Elephants and Rhinos (GMFER), 288
Global Ocean Legacy project (Pew Environment Group), 279
Gove, Michael, 278
government
decision-making, 910
research sponsorship, 1213
role and typology of conservation research and, 1112
science and policy interaction models, 1824
specialists in, 18
Great Barrier Reef, 265, 267, 272, 273274
Great British Oceans Coalition, 279
greenhouse gases, 6, 137, 197, 200
biofuel crops and, 5
emission trends, 206
emissions calculators, 133134
Greenpeace, palm oil campaign, 280
Group On Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON), 251
Häagen-Dazs, 205
Hague Centre for Strategic Studies, 43
Haldane Principle, 222
Hauraki Gulf Marine Park (HGMP), 168
honey-gathering, 6869
horizon scanning, 5, 2930
analysing and prioritising issues, 3739
approaches to, 3132
automated input gathering, 3637
intelligence-gathering for biosecurity, 38
evaluating the success of, 4041
future directions, 2930
influence and effectiveness of, 4143
issues relating to, 31
manually gathered input methods, 3334
Antarctic Science Scan and Roadmap Challenges Exercise, The, 3536
Delphi-style, 3435
scoping, 3233
sorting, cataloguing and clustering, 37
using the output, 40
household surveys, 6869, 7071
Human Animal Infections and Risk Surveillance group, 41
Humane Society International, 286
identifiable victim effect, 298
IFAW, 287
illegal behaviours, 6467
alternatives to, 7478
campaigns to stop, 286, 290
challenging through mixed-methods approaches, 6871
illegal wildlife trade, 280282, 286, 290, 314316
IMSA Amsterdam, 135
Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, 77
indigenous and local knowledge systems. See Multiple Evidence Base (MEB) approach
informal working groups, 221222
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 134, 136139, 248
Intergovernmental Science–Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), 107, 136, 241, 247251, 256257
Assessment for Europe and Central Asia, 247
provision of knowledge and evidence to SDGs, 256257
role in provision of science and evidence, 254256
International Biosecurity Intelligence System (IBIS), 38, 225
international conservation policy development, 242244
International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, 269
International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity, 85
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 55, 169, 188, 251
Briefing Paper for European decision-makers, 287
International Whaling Commission (IWC), 269
intrinsic uncertainty, 185
ivory trade, campaign against, 283
jaguars, 167168
job-shadowing, 221
Kathita River (Kenya), 101102, 105106
Kimberley Indigenous Saltwater Science Project (KISSP), 102103, 106
knowledge brokers, 221
knowledge uncertainty, 185, 186
Leadsom, Andrea, 283
Least Concern (LC) species, 188
Lewa Wildlife Conservancy, 284
linguistic uncertainty, 185
Lion Aid, 287
lions, hunting of, 287
local knowledge systems. See Multiple Evidence Base (MEB) approach
local norms, 303
logging
bat conservation and, 5556
illegal, 6869, 152, 267
lotteries, 304
macaws, 49
marine conservation
alternative livelihood projects, 7576
development of a code of conduct, 169171
marketing, 310311, See also social marketing
Masyarakat dan Perikanan Indonesia, 76
media and communication, 7, 266269
fundraising campaigns, 284285
media ecology, 266
MEPs for Wildlife, 287
microplastics, 29
pollution identified by horizon scanning, 40
Microsoft, 204
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 136, 137, 205, 241, 248
mobile communication, 7, 272
mobile sensing technology, 40
Montreal protocol, 6
Moray Firth Seal Management Plan, 233
Multidisciplinary Expert Panel (MEP), 248
Multiple Evidence Base (MEB) approach, 8384, 107109
case studies
Global Dialogue on Human Rights and Biodiversity Conservation, 104105, 106
Kathita River, Tharaka, 101102, 105106
Kimberley Saltwater Country, 102103, 106
lessons learned, 105107
connecting knowledge systems for the benefit of conservation and human well-being, 8588
impact in conservation and sustainability, 8890
Multi-systems approach, 235
Murdoch, Rupert, 268
Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing, 257
narrative fidelity, 298
National Biodiversity and Action Plans, 257
National Ecosystem Assessment (NEA), 11, 205206
analysing trade-offs across alternative land-use scenarios, 208210
identification of the beneficiaries, 207208
land-use–derived ecosystem services and their economic valuation, 207
policy implications, 210
National Environmental Research Program (Australia, 2010–2015), 221
national funding schemes, 222
National Geographic, 279
National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act (1949), 242
National Pollinatory Strategy for England (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs), 130
National Science Foundation (US), 222
natural capital, 196
analysis for decision-making. See National Ecosystem Assessment (NEA)
ecosystem services, goods and values, 197199
mainstreaming, 197
payment mechanisms for funding change, 203205
trade-offs and valuations
challenge of decision-making across non-commensurate metrics, 200202
challenge of decision-making across integrated systems, 199200
Natural Capital Committee (NCC), 210
Natural Environment Research Council, 42
Natural Museums of Kenya, 106
Nature Conservancy, 4
Nature@Work scenario, 208210
Nechisar nightjar (Camprimulgus solala), 188
Nestlé, 280
Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, 135
New Zealand Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, 149
New Zealand Department of Conservation (DOC), 149150
northern white rhino, 278
nudging, 301
Office of Productivity, Technology & Innovation (US Department of Commerce), 222
Ogiek people, 104105
Ol Jogi Conservancy, 284
Ol Pejeta Conservancy, 284
orchids, trade of, 290
overfishing, 286
campaigns against, 280
provision of alternatives eliminate, 7678
palm oil, 280
pangolin scales trade, 290
Parliamentary Office for Science and Technology, 136
Peak District National Park, 242
pesticides, 3, 29
photography, used in campaigning, 288289
Pitcairn Island Marine Reserve campaign, 279
plastic bag charge, 303
poaching, 68, 69, 7274
policy briefs, 123, 219
political rational model, 19, 22
pollination assessment (IPBES), 255256
power
conflict and, 236237
in decision-making, 173174
within media and communications, 268
Pressure–State–Response framework, 152
pro-environmental values, 296297
Project Seahorse, 278279
Prospect Theory, 303
Public attitudes and behaviours towards the environment survey (National Statistics, 2009), 202
pumas, 167168
radical incrementalism, 302
Randomised Response Technique, 67
Rare, 312, 313
Rational Choice Theory, 294, 295, 299, 304
reintroduction programmes, 49
research
challenges of bias and rigour, 1517
governmental sponsorship, 1213
improving the policy impact of, 1315
Research and Development Limited Partnerships, 222
Research Excellence Framework (UK), 222
rewilding, 4
Rhino Dog Squad, 283285
rhino horn trade
campaigns against, 282, 286, 288, 315316
communication of value, 290
rhinos
as ‘ambassador’ animals, 278
fundraising campaigns, 283285
trophy hunting, 287288
Risk Assessment and Horizon Scanning programme (Singapore), 44
roads, environmental effects of. See bats, impact of roads on
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), 154
decision-making using ecological advice, 155157
management plan, 149
ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis), 185
Save the Bay, Eat a Ray campaign, 285
Save the Rhino International (SRI), 283285
science–policy relationships, 216217, 326327
biosecurity risk analysis example, 223227
working strategies, 219
forums, 221
informal working groups, 222
job-shadowing, 221
knowledge brokers, 221
national funding schemes, 222
policy briefs, 219
shared governance, 222223
Sea Change – Tai Timu Tai Pari, 168169
Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, 268
seahorse trade, 278279
self-enhancement, 298
Sengwer people, 104105
shark fishing, 7678
slipper orchids, 290
social identity, 298
social marketing, 294, 310311
acknowledging ethical issues, 317
acknowledging the difficulties in changing behaviour, 317318
application in conservation
community-based natural resource management, 314
conservation flagships, 316
demand reduction, 314316
audience segmentation, 313, 318
Bonair parrot campaign, 312314
citizen orientation and focus, 312
competition/barrier and asset analysis, 313
critical thinking, reflexivity and being ethical, 313
highlighting target audience benefits via a mix of marketing interventions, 313
importance of evaluation, 317
measures of value, 318319
setting of explicit social goals, 312
social norms, 67, 216, 309
adherence to, 299301
influencing through social marketing, 313314
used to reinforce desired behaviour, 282, 297
southern white rhino, 287
stepwise approach, 233234
Stockholm Resilience Centre, 253
Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers campaign, 314, 318
Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, 253
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 55
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). See United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
synthetic meats, 40
tamarins, 49
Tanjung Luar, 7678
Tansley, Arthur, 4
technical rational model, 19, 2122
Theory of Change, 64, 7174, 78
Theory of Planned Behaviour, 7273, 78
threat to species classification, 188189
Threatened Species Strategy (DOC, New Zealand), 150
TRAFFIC, 282, 290
training and development, 221, 272, 328
courses, 221
exchange programmes, 221
job-shadowing, 221
trophy hunting, 287288
Two Million Tusks, 283
Ugalla Game Reserve, 6870
uncertainty, 183184
addressing through benchmarking, 190193
addressing through provision of more data/evidence, 189190
general versus situational outcomes, 187
issues of ignoring, 187189
probabilistic, qualified evidence, 186187
types of, 185
United Nations Decade on Biodiversity, 257
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 251
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 251
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 251
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 251
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change – Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), 89
United Nations High-Level Political Forum, 256
United Nations Ocean Conference (2017), 171
United Nations Statistics Commission, 256
United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), 242, 251253
achievements, 257
joint working with Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), 253254
need for increased implementation, 257
role of science and evidence, 256257
Unmatched Count Technique, 6567, 6869, 71, 73, 79
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 314
Value of Information (VoI) measure, 190
value–action gap, 296297
Vijana na Mazingira (VIMA) Theory of Change project, 7174
Vulnerable (VU) species, 188
Wadden Academy, 135
Wadden Sea, 135
well-being, measures of, 200201
West Nile Virus, 42
Whakatane mechanism, 104
whaling (Japanese), 268, 269
White Paper on Modernising Government (UK, 1999), 216
white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), 34
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), 290
Indonesia Programme, 76, 78
wolves, 233
yellowfin tuna, 77
yellow-shouldered amazon parrot (Amazona barbadensis), 312314
Yellowstone National Park Act (1872), 242
Zoological Society of London, 279
Zuckerberg, Mark, 268