Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: May 2010

5 - Etiology and risk factors of intraoperative awareness

References

1. Sebel PS, Bowdle TA, Ghoneim MM, Rampil IJ, Padilla RE, Gan TJ, Domino KB. The incidence of awareness during anesthesia: a multicenter United States study. Anesth Analg 2004;99:833–9.
2. Schwender D, Kunze-Kronawitter H, Dietrich P, Klasing S, Forst H, Madler C. Conscious awareness during anaesthesia: patients’ perceptions, emotions, cognition and reactions. Br J Anaesth 1998;80:133–9.
3. Cobcroft MD, Forsdick C. Awareness under anaesthesia: the patients’ point of view. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 1993;21:837–43.
4. Moerman N, Bonke B, Oosting J. Awareness and recall during general anesthesia. Facts and feelings. Anesthsiology 1993;79:454–64.
5. Domino KB, Posner KL, Caplan RA, Cheney FW. Awareness during anesthesia: a closed claims analysis. Anesthesiology 1999;90:1053–61.
6. Ranta S, Ranta V, Aromaa U. The claims for compensation for awareness with recall during general anaesthesia in Finland. Acta Anaesth Scand 1997;41:356–9.
7. Myles PS, Leslie K, McNeil J, Forbes A, Chan MTV. Bispectral index monitoring to prevent awareness during anaesthesia: the B-aware randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2004;363:1757–63.
8. Practice advisory for intraoperative awareness and brain function monitoring: a report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Intraoperative Awareness. Anesthesiology 2006;104:847–64.
9. Auroy Y, Benhamou D, Amaberti R. Risk assessment and control require analysis of both outcomes and process of care (editorial). Anesthesiology 2004;101:815–17.
10. Scoville WB, Milner B. Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesion. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1957;20:411–21.
11. Winterbottom EH. Insufficient anaesthesia. Br Med J 1950;1:247–8.
12. Albright GA. Cardiac arrest following regional anesthesia with etidocaine or bupivacaine. Anesthesiology 1979;51:285–7.
13. American Society of Anesthesiologists. ASA anesthesia awareness registry. http://www.awaredb.org. Accessed 12/13/1007.
14. Ghoneim MM, Block RI, Haffarnan M, Mathews MJ. On awareness during anesthesia: risk factors, causes and sequelae. A review of reported cases in the literature. Anesth Analg 2009;108:527–35.
15. National Center for Health Statistics. National Hospital Discharge and Ambulatory Surgery Data. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nsas.htm. Accessed 12/13/1007.
16. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm. Accessed 12/13/2007.
17. Sandin R, Enlund G, Samuelsson P, Lennmarken C. Awareness during anaesthesia: a prospective case study. Lancet 2000;355:707–11.
18. Cheng VY, Martin LJ, Elliot EM, et al. Alpha 5GABAA receptors mediate the amnesic but not sedative-hypnotic effects of the general anesthetic etomidate. J Neurosci 2006;26:3713–20.
19. Collinson N, Kuenzi FM, Jarolimek W, Maubach KA, Cothliff R, Sur C, Smith A, Out FM, Howell O, Atack JR, McKernan RM, Seabrook GR, Dawson GR, Whiting PJ, Rosahl TW. Enhanced learning and memory and altered GABAergic synaptic transmission in mice lacking the alpha 5 subunit of the GABAA receptor. J Neurosci 2002;22:5572–80.
20. Chambers MS, Atack JR, Broughton HB, Collinson N, Cook S, Dawson GR, et al. Identification of a novel, selective GABAA α5 receptor inverse agonist which enhances cognition. J Med Chem 2003;46:2227–40.
21. Chambers MS, Atack JR, Carling RW, Collinson N, Cook SM, Dawson GR, et al. An orally bioavailable, functionally selective inverse agonist at the benzodiazepine site of GABAA α5 receptors with cognition enhancing properties. J Med Chem 2004;47:5829–32.
22. Nutt DJ, Besson M, Wilson SJ, Dawson GR, Lingford-Hughes AR. Blockade of alcohol's amnestic activity in humans by an α5 subtype benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist. Neuropharmacology 2007;53:810–20.
23. Liem EB, Lin CM, Suleman MI, Doufas AG, Gregg RG, Veauthier JM, Loyd G, Sessler DI. Anesthetic requirement is increased in redheads. Anesthesiology 2004;101:279–83.
24. Ezri T, Sessler D, Weisenberg M, Muzikant G, Protianov M, Mascha E, Evron S. Association of ethnicity with the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane. Anesthesiology 2007;107:9–14.
25. Bonin RP, Orser BA. GABAA receptor subtypes underlying general anesthesia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2008;90:105–12.
26. Smith RA, Winter PM, Smith M, Eger II EI. Rapidly developing tolerance to acute exposure to anesthetic agents. Anesthesiology 1979;50:496–500.
27. Fender C, Fujinaga M, Maze M. Strain differences in the antinociceptive effect of nitrous oxide on the tail flick test in rats. Anesth Analg 2000;90:195–99.
28. Koblin DD, Dong DE, Eger II EI. Tolerance of mice to nitrous oxide. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1979;211:317–25.
29. Ramsay DS, Brown AC, Woods SC. Acute tolerance to nitrous oxide in humans. Pain 1992;51:367–73.
30. Tammisto T, Takki S. Nitrous oxide-oxygen-relaxant anesthesia in alcoholics: a retrospective study. Acta Anaesth Scand(Suppl) 1973;53:68–75.
31. Tammisto T, Tigerstedt I. The need for halothane supplementation of N2 O-O2 relaxant anesthesia in chronic alcoholics. Acta Anaesth Scand 1977;21:17–23.
32. Shafer A, White PF, Schuettler J, Rosenthal MH. Use of fentanyl infusion in the intensive care unit: tolerance to its anesthetic effects? Anesthesiology 1983;59:245–8.
33. Stanley TH, deLange S. The effect of population habits on side effects and narcotic requirements during high-dose fentanyl anaesthesia. Can Anaesth Soc J 1984;31:368–76.
34. McKay RE, Sonner J, McKay WR. Inhaled anesthetics. In: Stoelting RK, Miller RD, eds. Basics of Anesthesia. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2007:77–96.
35. Utting JE. Phillip Gett memorial lecture: awareness in anaesthesia. Anaesth Intens Care 1975;3:334–40.
36. Laurent S, Fry R, Nixon C. Serial failure of diprifuser infusion pumps. Anaesthesia 2001;56:596–7.
37. Caplan RA, Vistica MF, Posner KL, Cheney FW. Adverse anesthetic outcomes arising from gas delivery equipment: a closed claims analysis. Anesthesiology 1997;87:741–8.
38. Tong D, Chung F. Recall after total intravenous anaesthesia due to an equipment misuse. Can J Anaesth 1997;44:73–7.
39. Eger II EI. Age, minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration, and minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration–awake. Anesth Analg 2001;93:947–53.
40. Wodey E, Tirel O, Bansard JY, Terrier A, Chanavaz C, Harris R, Ecoffey C, Senhadji L. Impact of age on both BIS values and EEG bispectrum during anaesthesia with sevoflurane in children. Br J Anaesth 2005;94:810–20.
41. Tirel O, Wodey E, Harris R, Bansard JY, Ecoffey C, Senhadji L. The impact of age on bispectral index values and EEG bispectrum during anaesthesia with desflurane and halothane in children. Br J Anaesth 2006;96:480–5.
42. Davidson AJ, Huang GH, Czarnecki C, Gibson MA, Stewart SA, Jamsen K, Stargatt R. Awareness during anesthesia in children: a prospective cohort study. Anesth Analg 2005;100:653–61.
43. Lopez M, Habre W, Laurencon M, Haller G, Van Der Linden M, Iselin-Chaves IA. Intra-operative awareness in children: the value of an interview adapted to their cognitive abilities. Anaesthesia 2007;62:778–89.
44. Davidson AJ, Sheppard SJ, Engwerda AL, Wong A, Phelan L, Ironfield CM, Stargatt R. Detecting awareness in children by using an auditory intervention. Anesthesiology 2008;109:619–24
45. Brice DD, Hetherington RR, Utting JE. A simple study of awareness and dreaming during anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 1970;42:535–42.
46. Liu WHD, Thorp TAS, Graham SG, Aitkenhead AR. Incidence of awareness with recall during general anaesthesia. Anaesthesiology 1991;46:435–7.
47. Gan TJ, Glass PS, Sigl J, Sebel P, Payne F, Rosow C, Embree P. Women emerge from general anesthesia with propofol/alfentanil/nitrous oxide faster than men. Anesthesiology 1999;90:1283–7.
48. Buchanan FF, Myles PS, Leslie Ket al. Gender and recovery after general anesthesia combined with neuromuscular blocking drugs. Anesth Analg 2006;102:291–7.
49. Guerra F. Awareness and recall. In: Hindman BT, ed. Neurological and psychological complications of surgery and anesthesia. Intern Anesthesiol Clin 1986;24:75–99.
50. Ghoneim MM. Incidence and risk factors for awareness during anaesthesia. Best Practice and Research Clinical Anaesthesiology 2007;21:327–43.
51. Lin L. Endocrine and nutritional disease. In: Stoelting RK, Miller RD, eds. Basics of Anesthesia. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2007:437–52.
52. Shiga T, Wajima Z, Inone T, Sakamoto A. Predicting difficult intubation in apparently normal patients. Anesthesiology 2005;103:429–37.
53. Gal JT. Airway management. In: Miller RD, ed. Miller's Anesthesia. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2005:1617–52.
54. Dwyer R, Bennett HL, Eger II EI, Heilbron D. Effects of isoflurane and nitrous oxide in subanesthetic concentrations on memory and responsiveness in volunteers. Anesthesiology 1992:77:888–98.
55. Eger II EI, Lampe GH, Wauk LZ, Whitendale P, Cahalan MK, Donegan JH. Clinical pharmacology of nitrous oxide: and argument for its continued use. Anesth Analg 1990;71:575–85.
56. Ghoneim MM, Block RI, Dhanaraj VJ, Todd MM, Choi WW, Brown CK. Auditory evoked responses and learning and awareness during general anesthesia. Acta Anaesth Scand 2000;44:133–43.
57. Avidan MS, Zhang L, Burnside BA, Finkle KJ, Searlman AC, Selvidge JA, Saager L, Turner MS, Rao S, Bottros M, Hantler C, Jacobsohn E, Evers AS. Anesthesia awareness and the bispectral index. N Engl J Med 2008;358:1097–108.
58. Kandel ER. The biological basis of individuality. In: Search of Memory. New York: WW Norton, 2006:210–18, 247–76.
59. Russell IF. Memory when the state of consciousness is known: studies of anesthesia with the isolated forearm technique. In: Ghoneim MM, ed. Awareness during Anesthesia. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001:129–43.
60. Flaishon R, Windsor A, Sigl J, Sebel PS. Recovery of consciousness after thiopental or propofol. Anesthesiology 1997;86:613–19.
61. Luginbühl M, Schnider TW. Detection of awareness with the bispectral index: two case reports. Anesthesiology 2002;96:421–3.
62. Nordström O, Sandin R. Recall during intermittent propofol anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 1996;76:699–701.
63. Rehberg S, Weber TP, Van Aken H, Theisen M, Ertmer C, Bröking K, Schulte T, Osada N, Asemann D, Bullmann V. Sleep disturbances after posterior scoliosis surgery with an intraoperative wake-up test using remifentanil. Anesthesiology 2008;109:629–41.
64. Hug CC Jr. Does opioid “anesthesia” exist? (editorial). Anesthesiology 1990;73:1–4.
65. Voss L, Sleigh J. Monitoring consciousness: the current status of EEG based depth of anaesthesia monitors. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesth 2007;21:313–25.
66. Sleigh JW, Barnard JPM. Entropy is blind to nitrous oxide. Can we see why? (editorial). Br J Anaesth 2004;92:159–61.
67. Sebel PS, Lang E, Rampil IJ, White PF, Cork R, Jopling M, Smith NT, Glass PS, Manberg P. A multicenter study of bispectral electroencephalogram analysis for monitoring anesthetic effect. Anesth Analg 1997;84:891–9.
68. Manyam SC, Gupta DK, Johnson KB, White JL, Pace NL, Westenskow DR, Egan TD. When is bispectral index of 60 too low? Rational processed electroencephalographic targets are dependent on the sedative-opioid ratio. Anesthesiology 2007;106:472–83.
69. Myles PS, Leslie K, Forbes A. Anesthesia awareness and the bispectral index (correspondence). N Engl J Med 2008;359:428.
70. Kelley SD, Manberg PJ, Sigl JC. Anesthesia awareness and the bispectral index. N Engl J Med 2008;359:427–8.
71. Ghoneim MM, Mewaldt SP. Benzodiazepines and human memory: a review. Anesthesiology 1990;72:926–38.
72. Bulach R, Myles PS, Russnak M. Double-blind randomized controlled trial to determine extent of amnesia with midazolam given immediately before general anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 2005;94:300–5.
73. Veselis RA, Reinsel RA, Feshchenko VA, Wronski M. The comparative amnesic effects of midazolam, propofol, thiopental, and fentanyl at equi-sedative concentrations. Anesthesiology 1997;87:749–64.
74. Veselis RA, Reinsel RA, Feschenko VA. Drug-induced amnesia is a separate phenomenon from sedation. Electrophysiologic evidence. Anesthesiology 2001;95:896–907.
75. Reves JG, Fragen RJ, Vinik HR, Greenblatt DJ. Midazolam: pharmacology and uses. Anesthesiology 1985;62:310–24.
76. Melvin MA, Johnson BH, Quasha AL, Eger II EI. Induction of anesthesia with midazolam decreases halothane MAC in humans. Anesthesiology 1982;57:238–41.
77. Ghoneim MM, Block RI, Dhanaraj VJ. Interaction of subanaesthetic concentration of isoflurane with midazolam: effects on responsiveness, learning and memory. Br J Anaesth 1998;80:581–7.
78. Schwender D, Klasing S, Madler C, Poppel E, Peter K. Effects of benzodiazepines on mid-latency auditory evoked potentials. Can J Anaesth 1993;40:1148–54.
79. Desidero D, Thorne AC, Shah NK. Alfentanil-midazolam anaesthesia: protection against awareness. In: Bonke B, Fitch W, Millar K, eds. Memory and Awareness in Anaesthesia. Amsterdam: Swets and Zeitlinger, 1990:281–5.
80. Russell IF. Midazolam-alfentanil: an anaesthetic? An investigation using isolated forearm technique. Br J Anaesth 1993;70:42–6.
81. Blacher RS. General surgery and anesthesia: the emotional experience. In: Blacher RS, ed. The Psychological Experience of Surgery. New York: John Wiley, 1987:1–25.
82. Howard JF. Incidents of auditory perception during general anesthesia with traumatic sequelae. Med J Australia 1987;146:44–6.
83. Miller DR, Blew PG, Martineau RJ, Hull KA. Midazolam and awareness with recall during total intravenous anaesthesia. Can J Anaesth 1996;43:946–53.
84. Errando CL, Sigl JC, Robles M, Calabuig E, Garcia J, Arocas F, Higueras R, del Rosario E, López D, Peiró CM, Soriano JL, Chaves S, Gil F, Garcia-Aguado R. Awareness with recall during general anaesthesia: a prospective observational evaluation of 4001 patients. Br J Anaesth 2008;101:178–85.
85. Phillips AA, McLean RF, Devitt JH, Harrington EM. Recall of intraoperative events after general anaesthesia and cardiopulmonary bypass. Can J Anaesth 1993;40:922–6.
86. Wennervirta J, Ranta SO-V, Hynynen M. Awareness and recall in outpatient anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2002;95:72–7.
87. Hardy TK, Wakely D. The amnesic properties of hyoscine and atropine in preanaesthetic medication. Anaesthesia 1962;17:331–6.
88. Ghoneim MM, Mewaldt SP. Effects of diazepam and scopolamine on storage, retrieval and organizational processes in memory. Psychopharmacologia (Berl) 1975;44:257–62.
89. Mewaldt SP, Ghoneim MM. The effects and interactions of scopolamine, physostigmine and methamphetamine on human memory. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1979;10:205–10.
90. Ghoneim MM, Hinrichs JV, Mewaldt SP, Petersen RC. Ketamine: behavioral effects of subanesthetic doses. J Clin Psychopharm 1985;5:70–7.
91. Krystal JH, Karper LP, Seibyl JP, Freeman GK, Delaney R, Bremner JD, Heninger GR, Bowers MB Jr, Charney DS. Subanesthetic effects of noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, ketamine, in humans. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994;51:199–214.
92. Bowdle TA, Radant AD, Cowley DS, Kharasch ED, Strassman RJ, Roy-Byrne PP. Psychedelic effects of ketamine in healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology 1998;88:82–8.
93. White PF, Way WL, Trevor AJ. Ketamine – its pharmacology and therapeutic uses. Anesthesiology 1982;56:119–36.
94. Orser BA. Lifting the fog around anesthesia. Sci Am 2007;296:54–61.
95. Inagaki Y, Mashimo T. Kuzukawa A, Tsuda Y, Yoshiya I. Epidural lidocaine delays arousal from isoflurane anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1994;79:368–72.
96. Chortkoff BSII, Bennett HL, Eger II EI. Does nitrous oxide antagonize isoflurane-induced suppression of learning? Anesthesiology 1993;79:724–32.
97. Katoh T, Ikeda K. Nitrous oxide produces a non-linear reduction in thiopentone requirements. Br J Anaesth 1996;77:265–7.
98. Katoh T, Ikeda K, Bito H. Does nitrous oxide antagonize sevoflurane-induced hypnosis? Br J Anaesth 1997;79:465–8.
99. Tramer M, Moore A, McQuay H. Omitting nitrous oxide in general anaesthesia: meta-analysis of intraoperative awareness and postoperative emesis in randomized controlled trials. Br J Anaesth 1996;76:186–93.
100. Pollard RJ, Coyle JP, Gilbert RL, Beck JE. Intraoperative awareness in a regional medical system: a review of 3 years’ data. Anesthesiology 2007;106:269–74.
101. Cook TM. Anesthesia awareness and the bispectral index. N Engl J Med 2008;359:430.
102. Sneyd JR, Mathews DM. Memory and awareness during anesthesia. Br J Anaesth 2008; 100:742–4.
103. Egan TD. Target-controlled drug delivery: progress toward an intravenous “vaporizer” and automated anesthetic administration. Anesthesiology 2003;99:1214–19.
104. Takita A, Masui K, Kazama T. On-line monitoring of end-tidal propofol concentration in anesthetized patients. Anesthesiology 2007;106:659–64.
105. Hornuss C, Praun S, Villinger J, Dornauer A, Moehnle P, Dolch M, Weninger E, Chouker A, Feil C, Briegel J, Thiel M, Schelling G. Real-time monitoring of propofol in expired air in humans undergoing total intravenous anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2007;106:665–74.
106. Egan TD, Shafer SL. Target-controlled infusions for intravenous anesthetics: surfing USA not! (editorial). Anesthesiology 2003;99:1039–41.
107. Vuyk J, Lim T, Engbers FHM, Burm AGL, Vletter AA, Bovill JG. Pharmacodynamics of alfentanil as a supplement to propofol or nitrous oxide for lower abdominal surgery in female patients. Anesthesiology 1993;78:1036–45.
108. Ausems ME, Vuyk J, Hug CC Jr, Stanski DR. Comparison of a computer-assisted infusion versus intermittent bolus administration of alfentanil as a supplement to nitrous oxide for lower abdominal surgery. Anesthesiology 1988;68:851–61.
109. Sandin R, Nordström O. Awareness during total i.v. anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 1993;71:782–7.
110. Nordström O, Engström AM, Persson S, Sandin R. Incidence of awareness in total i.v. anaesthesia based on propofol, alfentanil and neuromuscular blockade. Acta Anaesth Scand 1997;41:978–84.
111. Bogetz MS, Katz JA. Recall of surgery for major trauma. Anesthesiology 1984;61:6–9.
112. Birnbach D, Browne I. Anesthesia for obstetrics. In Miller R, ed. Anesthesia. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2005:2307–44.
113. King H, Ashley S, Brathwaite D, Decayette J, Wooten DJ. Adequacy of general anesthesia for cesarean section. Anesth Analg 1993;77:84–8.
114. McCrirrick A, Evans GH, Thomas TA. Overpressure isoflurane at caesarean section: a study of arterial isoflurane concentrations. Br J Anaesth 1994;72:122–4.
115. Lubke GH, Kerssens C, Gershon RY, Sebel PS. Memory formation during general anesthesia for emergency cesarean section. Anesthesiology 2000;92:1029–34.
116. Slogoff S, Keats AS. Myocardial ischemia revisited. Anesthesiology 2006;105:214–16.
117. Dowd NP, Cheng DCH, Karski JM, Wong DT, Munro JAC, Sandler AN. Intraoperative awareness in fast-track cardiac anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1998;89:1068–73.
118. Nyhan D, Johns R. Anesthesia for cardiac surgery procedures. In Miller R, ed. Anesthesia. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2005:1941–2004.
119. Kent CD. Liability associated with awareness during anesthesia. ASA Newsletter 2006;70:8–10.
120. Moore JK, Seymour AH. Awareness during bronchoscopy. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1987;69:45–7.
121. Fraser GC. Awareness during bronchoscopy (correspondence). Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 1987;69:248.
122. Ranta SO, Laurila R, Saario J, Ali-Melkkilä T, Hynynen M. Awareness with recall during general anesthesia: incidence and risk factors. Anesth and Analg 1998;86:1084–9.
123. Domino KB, Aitkenhead AR. Medicolegal consequences of awareness during anesthesia. In: Ghoneim MM, ed. Awareness during Anesthesia. Oxford: Butterworth Heinmann, 2001:155–72.
124. Chaiwat O, Vacharaksa K, Prakanrattana U. Awareness under general anesthesia. J Med Assoc Thailand 2002;85(Suppl 3):S948–55.
125. Ranta S, Jussila J, Hynynen M. Recall of awareness during cardiac anesthesia: influence of feedback information to the anaesthesiologist. Acta Anaesth Scand 1996;40:554–60.
126. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Preventing and managing the impact of anesthesia awareness. http://www.jointcommission.org/Sentinel Events.Sentinel Event alert/sea32.htm, issue 32, October 2004.