1996. A spawning aggregation of Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus (Pisces: Serranidae) in the Mexican Caribbean. Environmental Biology of Fishes 45:351–361., and .
1991. Trophic interactions and direct physical effects control phytoplankton biomass and production in an estuary. Limnology and Oceanography 37:946–955., and .
2002. Biodiversity: invasions by marine life on plastic debris. Nature 416:808–809.
1989. Reproductive response of a marine annelid to winter storms: an analog to fire adaptation in plants?Marine Ecology – Progress Series 54:99–107.
1994. The influence of spatially and temporally varying oceanographic conditions on meroplanktonic metapopulations. Deep Sea Research II 41:107–145., , , et al.
1983. Protein polymorphisms and genetic differentiation of marine invertebrate populations. Marine Biology Letters 4:193–206.
1997. Genetic evidence for long-term persistence of marine invertebrate populations in an ephemeral environment. Evolution 51:993–998.
1992. The introduction and spread of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in south San Francisco Bay. Estuaries 15:218–226., and .
1979. History, biogeography, and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific coast of North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Davis, California, University of California.
1985. Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal of coastal marine organisms: the biology of ballast water. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 23:313–371.
1996. Biological invasions and cryptogenic species. Ecology 77:1653–1655.
1984. Locomotion in marine invertebrate larvae: a review. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62:1205–1222., , and .
1961. The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus. Ecology 42:710–723.
1998. The dangers of ignoring metapopulation structure for the conservation of salmonids. Fishery Bulletin 97:213–226., and .
1985. Large-scale pattern of recruitment by the labrid, Semicossyphus pulcher: causes and implications. Journal of Marine Research 43:719–742.
Cowen, R. K. 2002. Larval dispersal and retention and consequences for population connectivity. Pp. 149–170 in P. F. Sale (ed.) Coral Reef Fishes: Dynamics and Diversity in a Complex Ecosystem. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Cowen, R., and S. Sponaugle. 1997. Relationships between early life history traits and recruitment among coral reef fishes. Pp. 423–449 in , and E. A. Trippel (eds.) Early Life History and Recruitment in Fish Populations. London: Chapman and Hall.
2000. Connectivity of marine populations: open or closed?Science 287:857–859., , , , and .
2002. Population Connectivity in Marine Systems, Report of a workshop to develop science recommendations for the National Science Foundation, November 4–6, 2002, Durango, CO., , , , and .
1999. Alien Species in North America and Hawaii. Washington, DC: Island Press.
1982. Estuarine retention of larvae of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 15:207–220.
1999. Architectural vs. biological effects of a habitat-altering, exotic mussel, Musculista senhousia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 240:53–75., and .
1996. Towards a Science of Recruitment in Fish Populations, Excellence in Ecology Vol. 7. Oldendorf/Luhe, Germany: Ecology Institute.
2001. Variability in spot pattern of Girella nigricans, the California opaleye: variation among cohorts and among climate periods. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 100:24–35.
1971. Competition, disturbance and community organization: the provision and subsequent utilization of space in a rocky intertidal community. Ecological Monographs 41:351–389.
1998. Sliding baselines, ghosts, and reduced expectations in kelp forest communities. Ecological Applications 8:309–322., , , and .
2000. Marine reserves: parks, baselines, and fishery enhancement. Bulletin of Marine Science 66:617–634., , , and .
1993. On recruitment and the distribution of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) off Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50:2729–2741., and .
2001. Use of elemental fingerprinting to assess net flux and exchange of brachyuran larvae between regions of San Diego Bay, California and nearshore coastal habitats. Journal of Marine Research 59:1–27., and .
2000. Development and application of elemental fingerprinting to track marine invertebrate larvae. Limnology and Oceanography 45:871–880., and .
2001. Vertical migration behavior and horizontal distribution of Brachyuran larvae in a low inflow estuary: implications for bay–ocean exchange. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 217:191–206., , and .
Doherty, P. 2002. Variable replenishment and the dynamics of reef fish populations. Pp. 327–355 in P. F. Sale (ed.) Coral Reef Fishes: Dynamics and Diversity in a Complex Ecosystem. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
1995. Gene flow and larval duration in seven species of fish from the Great Barrier Reef. Ecology 76:2373–2391., , and .
1997. Tropical reef fish spawning aggregations: defined and reviewed. Bulletin of Marine Science 60:698–726., and .
1996. Closing the larval loop: linking larval ecology to the population dynamics of marine benthic invertebrates. Journal of Experimental and Marine Biology and Ecology 200:207–237.
1988. Transport of invertebrate larvae between estuaries and the continental shelf. American Fisheries Society Symposium 3:104–114.
1991. Cross-shelf transport causes recruitment to intertidal populations in central California. Limnology and Oceanography 36:279–288., , and .
1985. The possible influence of warm core Gulf Stream rings upon shelf water larval fish distribution. Fisheries Bulletin 38:313–330., and .
1992. Dispersal of juveniles and variable recruitment in sessile marine species. Nature 360:579–580., and .
2003. Benefits beyond boundaries: the fishery effects of marine reserves. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18:448–455., and . Roberts.
2003. Evidence of connectivity between juvenile and adult habitats for mobile marine fauna: an important component of nurseries. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 247:281–295., , , , and .
1991. Metapopulation Dynamics. London: Academic Press., and .
2002. Can habitat loss be treated independently of heliostat configuration? Implications for rare and common taxa in fragmented landscapes. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 239:37–44., and .
2003. Coupling propagule output to supply at the edge and interior of a giant kelp forest. Ecology 85:1250–1264..
1985. Reproductive patterns of marine invertebrates. Oceanography and Marine Biology, Annual Review 23:373–398., and .
1997. Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution. London: Academic Press., and (eds.)
Havenhand, J. N. 1995. Evolutionary ecology of larval types. Pp. 79–122 in L. McEdward (ed.) Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
2002. Genetic assessment of connectivity among marine populations. Bulletin of Marine Science 70:273–290., , , and .
1985. Floating and algal rafting as potential dispersal mechanisms in brooding invertebrates. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 25:169–179.
1914. Fluctuations in the great fisheries of northern Europe. Rapports et Procès-verbaux des Réunions, Counseil international pour l'Exploration de la Mer 20:1–228.
2000. Abundance and dispersal of drifting kelp Macrocystis pyrifera rafts in the southern California Bight. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 195:101–116.
2000. Modelling the transport of lobster (Homarus americanus) larvae and postlarvae in the Gulf of Maine. Fisheries Oceanography 9:99–113., and .
1978. Reproductive strategies of coastal marine fishes in the tropics. Environmental Biology of Fishes 3:65–84.
1986. Wind stress and cycles in Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) catch off California, Oregon, and Washington. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43:838–845., , , and .
1999. Self-recruitment in a coral reef fish population. Nature 402:802–804., , , and .
1994. Predation by an introduced clam as the likely cause of substantial declines in zooplankton of San Francisco Bay. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 113:81–93., , and .
2003. Propagule dispersal in marine and terrestrial environments: a community perspective. Ecology 84:2007–2020., and .
1997. In situ swimming speeds of the pelagic larvae of some Indo-Pacific coral-reef fishes. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 159:165–174., and .
1984. Life history and dispersal patterns in a dense infaunal polychaete assemblage: community structure and response to disturbance. Ecology 65:1185–1200.
1990. A review of methods for labeling and tracking marine invertebrate larvae. Ophelia 32:115–144.
Levin, L. A., and T. Bridges. 1995. Pattern and diversity in reproduction and development. Pp. 1–48 in L. McEdward (ed.) Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
2002. Natural and manipulated sources of heterogeneity controlling early faunal development of a salt marsh. Ecological Applications 12:1785–1802., and .
1993. Effects of body size, water current, and microhabitat on mucous-thread drifting in post-metamorphic gastropods Lacuna spp. Marine – Ecology Progress Series 99:215–220., and .
1989. Laboratory Guide to Early Life History Stages of Northeast Pacific Fishes, NOAA Technical Report No. NMFS 80 Seattle, WA: US Department of Commerce., , , and .
1992. Decapod larvae: dispersal, mortality, and ecology – a working hypothesis. American Zoology 32:512–523.
1999. Killer Algae: The True Tale of a Biological Invasion. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
2002. Simple connectivity measures in spatial ecology. Ecology 83:1131–1145., and .
2002. Are populations of coral reef fish opened or closed?Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17:422–428., and .
1994. Plasticity, constraint, and optimality in reproductive timing. Ecology 75:2185–2203., and .
2004. Colonization, succession, and nutrition of macrobenthic assemblages in a restored wetland at Tijuana Estuary, California. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 60:755–770., , , and .
Moyle, P. B. 1986. Fish introductions into North America: patterns and ecological impact. Pp. 27–43 in , and J. A. Drake (eds.) Ecology of Biological Invasions of North America and Hawaii. New York: Springer-Verlag.
2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington, DC: National Academy Press..
Navarrete, S. A., B. Broitman, E. A. Wieters, et al. 2002. Recruitment of intertidal invertebrates in the southeast Pacific: interannual variability and the 1997–1998 El Niño. Limnology and Oceanography 47:791–802.
2000. Demography and dispersal: calculation and sensitivity analysis of invasion speeds for structured populations. Ecology 81:1613–1628., and .
1998. Ocean Ecology: Understanding and Vision for Research. NSF Workshop.
1985. The consequences of short-distance larval dispersal in a sessile marine invertebrate. Ecology 66:30–39.
1974. Intertidal community structure: experimental studies on the relationship between a dominant competitor and its principal predator. Oecologia 15:93–120.
1988. Dispersal of marine meiofauna: a review and conceptual model explaining passive transport and active emergence with implications for recruitment. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 48:81–91.
1994. Genetic divergence, reproductive isolation, and marine speciation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 25:547–572.
Palumbi, S. R. 2001. The ecology of marine protected areas. Pp. 509–530 in , , and M.E. Hay (eds.) Marine Community Ecology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
2002. Marine Reserves: A Tool for Ecosystem Management and Conservation. Arlington, VA: Pew Oceans Commission.
1991. Predictable upwelling and shoreward transport of planktonic larvae by internal tidal bores. Science 253:548–551.
1996. A genetic metapopulation model for reef fishes in oceanic islands: the case of the sturgeonfish, Acanthurus triostegus. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 9:103–117., , and .
2000. Effects of marine protected areas on recruitment processes with special reference to Mediterranean littoral ecosystems. Environmental Conservation 27:126–143., , , et al.
2001. Isolation by distance in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, at large and small geographic scales. Evolution 55:131–146., , , and .
1978. Lessepian Migration: The Influx of Red Sea Biota into the Mediterranean by Way of the Suez Canal. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
1993. A review of homing and straying of wild and hatchery-produced salmon. Fisheries Research 18:29–44.
1999. Quantitative Fish DynamicsNew York: Oxford University Press., and .
1982. Competitive displacement and predation between introduced and native mud snails. Oecologia 54:337–347.
2002. Relationships among vertically structured in situ measures of turbulence, larval fish abundance and feeding success and copepods on Western Bank, Scotian Shelf. Fisheries Oceanography 11:156–174., , , , and .
2004. Relationships between spawning date and larval development time for benthic marine invertebrates: a modeling approach. Marine Ecology – Progress Series280 13–23., , and .
1995. Rapid build up of fish biomass in a Caribbean marine reserve. Conservation Biology 9:815–826.
2001. Effects of marine reserves on adjacent fisheries. Science 294:1920–1923., , , , and .
1991. Collisions of upwelling fronts with the intertidal zone: the cause of recruitment pulses in barnacle populations of central California. Acta Oecologia 12:35–51., , , , and .
1994. Flux and transport of larval weakfish in Delaware Bay, USA. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 110:115–120., and .
Ruiz, G. M., and J. A. Crooks. 2001. Biological invasions of marine ecosystems: patterns, effects and management. Pp. 3–17 in , and (eds.) Marine Invaders: Patterns, Effects, and Management of Non-Indigenous Species. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
2000. Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: apparent patterns, processes, and biases. Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics 31:481–531., , , M. J. Wonham and A. H. Hines.
2003. Spillover from marine reserves: the case of Naso vlamingii at Apo Island, the Philippines. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 264:15–20., , and .
1999. Synopsis of Biological Data on the Nassau Grouper, Epinephelus striatus (Bloch, 1792), and the jewfish, E. itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822). NOAA Technical Report No. NMFS 146. Seattle, WA: US Department of Commerce., and .
2001. Rapid decline of Nassau grouper spawning aggregations in Belize: fishery management and conservation needs. Fisheries 26:23–30., , and .
2002. A general model for designing networks of marine reserves. Science 298:1991–1993., , , et al.
Sammarco, P. W. 1994. Larval dispersal and recruitment processes in Great Barrier Reef corals: analysis and synthesis. Pp. 35–72 in , and M. L. Heron (eds.) The Bio-Physics of Marine Larval Dispersal. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.
1996. The spreading of the introduced seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh in the Mediterranean Sea: testing the boat transportation hypothesis. Botanica Marina 3:427–430., , , and .
1971. The dispersal of the larvae of shoal-water benthic invertebrate species over long distances by ocean currents. In 4th European Marine Biology Symposium, pp. 7–28.
1986. On dispersal and planktonic larvae of benthic invertebrates: an eclectic overview and summary of problems. Bulletin of Marine Science 39:290–322.
1988. Initial evidence for the transport of teleplanic larvae of benthic invertebrates across the east Pacific barrier. Biological Bulletin 174:145–152.
1983. Surface slicks associated with tidally forced internal waves may transport pelagic larvae of benthic invertebrates and fishes shoreward. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 13:311–315.
Shanks, A. L. 1995. Mechanisms of cross-shelf dispersal of larval invertebrates and fish. Pp. 323–367 in L. McEdward (ed.) Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
2002. Predicting self-recruitment in marine populations: biophysical correlates and mechanisms. Bulletin of Marine Science 70:341–376., , , et al.
2001. Large-scale and long-term, spatial and temporal patterns in demography and landings of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, in Maine. Marine and Freshwater Research 52:1303–1319., and .
1998. Interspecific variation in sustained swimming ability of late pelagic stage reef fish from two families (Pomacentridae and Chaetodontidae). Coral Reefs 17:111–119.
1999. Larval retention and recruitment in an island populations of coral-reef fish. Nature 402:799–802., , , and .
2002. Evidence of self-recruitment in demersal marine populations. Bulletin of Marine Science 70:251–271., , , et al.
2001. Natal homing in a marine fish metapopulation. Science 291:297–299., , , and .
2002. Quantifying larval retention and connectivity in marine populations with artificial and natural markers. Bulletin of Marine Science 70:291–308., , , et al.
1946. Reproduction and larval development of Danish marine bottom invertebrates. Meddelelser fra Kommissionen for Danmarks Fiskeri- Og Havundersogelser, Serie Plankton 4:1–523.
1950. Reproductive and larval ecology of marine bottom invertebrates. Biological Reviews 25:1–45.
2000. Endemism and the pelagic larval duration of reef fishes in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 205:241–248., and .
2002. Local retention of production in marine populations: evidence, mechanisms, and consequences. Bulletin of Marine Science 70:245–249., and .
1999. Physical oceanography of the North Carolina continental shelf during the fall and winter seasons: implications for the transport of larval menhaden. Fisheries Oceanography 8 (Suppl. 2): 7–21., , , and
1995. Settlement and transport of benthic invertebrates in an intermittent upwelling region. Limnology and Oceanography 40:316–329., , , and .
1991. Exchange of two species of decapod larvae across an estuarine mouth inlet and implications of anthropogenic changes in the frequency and duration of mouth closure. South African Journal of Marine Science 87:519–525.
1990. Larval ecology of marine invertebrates: a sesquicentennial history. Ophelia 32:1–48.
2003. Trace elemental fingerprinting of gastropod statoliths to study larval dispersal trajectories. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 248:297–303., , , et al.